Battle for Tinian: Vital Stepping Stone in America's War against Japan

Overview

In July 1944, the 9,000-man Japanese garrison on the island of Tinian listened warily as the thunder of the United States Navy and Marine Corps, Army and Air Corps, descended on their neighboring island, Saipan, just three miles away. There were 20,000 Japanese troops on Saipan, but the US obliterated the opposition after a horrific all-arms campaign. The sudden silence only indicated it was now Tinian's turn.

By the time the US 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions switched their sights...

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The Battle for Tinian: Vital Stepping Stone in America's War Against Japan

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Overview

In July 1944, the 9,000-man Japanese garrison on the island of Tinian listened warily as the thunder of the United States Navy and Marine Corps, Army and Air Corps, descended on their neighboring island, Saipan, just three miles away. There were 20,000 Japanese troops on Saipan, but the US obliterated the opposition after a horrific all-arms campaign. The sudden silence only indicated it was now Tinian's turn.

By the time the US 2nd and 4th Marine Divisions switched their sights to Tinian, the island had already been bombarded for a month; meantime both sides had learned their lessons from the previous island-hopping invasions. The Americans had learned the arts of recon, deception, plus preliminary firepower so as not to suffer the huge casualties they'd suffered at Saipan, Guadalcanal, and Tarawa; the Japanese, for their part, had learned not to contest US strength on beaches but to draw it further inland where terrain and bomb-proof fortifications could assist.

When the battle for Tinian finally took place the US acted with great skill. Historian Samuel Elliot Morrison called it "the most perfectly executed amphibious operation of the entire war." Nevertheless, the Japanese resisted with their usual stubbornness, and the already decimated US Marines suffered hundreds of more casualties.

During the battle Japanese shore batteries were able to riddle the battleship Colorado, killing scores, plus make multiple hits on a destroyer, killing its captain. On the island itself the US used napalm for the first time, paving the way for Marines painstakingly rooting out strongpoints. One last Banzai attack signaled the end to enemy resistance, as Marines fought toe-to-toe with their antagonists in the dark.

In the end some 8,000 Japanese were killed, with only 300 surrenders, plus some others who hid out for years after the war. But those Japanese who resisted perhaps performed a greater service than they knew. After Tinian was secured the US proceeded to build the biggest airport in the world on that island—home to hundreds of B-29 Superfortresses. Among these, just over a year later, were the Enola Gay and Boxcar, which with their atomic bombs would quickly bring the Japanese homeland itself to its knees.

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Editorial Reviews

Michigan War Studies Review
...a concise, informative, well balanced narrative that will introduce readers to an often overlooked battle that paved the way for US victory over Japan … clear, accessible and engaging story…most engrossing in its analysis of the options available to US Navy and Marine planners invading the island, the details of the plan they ultimately chose for the amphibious attack and the actual execution of the invasion …I recommend the BATTLE FOR TINIAN to all readers for the light it shines on an otherwise neglected campaign.
Journal of America's Military Past
..a competent account of the Tinian operation, placing it in its proper strategic context and giving appropriate emphasis to the planning and execution phases, with detailed descriptions of the decision making, the day by day tactical operations and the conditions under which the battle was fought…an instructive book, and easy read… liberally illustrated with extensive appendices. It is well worth the time.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781612000947
  • Publisher: Casemate Publishers
  • Publication date: 4/19/2012
  • Pages: 264
  • Sales rank: 765,087
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments 9

1 Tinian: The Island 11

2 The Defenders: The Japanese Garrison on Tinian 17

3 Why Tinian? 29

4 The Plan: "Playing by Ear" 41

5 Jig Day: July 24th 59

6 Japanese Counterattack 87

7 25 July 1944: Expanding the Beachhead 101

8 26 July 1944: Where are the Japanese? 109

9 The Marines Advance South 119

10 Tinian Town and Beyond 129

11 The Bitter End 139

12 Tinian to Nagasaki 159

13 Conclusion: The Importance of Tinian 169

Appendix A Leading Personalities 175

Appendix B Order of Battle-U.S. Forces 189

Appendix C Order of Battle-Japanese Forces 197

Appendix D Distribution of Casualties 201

Appendix E U.S. Marine Division, 1944 202

Appendix F Medal of Honor Citations 207

Appendix G Ship Histories 211

Notes 215

Bibliographic Essay 225

Index 229

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