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Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate: From Policy Practice to Social Justice / Edition 5

Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate: From Policy Practice to Social Justice / Edition 5

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by Bruce S. Jansson

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ISBN-10: 0495006238

ISBN-13: 9780495006237

Pub. Date: 01/24/2007

Publisher: Cengage Learning

In Bruce S. Jansson's Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate, you'll go beyond just learning about policy by learning what to do with policy. Jansson's groundbreaking text provides you with a toolbox of strategies for conducting policy practice. You'll learn the essential skills in actually promoting change to social welfare policy.

New running examples-the


In Bruce S. Jansson's Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate, you'll go beyond just learning about policy by learning what to do with policy. Jansson's groundbreaking text provides you with a toolbox of strategies for conducting policy practice. You'll learn the essential skills in actually promoting change to social welfare policy.

New running examples-the rebuilding of New Orleans in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and efforts to address homelessness in Los Angeles County-which are revisited throughout the book, vividly illustrate policy-practice and policy-advocacy concepts. New Chapter 5, "Expanding Policy Advocacy Across National Borders," helps you to better understand how global forces and realities profoundly shape social problems within the U.S. and abroad. "Policy Advocacy Challenges"-with integrated video footage, website links, and Internet-based exercises on the Companion Website-show you how social workers from around the country have used their policy-advocacy skills to achieve important policy reform-bringing these challenges and successes to life.

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Cengage Learning
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7.62(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.03(d)

Table of Contents

Becoming Motivated to Become a Policy Advocate and a Leader     1
Joining a Tradition of Social Reform     2
Diversity and Policy Advocacy     2
Advancing the Public Interest at Home and Abroad     8
Using an Ecological Perspective     9
What Policy Practitioners and Advocates Seek to Change     9
What Are Policy Practice and Policy Advocacy?     14
Challenges Encountered by Policy Advocates     15
Joining a Tradition of Policy Advocacy     20
Joining the Reform Tradition Within Social Work     23
Policy Devolution, Technology, Globalization, and Policy Advocacy     24
Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate     25
Developing a Vision     25
Seeking Opportunities for Policy Advocacy     25
Taking Sensible Risks     26
Balancing Flexibility with Planning     26
Being Appropriately Assertive     27
Developing Multiple Skills     27
Being Persistent     28
Tolerating Uncertainty     28
Becoming a Policy Advocate     28
Combining Pragmatism with Principles     29
The Rewards of Policy Advocacy     29
Changing the Composition of Decision Makers     30
Getting Started     31
Becoming Leaders     32
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     36
Notes     37
Suggested Readings     37
Articulating Four Rationales for Participating in Policy Advocacy     39
The Ethical Rationale for Policy Advocacy     40
Beneficence and Professional Practice     40
Policy-Sensitive and Policy-Related Practice     41
Moving Toward Policy Advocacy     43
Policy Advocacy and Powerless Groups     47
Policy Advocacy for Vulnerable Populations     51
Other Ethical Principles in Policy Advocacy     54
Other Types of Ethical Reasoning     55
Toward an Eclectic Approach to Ethical Reasoning     56
Returning to Ideology     58
The Analytic Rationale for Policy Advocacy     61
Choosing Sides: Controversy and Research     63
The Political Rationale for Policy Advocacy     67
Interlocking Rationales for Policy Advocacy     70
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     73
Notes     74
Suggested Readings     75
Surmounting Cynicism by Developing Policy-Advocacy Skills     77
Obtaining Skills and Competencies for Policy Advocacy     78
A Policy Practice Framework     79
The Policy Context     79
Perspectives of Stakeholders and Policy Advocates     81
Patterns of Participation     83
The Six Tasks of Policy Practitioners     84
Four Skills That Policy Practitioners Need     86
Policy Competencies     87
Styles of Policy Practice     87
Applications of Policy Tasks and Skills     93
Building Agendas     93
Analyzing Problems     94
Writing Proposals     95
Enacting Policy     95
Implementing Policy     96
Assessing Policy     96
Analyzing Policy Practice     96
Ballot-Based Advocacy     102
The Variety of Policies     102
Overcoming Discomfort with Power     104
Social Policy's Role in Ecological Frameworks     105
Policy Practice as a Unifying Theme     106
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     106
Notes     107
Suggested Readings     108
The Ecological of Policy in the United States and in a Global World     109
Understanding the Ecology of Policy in Governmental, Electoral, Community, and Agency Setting     110
The Players in Legislative and Governmental Setting     111
Elected Officials     112
Unelected Officials or Bureaucrats     119
Lobbyists and Interest Groups     120
Connections Among Interest Groups, Legislators, and Bureaucrats     121
Public Opinion     121
Advocacy Groups     121
The Electoral Process     122
Early Maneuvering     122
Running Campaigns     124
The Mindsets of Elected Officials     125
The Environment of Public Servants: Elected Officials     125
Shortcuts: Aides, Lobbyists, and Priorities     126
The Calculus of Choice     126
The Mindsets of Nonelected Officials     128
Political Appointees     128
Civil Servants     128
Strategy in Legislative Setting     129
Advocating for Resources     129
The Law and Social Policy     130
The Political Economy of Social Agencies     133
The Political of Programs and Social Work Units     137
Mapping Agencies' Policies     138
The Players in Organizational Setting     142
The Organizational Chart      143
Budget Priorities     144
Boundary Spanners and Mission Enhancers     144
Informal Relationships among Organizational Members     144
The Political Economy of Communities     145
Different Layers of Government and Policy     146
Maneuvering in a Multi-Layered Policy Ecology     147
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     153
Notes     153
Suggested Readings     155
Expanding Policy Advocacy Across National Borders     156
Social Problems in an Interdependent World     156
Why Globalization Sometimes Harms Vulnerable Populations in the United States     157
Why an Economic Gap Developed Between Developing and Developed Nations     161
Why Globalization Sometimes Harms Vulnerable Persons in Developing Nations     165
Another Vulnerable Population: Migrants Within and Between Nations     167
Globalization's Impact on the Environment     170
Threats to Public Health     172
Creating a Mono-Culture?     173
The Great Caveat: Globalization's Positive Effects     173
Policy Advocacy for Populations Harmed by Globalization     174
Policy Options in the United States     174
Policy Options to Help Vulnerable Populations Abroad     176
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     181
Notes     181
Committing to Problems and Solutions Through Building Agendas and Policy Analysis     183
Committing to an Issue: Building Agendas     184
Taking the First Step     185
Why Agenda Building Is Needed     186
Legislatures     186
Agencies     188
Communities     189
Three Challenges in Agenda Building     189
The Diagnosing Stage     192
The Softening Stage     196
The Activating Stage     200
Coupling     203
Framing and Finding Titles     203
Negotiating and Bargaining     203
Assembling Early Sponsors and Supporters     204
Routing     204
Media Coverage     204
Can Direct-Service Staff Help to Build Agendas?     205
Policy Advocacy for Powerless Populations and Unpopular Issues     206
Electoral Processes     207
Developing Links with Advocacy Groups     208
Using Multiple Skills in Agenda Building     209
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     214
Notes     214
Suggested Readings     215
Analyzing Problems in the First Step of Policy Analysis     216
Putting It All Together: A Six-Step Policy Analysis Framework     216
A Six-Step Policy Analysis Framework     216
Do Policy Advocates Have to Analyze Problems?     220
Using a Flowchart to Analyze Some Social Problems in Step 1     222
Five Cells in a Flowchart Format in Step 1     223
Illustrating a Flow Chart with Welfare Reform     229
Analyzing the Causes of Social Problems in Step 1     234
Developing Interventions and Programs in Step 1     237
Developing Preventive Programs in Step 1     240
Measuring the Magnitude of Problems in Step 1     245
Locating Problems Spatially     247
Social Problems as Slippery Concepts     248
When Are Social Problems Real, and When Are They Invented?     248
Many Social Problems Defy Simple Solutions, But Many People Favor Panaceas     249
Priorities Are Not Chosen Rationally     250
Solving One Problem Can Create Others     250
Variations in Problems     251
Challenges for Policy Advocates     252
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     252
Notes     255
Suggested Readings     257
Developing Policy Proposals in the Second, Third, and Fourth Steps of Policy Analysis     258
Returning to the Six-Step Policy Analysis Framework     258
Intersecting Arenas and Stakeholders     258
Identifying Recurring Policy Issues and Policy Options in Steps 2, 3, and 4     260
Establishing a Mission in Steps 2, 3, and 4     261
Designing the Structure of Service in Steps 2, 3, and 4     261
Planning the Extent of Devolution and the Resource Path in Steps 2, 3, and 4     263
Defining Services in Steps 2, 3, and 4     271
Rationing Scarce Resources in Steps 2, 3, and 4     274
Addressing Agency Network Issues in Steps 2, 3, and 4     276
Addressing Community Factors in Steps 2, 3, and 4     278
Guiding and Overseeing Policy Implementation in Steps 2, 3, and 4     278
Assessing Implemented Policies in Steps 2, 3, and 4     279
An Overview of the Proposal to Fund Shelters for Battered Women     279
The Anatomy of Policy Proposals     280
Trade-Offs: Systematically Comparing Policy Options in Step 3     280
Identifying Options in Step 2     280
Selecting and Weighing Criteria in Step 3     282
Creating a Decision-Making Matrix in Step 3      283
Qualitative Rankings     285
Using Different Policy Skills in Tandem in Steps 2, 3, and 4     287
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     292
Notes     293
Suggested Readings     294
Presenting and Defending Policy Proposals     296
Ideology and Policy Positions     297
Proposals and Ideology     297
Electoral Politics and Proposals     299
Combative Persuasion     300
Adversarial Debates     300
Coercive Messages     304
Negotiations: Hardball and Win-Win Options     306
Adversarial or Friendly Communication: Which Is Preferable?     307
Persuading Specific Audiences     309
Determining Objectives     309
Diagnosing Audiences     310
Strategies of Persuasion     311
Selecting a Medium     312
Using a Sequence of Presentations     313
Selecting a Format     313
Developing an Effective Presentation Style     316
Tactics for Specific Audiences     317
Other Tactical Choices     318
Assembling a Strategy     319
The Hostile Audience     319
The Sympathetic Audience with Some Hostile Members     320
The Expert Audience     320
Interpersonal Discussions     320
Gaining Support for Grant Proposals     321
Writing an Imaginative Title     321
Giving a Compelling Rationale     322
Drawing on Research Findings     322
Setting Clear Objectives     322
Including an Evaluation Component     322
Demonstrating Feasibility     322
Establishing Partnerships     323
Demonstrating Support     323
Developing a Realistic Budget     323
Finding Funders     323
Revising the Proposal     324
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     340
Notes     340
Suggested Readings     341
Advocating for Change     343
Developing and Using Power     344
In Defense of Politics     345
Analytic and Political Approaches to Policy Advocacy     346
The Nature of Power     351
Person-to-Person Power     352
Power Resources that Stem from Policy Maneuvering     356
Substantive Power     356
Power in Decision-Making Procedures     358
Process Power      359
Shaping Contexts Including Use of the Internet     361
Successful Power Users     366
Power in Organizations     366
Discretion, Compliance, and Whistle-Blowing     366
Defining Zones of Discretion     367
Issues of Compliance     368
Whistle-Blowing     368
Power Differentials     369
Ethical Issues     370
Developing and Using Power in Situations Where Advocates Are Disadvantaged as Compared to More Powerful Players     372
Obtaining Power Resources     376
Building Personal Credibility     377
Networking     379
Power Challenges Encountered by Members of Vulnerable Populations     381
Developing Assertiveness     382
Can Direct-Service Staff Use Power Resources?     384
Returning to New Orleans     384
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     386
Notes     386
Suggested Readings     388
Developing Political Strategy     390
Establishing Some Objectives     390
Determining a Position     391
Selecting the Extent of Policy Changes     393
Selecting a Time Frame     393
Grounding Strategy in Current Realities     393
The Power Distribution     393
Identifying Contextual Factors     397
Past Stances     397
Vested Interests     398
Cohesion of Likely Opponents and Proponents     398
Situational Realities     399
Adapting Strategy to the Setting     399
Developing Alternative Scenarios     400
Selecting a Strategy     400
Revising the Strategy     401
Seven Recurring Steps in Strategy     401
Organizing a Team or Coalition     401
Establishing Policy Goals     403
Specifying a Proposal's Content and Getting Early Sponsors     403
Establishing a Style     403
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy     404
Implementing Strategy     405
Revising the Strategy     405
A Policy Advocacy Challenge: How to Block Ill-Advised Policy Proposals     405
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     409
Notes     409
Suggested Readings     410
Putting Political Strategy Into Action     411
Strategy in Legislative Settings     412
Organizing Legislative Advocacy Projects      412
Organizing a Team or Coalition     412
Establishing Policy Goals in a Legislative Context     414
Writing a Policy Brief: Specifying a Proposal's Content and Getting Early Sponsors     415
Establishing a Style     419
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy     419
Implementing Strategy     421
Revising the Strategy     429
Strategy in Agency Settings     429
Organizing a Team or Coalition     429
Establishing Policy Goals in the Organizational Context     429
Specifying a Proposal's Content     432
Establishing a Style     432
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy     433
Revising the Strategy     433
Developing Strategy in Community Settings     433
Establishing Policy Goals in the Community Context     433
Specifying a Proposal's Content     434
Establishing a Style     434
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy     434
Revising the Strategy     435
A Primer on Task Groups     435
Policy Advocates' Roles in Task Groups     436
What Successful Task Groups Need     437
The Task Group's Mission     437
The Task Group's Leadership     437
The Task Group's Developmental Needs     437
The Task Group's Procedures     438
The Task Group's Structure     438
The Task Group's Deliberative and Interactional Processes     438
The Task Group's Staff and Resources     439
Forming Coalitions     439
Establishing Networks     440
Addressing Dysfunctional Group Processes     440
An Advocacy Campaign in Sacramento, California     442
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     445
Notes     445
Engaging in Ballot-Based Policy Advocacy     447
Why Ballot-Based Policy Advocacy Is Important     448
Policy Advocacy in the Electoral Process     453
Developing Population Profiles     453
Using Power Resources to Persuade Voters     456
Using One-on-One Power Resources     456
Using the Media     457
Interacting with Opposing Candidates in Public Forums     458
Developing Positions on Issues and Demonstrating Positive Personal Qualities     458
Conducting Negative Attacks on Opponents     459
Getting Out the Vote     460
Securing Endorsements     461
Convincing Other Potential Candidates Not to Run     462
Gaining Support from Party, Trade Unions, and Other Groups     462
Finding Resources     462
Creating a Campaign Organization     464
Developing Campaign Strategy     465
Strategy Options at the Outset of a Campaign     465
Strategy During the Mid-Phase of a Campaign     465
Conducting Issue-Oriented Campaigns     467
Making Issue Campaigns and Electoral Politics Intersect     467
Participating in Electoral and Issue-Oriented Campaigns     469
Deciding to Run for Office     472
Selecting Other Public-Service Positions     475
Why Social Policy Often Hinges on Elections     478
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     483
Notes     484
Suggested Readings     485
Troubleshooting and Assessing Policies     487
Troubleshooting and Assessing Implemented Policies     488
A Framework for Implementing Policy     489
The Context of Implementation     491
Policy Innovations or Major New Initiatives     496
Oversight Organizations and Staff     499
Primary Implementing Organizations     501
Interorganizational Processes      503
Diagnosing Implementing Processes     507
Actual Outputs: The Evaluation of Implemented Policies (Policy Assessment)     508
Reforming the Implementation Process     509
Do Policy Advocates Ever Sabotage Policies?     511
Case Study of Implementation     512
Two Examples of Implementation Projects in New Orleans Post-Hurricane Katrina     522
Policy Assessment     532
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Do     533
Notes     533
Suggested Readings     534
Name Index     535
Subject Index     538

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Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate 3.5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 2 reviews.
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