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|1||An Introduction to Behavior Management||2|
|2||Models of Human Behavior and Teacher Effectiveness Guidelines||28|
|3||Principles of Behavior Modification||56|
|4||Steps in the Behavior Change Process||80|
|5||Methods of Increasing Behavior||122|
|6||Methods of Decreasing Behavior||164|
|7||Psychodynamic Behavior Management||200|
|8||Environment and Biophysical Behavior Management||240|
|9||Parent Education and Home-School Collaboration||284|
|10||Issues and Concerns in Behavior Management||318|
|Worksheets and Forms||350|
This eighth edition of Behavior Management: A Practical Approach for Educators has been revised to improve its usability and readability. Revisions are based on developments in the field of behavior management reported in the literature since the original manuscript was written 27 years ago and on feedback from many professionals, students, and reviewers.
During the past three decades, the proliferation of behavior management philosophies, techniques, and instructional methodologies has increased the complexity of the educator's responsibilities and functions. New information is being published almost daily on the various perspectives of human behavior, including the behavioral, psychodynamic, biophysical, and environmental points of view that are discussed in this text.
Revisions in the text are, in large part, a result of direct and indirect feedback from many undergraduate and graduate students of education, from general and special education teachers participating in in-service programs, from professional colleagues, and from reviewers who have studied previous editions.
The text is written to provide a practical guide to experienced teachers, teachers-in-preparation, parents, and paraprofessionals for applying behavior management techniques both in general and special educational settings and in the home. It is designed to help teachers working in self-contained classes and resource programs, teachers engaging in itinerant and consultative services, and preschool, elementary, and secondary school teachers having responsibility for a diverse population of students. The text may be used for preservice and in-service courses and as aself-study guide. It has also been found to be of significant help to parents and parent educators.
Chapter 1 includes a definition of behavior management and a discussion of the ethical application of behavior management interventions, including the principles of normalization, fairness, and respect; the federal laws governing services for persons, especially children, with disabilities; and techniques for the individualization of instruction and related services. The chapter contains information on the most current revisions of federal laws governing the education of learners with disabilities.
Chapter 2 is devoted to models for understanding human behavior—including the psychodynamic, biophysical, environmental, and behavioral—and teacher effectiveness guidelines. The chapter uses an integrative ecological framework to coordinate the extant perspectives into a manageable assessment-intervention model of human behavior.
Chapter 3 focuses on the principles of behavior modification, the consequences of behavior, and schedules of reinforcement. Each of the five principles is discussed and exemplified. The consequences of behavior include positive reinforcement, extinction, negative reinforcement, and punishment. The chapter concludes with a discussion of fixed and variable ratio and interval schedules of reinforcement.
Chapter 4 reviews the steps in the behavior change process. It discusses selecting behaviors to be changed, collecting and recording preintervention or baseline data, identifying reinforcers, implementing interventions, collecting and recording intervention data, and evaluating the effects of the behavior change process. The chapter includes several methods for selecting potentially effective reinforcers, including preference scales and lists, child parent and teacher interviews, and direct observation. A chapter supplement includes an extensive list of potential reinforcers for use in school.
Chapter 5 presents, in detail, methods for increasing behavior. These include positive reinforcement, shaping, contingency contracting, token economy, and modeling. A supplement containing sample contract forms follows the chapter.
Chapter 6 is an extensive discussion of methods for decreasing behavior, including differential reinforcement, extinction, reprimands, loss of privileges, time-out, punishment, and desensitization. This chapter includes a discussion of the use of aversives in the educational setting. The discussion of time-out includes an overview of the various forms of time-out as well as several variables that may be considered before time-out is implemented, such as characteristics of the child, consistency of application, time-out area, duration of time-out, and evaluation of effectiveness.
Chapter 7 focuses on intervention techniques derived from psychodynamic theory. They include counseling techniques, the expressive media, and behavior influence interventions. The counseling techniques include life-space interviewing, reality therapy, and classroom conferences. Behavior influence techniques are suggested for circumstances in which the teacher or parent wishes immediate relief from or prevention of misbehavior. The expressive media offered as indirect management interventions include free play, puppetry, music, drama, art, bibliotherapy, and others. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the social skills curriculum.
In Chapter 8 attention shifts to the environmental and biophysical interventions. The environmental interventions include group composition and process, discussion groups, class meetings, the antecedents of effective management (organizing for instruction), milieu therapy, and the levels system. The environmental interventions include discussion of expulsion, suspension, and in-school suspension. The biophysical interventions include diet and medication. Consideration is given to central nervous system stimulants, antianxiety and antipsychotic medication, and anticonvulsants and antihistamines. The chapter concludes with a detailed discussion of the role of the educator in biophysical interventions. Educators are stated to have responsibilities in the areas of referral, collaboration with, and reporting of observations to physicians and other health professionals and modifying classroom structure and curriculum content in response to changes in student behavior as a consequence of medication. The educator is responsible for safeguarding and administering medication in the school.
Chapter 9 discusses parent education and home-school collaboration, including the need for home-school collaboration, the reactions of parents to the problems and needs of their children, and home-school collaboration strategies, including the passport and daily report card. The chapter presents a program for educating parents in effective behavior management techniques.
Chapter 10 concludes with a focus on current issues and concerns in behavior management. The authors discuss the integrative perspective and behavior management and educational issues that impact the implementation of behavior management strategies, such as inclusion, prereferral interventions, positive behavior support, homework strategies, and aggression and resistance in school. The impact of ethical, cultural, and linguistic diversity on behavior management is discussed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of a continuum of behavior management interventions from the most to the least intrusive and behavior management as prevention.
As aids to readers, objectives and key words and phrases are presented at the beginning of each chapter, and skill-building projects are presented at the end of each chapter. The eighth edition includes a glossary, sample worksheets and forms, and name and subject indices. An instructor's manual with a test bank of true-false, multiple-choice, and short-answer questions supports the information of the text.
As in all editions of this text, every effort has been made to write in nontechnical language for maximum readability by a broad audience of professionals, paraprofessionals, college students, and parents. The writing style was chosen in an effort to avoid the unnecessary technical jargon that causes so much of the professional literature to lose its significance and impact on a broad audience of readers. The reader will find the chapter references and lists of journals and texts in the instructor's manual to be excellent beginning points in a review of the technical literature.
The primary purpose of this text is the ethical, effective, and efficient management of behavior and learning problems for children and youth as they learn to explore, manipulate, and ultimately control their world for personal satisfaction and benefit and for the betterment of society.
The authors of the first seven editions of Behavior Management (T. M. Shea and J. E. Walker) wish to express our thanks and appreciation to Dr. Anne M. Bauer, who is joining us as an author of this eighth edition. Anne offers us, and the reader, another perspective on behavior management in contemporary society. Welcome aboard!