Beginning Programming For Dummies

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  • What the book covers: how to write a computer program, the best programming languages to use and why, shortcuts for programming a computer as simply and quickly as possible, the evolution of computer programming languages, how to program multiple platform devices, and advice on what programming language to use for your next project.
  • Series features: Information presented in the straightforward but fun language that has defined the Dummies ...
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Overview

  • What the book covers: how to write a computer program, the best programming languages to use and why, shortcuts for programming a computer as simply and quickly as possible, the evolution of computer programming languages, how to program multiple platform devices, and advice on what programming language to use for your next project.
  • Series features: Information presented in the straightforward but fun language that has defined the Dummies series for over ten years.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...helps would-be programmers find their feet..." (PC Utilities, 20 February 2004)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780764508356
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 3/15/2001
  • Series: For Dummies Series
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 7.49 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 1.01 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Part I: Programming a Computer.

Chapter 1: Learning Computer Programming for the First Time.

Chapter 2: All about Programming Languages.

Chapter 3: How to Write a Program.

Chapter 4: The Tools of a Computer Programmer.

Part II: Learning Programming with Liberty BASIC.

Chapter 5: Getting Your Hands on a Real Language: Liberty BASIC.

Chapter 6: Handling Input and Output.

Chapter 7: Variables, Constants, and Comments.

Chapter 8: Crunching Numbers and Playing with Strings.

Chapter 9: Making Decisions with Control Statements.

Chapter 10: Repeating Yourself with Loops.

Part III: Advanced Programming with Liberty BASIC.

Chapter 11: Writing Large Programs by Using Subprograms.

Chapter 12: Drawing Pictures and Making Noise.

Chapter 13: Saving and Retrieving Stuff in Files.

Chapter 14: Creating a User Interface.

Chapter 15: Debugging Programs.

Part IV: Dealing with Data Structures.

Chapter 16: Storing Stuff in Arrays.

Chapter 17: Lumping Related Data in Records.

Chapter 18: Linked Lists and Pointers.

Chapter 19: Playing with Object-Oriented Programming.

Part V: Algorithms: Telling the Computer What to Do.

Chapter 20: Sorting.

Chapter 21: Searching.

Chapter 22: Optimizing Your Code.

Part VI: Internet Programming.

Chapter 23: Playing with HTML.

Chapter 24: Making Interactive Web Pages with JavaScript.

Chapter 25 Using Java Applets on Web Pages.

Part VII: The Part of Tens.

Chapter 26: Ten Cool Programming Careers.

Chapter 27: Ten Additional Programming Resources.

Appendix: About the CD.

Bonus Chapter:Programming in Python.

Index.

End-User License Agreement.

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First Chapter

Beginning Programming For Dummies


By Wallace Wang

John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0-7645-4997-9


Chapter One

How to Write a Program

In This Chapter

* Designing your program

* Understanding the technical details

* Choosing a programming language

* Defining how the program should work

* Knowing the life cycle of a typical program

Although you can sit down at your computer and start writing a program right now without any planning whatsoever, the result would likely to prove as messy as trying to bake a cake by throwing all the ingredients together without following a recipe.

You can write a simple program that displays your cat's name on-screen without much planning, but for anything more complex, you want to take time to design your program on paper before you even touch a computer. After you're sure that you know what you want your program to do and how you want it to look on-screen, you can worry about writing a program that actually accomplishes this task.

Before You Write Your Program

If you design your program before writing it, you don't waste time writing a program that doesn't work or that solves the wrong problem and isn't worth trying to salvage afterward. By planning ahead of time, you increase the odds that your program actually works and performs the task that you want.

The following three items are crucial to consider in designing a program:

  •   The user: Who's going to use your program?
  •   The target computer: Which computer do people need to run your program? Is it a Windows 98/Me/NT/2000/XP computer, a Macintosh, a mainframe, a computer running Linux, a handheld Palm or PocketPC, or a supercomputer?
  •   You: Are you going to write the entire thing yourself or get help from others? If you're going to get others to help you, which parts of the program are they going to write?

When you're designing a program, you don't need to worry about which programming language you're going to use. Once you know exactly what you want your program to do, then you can choose which programming language might be easiest to use.

The program's users

If you're the only person who's going to use your program, you can pretty much make your program look and act any way you want, just as long as you know how to make it work. But if you plan to give or sell your program to others, you need to know who's going to use your program.

Knowing your program's typical user is critical. If users don't like your program for any reason, they're unlikely to use it. Whether the program actually works is often irrelevant.

By designing your program with the user in mind, you increase the odds that people use your program and (you hope) buy a copy for themselves.

Even if you write a program that works perfectly, users still may ignore it because they don't like the way it looks, they don't understand how to give it commands, it doesn't work the same way as the old program they currently use, the colors don't look right to them, and so on. The goal is to make your program meet your users' needs, no matter how weird, bizarre, or illogical they may seem. (The needs - not the users.)

The target computer

After you identify the user, you need to know what type of computer the user intends to run the program on. The type of computer that your program runs on can determine which computer languages you can use, the hardware that your program can expect to find, and even the maximum size of your program.

If you're writing a program to run on a Macintosh, for example, your program can take advantage of sound, color graphics, a large hard disk, and plenty of memory. You need to rewrite that same program drastically, however, to run it on a Palm handheld computer, with its limited sound capability, much simpler color graphics, and limited amount of memory and storage space.

If you can copy and run your program on another computer with little or no modification, your program is considered portable. The computer language that you use to write your program can affect its portability. That's why so many people use C/C++ - C and C++ programs tend to be more portable than other programming languages.

Your own programming skill

When designing any program, consider your own programming skill. You may get a great idea for a program, but if you're a beginner with little experience, writing your program may take a long time - if you don't give up out of frustration first.

Your programming skill and experience also determine the programming language that you choose. Experienced programmers may think nothing about writing entire programs in C or C++. But novices may need to spend a long time studying C and C++ before writing their programs, or they may choose an easier programming language, such as BASIC.

Some novices take the time to learn difficult languages, such as C/C++, and then go off and write their program. Others take an easier approach and choose a simpler language such as Visual Basic so they can create (and market) their programs right away. Don't be afraid to tackle a heavy-duty language such as C/C++, but don't be afraid to use a simpler language such as Visual Basic either. The important goal is to finish your program so you can start using it and (possibly) start selling it to others.

Many programmers create their program by using a language such as Visual Basic and then later hire more experienced programmers to rewrite their programs in a more complex language such as C/C++, which can make the program faster and more efficient.

The Technical Details of Writing a Program

Few people create a program overnight. Instead, most programs evolve over time. Because the process of actually typing programming commands can prove so tedious, time-consuming, and error-prone, programmers try to avoid actually writing their programs until they're absolutely sure that they know what they're doing.

Prototyping

To make sure that they don't spend months (or years) writing a program that doesn't work right or that solves the wrong problem, programmers often prototype their programs first. Just as architects often build cardboard or plastic models of skyscrapers before a construction crew starts welding I-beams together, programmers create mock-ups (prototypes) of their programs first.

A prototype usually shows the user interface of the program, such as windows, pull-down menus, and dialog boxes. The prototype may look like an actual program, but clicking menus doesn't do anything. The whole idea of the prototype is to show what the program looks like and how it acts, without taking the time to write commands to make the program actually work.

After the programmer is happy with the way the prototype looks, she can proceed, using the prototype as a guideline toward completing the final program.

Many programmers use Visual Basic because it's easy for creating prototypes quickly. After you use Visual Basic to create a prototype that shows how your user interface works, you can start adding actual commands to later turn your prototype into an honest-to-goodness working program.

Choosing a programming language

After you refine your prototype until it shows you exactly how your program is to look and act, the next step is choosing a programming language to use.

You can write any program by using any programming language. The trick is that some languages make writing certain types of programs easier.

The choice of a programming language to use can pit people against one another in much the same way that religion and politics do. Although you can't find a single "perfect" programming language to use for all occasions, you may want to consider a variety of programming languages. Ultimately, no one cares what language you use as long as your program works.

Defining how the program should work

After choosing a specific programming language, don't start typing commands into your computer just yet. Just as programmers create mockups (prototypes) of their program's user interface, they often create mock-up instructions that describe exactly how a program works. These mock-up instructions are known as pseudocode.

If you need to write a program that guides a nuclear missile to another city to wipe out all signs of life within a 100-mile radius, your pseudocode may look as follows:

1. Get the target's coordinates.

2. Get the missile's current coordinates.

3. Calculate a trajectory so the missile hits the target.

4. Detonate the nuclear warhead.

By using pseudocode, you can detect flaws in your logic before you start writing your program - places where the logic behind your program gets buried beneath the complexity of a specific programming language's syntax.

In the preceding example, you can see that each pseudocode instruction needs further refining before you can start writing your program. You can't just tell a computer, "Get the target's coordinates" because the computer wants to know, "Exactly how do I get the target's coordinates?" So rewriting the preceding pseudocode may look as follows:

1. Get the target's coordinates.

a. Have a missile technician type the target coordinates.

b. Make sure that the target coordinates are valid.

c. Store the target coordinates in memory.

2. Get the missile's current coordinates.

3. Calculate a trajectory so the missile hits the target.

4. Detonate the nuclear warhead.

You can refine the instructions even further to specify how the computer works in more detail, as follows:

1. Get the target's coordinates.

a. Have a missile technician type the target coordinates.

b. Make sure that the target coordinates are valid.

1) Make sure that the target coordinates are complete.

2) Check to make sure that the target coordinates are within the missile's range.

3) Make sure that the target coordinates don't accidentally aim the missile at friendly territories.

c. Store the target coordinates in memory.

2. Get the missile's current coordinates.

3. Calculate a trajectory so the missile hits the target.

4. Detonate the nuclear warhead.

When programmers define the general tasks that a program needs to accomplish and then refine each step in greater detail, they say that they're doing a top-down design. In other words, they start at the top (with the general tasks that the program needs to do) and then work their way down, defining each task in greater detail until the pseudocode describes every possible step that the computer must go through.

Writing pseudocode can prove time-consuming. But the alternative is to start writing a program with no planning whatsoever, which is like hopping in your car and driving north and then wondering why you never seem to wind up in Florida.

Pseudocode is a tool that you can use to outline the structure of your program so that you can see all the possible data that the computer needs to accomplish a given task. The idea is to use English (or whatever language you understand best) to describe the computer's step-by-step actions so that you can use the pseudocode as a map for writing the actual program in whatever language (C/C++, FORTRAN, Pascal, Java, and so on) that you choose.

The Life Cycle of a Typical Program

Few programs are written, released, and left alone. Instead, programs tend to go through various cycles where they get updated continuously until they're no longer useful. (That's why many people buy a new word processor every few years even though the alphabet hasn't changed in centuries.)

Generally, a typical program goes through a development cycle (where you first create and release it), a maintenance cycle (where you eliminate any glaring bugs as quickly as possible), and an upgrade cycle (where you give the program new features to justify selling the same thing all over again).

The development cycle

Every program begins as a blank screen on somebody's computer. During the development cycle, you nurture a program from an idea to an actual working program. The following steps make up the development cycle:

1. Come up with an idea for a program.

2. Decide the probable identity of the typical user of the program.

3. Decide which computer the program is to run on.

4. Pick one or more computer languages to use.

5. Design the program by using pseudocode or any other tool to outline the structure of the program.

6. Write the program.

7. Test the program.

This step is known as alpha testing.

8. Fix any problems that you discover during alpha testing.

Repeat Steps 7 and 8 as often as necessary.

9. Give out copies of the program to other people to test.

This step is known as beta testing.

10. Fix any problems that people discover during beta testing.

Repeat Steps 9 and 10 as often as necessary.

11. Release the program to the unsuspecting public and pray that it works as advertised.

The maintenance cycle

Most programmers prefer to create new programs than maintain and modify existing ones, which can prove as unappealing as cleaning up somebody else's mess in an apartment. But the number of new programs that programmers create every year is far less than the number of existing programs, so at some point in your life, you're likely to maintain and update a program that either you or somebody else wrote.

The following list describes typical steps that you may need to follow to maintain an existing program:

1. Verify all reports of problems (or bugs) and determine what part of the program may be causing the bug to appear.

2. Fix the bug.

3. Test the program to make sure that the bug is really gone and that any changes you make to the program don't introduce any new bugs.

4. Fix any problems that may occur during testing.

5. Repeat Steps 1 through 4 for each bug that someone reports in the program.

Given the buggy nature of software, these steps may go on continuously for years.

6. Release a software patch, which users can add to an existing version of the program to incorporate corrections that you make to "patch up" the problems.

The upgrade cycle

Companies don't make money fixing software and making it more stable, reliable, and dependable. Instead, companies make money by selling new versions of their programs that offer additional features and options that most people probably don't use or need in the first place.

Continues...


Excerpted from Beginning Programming For Dummies by Wallace Wang Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
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Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 10 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted November 10, 2006

    Programming Easy Enough For Anyone

    This is the first book I bought for programming since I was first intrigued by making BASIC language programs for my TI-84 Calculator. The book explains everything step by step, for even the least educated of us. The books makes perfect sense and I am a sophmore in high school. I believe I've started to become hooked on programming due to the book! P.S. When I finish the book, I'm going to move on to C++. I'll update you on how useful this book was then!

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 25, 2001

    A Very Good Place To Start

    I read this book going into high school and it greatly improved my knowledge. I understood every subject that was in my class sylibus. I was the first student finished with every computer program. The book mixed programming with humor, making it very easy to understand. This is the best programming book for beginners that I have ever read.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 16, 2006

    A good book for starters

    I picked this book because i wanted to know more about programming and my high school dosent offer any classes to teach any type of programming. This book teaches you many fundamentals such as arrays, I/O, loops, and sorting and searching algorithms. It has lots of example, most of the examples are wrote in Liberty Basic which comes on the CD with the book, however it also shows you have some of the same things can be made in Java or C++. This book teaches you the fundamentals and gives you ideas for what to do with the skills you learn.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 20, 2003

    Book's Okay but the CD doesn't work correctly

    Bought the book and Wang does a credible job explaining programming. Tried to install the cd to begin inputting the code, but the liberty basic exe. file was nowhere to be found. I've emailed liberty basic to find out what the problem is.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 23, 2003

    An excellent book, but . . .

    An excellent book for beginning as well as experienced programmers. I first borrowed it from a library, then decided to buy my own copy. I was attracted to the description of the CD ROM, accompanying the book and someone had stolen the disk! The book deserves 5 stars, however two copies of the book I tried had disks which were defective in an obscure way. Hence this word of caution. I am in the process to have this problem resolved with the publisher/editor/author.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 19, 2002

    wonderful

    Wonderful book or beginning. I havent bought this book yet but im going to soon. I ahve heard some great reviews and i think this book will be a doozie!

    0 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 13, 2001

    Perfect first programming book

    Wallace Wang has compiled a terrific introduction to programming with this book. More than an introduction to programming Windows with Liberty BASIC (included on the CDROM), it adds spice by contrasting different languages. Because of this broad view, Beginning Programming is ideal for classroom use. The book also provides a useful introduction to coding web pages. Wallace injects a sense of humor into the book to make it fun to read.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 4, 2000

    Want to be a programmer?

    If you ever dreamed of being a programmer here is the place to start that dream. It helped me a lot.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 6, 2000

    GREAT

    It is Great for begining future programmers

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  • Anonymous

    Posted February 15, 2000

    A book for everyone

    I found this book to be both very informative and good humored. Although this book is written for beginners and sometimes can seem almost too simple, it is nice to read a programming book that provides analogies of programming to everyday life. Once I picked up this book, I couldn't put it down until I was done. And even afterwards I re-read it and highlighted important information. This book provides a good foundation for the beginner, but still helps refresh the important basics of programming for the advanced user. I recommend this book to anyone who is even slightly interested in programming, whether they be completely new to the world of programming or an experienced programmer.

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