Battlefield and Classroom: Four Decades with the American Indian, 1867 - 1904

Overview

General Richard Henry Pratt, best known as the founder and longtime superintendent of the influential Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, profoundly shaped Indian education and federal Indian policy at the turn of the twentieth century. Pratt’s long and active military career included eight years of service as an army field officer on the western frontier. During that time he participated in some of the signal conflicts with Indians of the southern plains, including the Washita campaign of 1868-1869 and the ...

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Overview

General Richard Henry Pratt, best known as the founder and longtime superintendent of the influential Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, profoundly shaped Indian education and federal Indian policy at the turn of the twentieth century. Pratt’s long and active military career included eight years of service as an army field officer on the western frontier. During that time he participated in some of the signal conflicts with Indians of the southern plains, including the Washita campaign of 1868-1869 and the Red River War of 1874-1875. He then served as jailor for many of the Indians who surrendered. His experiences led him to dedicate himself to Indian education, and from 1879 to 1904, still on active military duty, he directed the Carlisle school, believing that the only way to save Indians from extinction was to remove Indian youth to nonreservation settings and there inculcate in them what he considered civilized ways.

Pratt’s memoirs, edited by Robert M. Utley and with a new foreword by David Wallace Adams, offer insight into and understanding of what are now highly controversial turn-of-the-century Indian education policies.


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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780806136035
  • Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
  • Publication date: 4/26/2004
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Richard Henry Pratt (1840-1924) was a long-time army officer and the founder of the Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania

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Table of Contents

Foreword xi
Introduction xvii
1. Indian Territory, 1867 1
2. Fort Arbuckle and the Nomads 9
3. Life at Fort Arbuckle 22
4. The Washita Campaign of 1868 30
5. Fort Sill and Camp Supply, 1870-72 39
6. Fort Griffin and the Texas Frontier, 1873-74 54
7. The Red River War 65
8. Campaigning on the Staked Plains 74
9. Kicking Bird, Dangerous Eagle, and Big Bow 91
10. Exile of the Hostile Leaders 104
11. Prison Life at Fort Marion 116
12. Prison Industries 128
13. Anthropological Interest in the Prisoners 136
14. The Kiowa Escape Plot 147
15. Prison Educational Programs 154
16. Opinions, Progress, Appeals 167
17. Primitive Correspondence and Incidents of Prison Life 180
18. Recruiting Indians for Hampton 191
19. Mission to the Indians of Florida 205
20. The Founding of the Carlisle Indian School 212
21. The First Year at Carlisle 230
22. Transformation 245
23. Self-Evident Truths 268
24. Progress in the School and in Public Sentiment 274
25. Propaganda 282
26. The World's Columbian Exposition 294
27. The Carlisle Outing 311
28. Compelling Respect: Football, Baseball, and Music 316
29. The Great Heart of America 325
30. End of Service at Carlisle 334
Index 339
Maps and Illustrations viii
16. Indian guards at Fort Marion. Courtesy National Park Service, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
17. Minimic.
18. Minimic's picture letter.
19. Sioux boys at Carlisle, 1879.
20. Sioux girls at Carlisle, 1879.
21. Sioux youth at Carlisle in June 1880.
22. Spotted Tail.
23. Captain Pratt in 1886.
24. Chiricahua Apaches on arrival at Carlisle.
25. Chiricahua Apache students four months after arrival at Carlisle.
26. The first graduating class at Carlisle.
27. The Carlisle student body.
28. The Carlisle Band.
29. The woodworking shop.
30. The dining hall.
31. The sewing room.
32. The blacksmith and wagon making shop.
33. Major Pratt in 1898.
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