Behavior Modification: What It Is and How To Do It / Edition 9

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Overview

This ninth edition of Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It assumes no specific prior knowledge about psychology or behavior modification on the part of the reader. Those who want to know how to apply behavior modification to their everyday concerns—from helping children learn life’s necessary skills to solving some of their own personal behavior problems—will find the text useful.

Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It, 9e is addressed to two audiences: (a) college and university students taking courses in behavior modification, applied behavior analysis, behavior therapy, the psychology of learning, and related areas; and (b) students and practitioners of various helping professions (such as clinical psychology, counseling, education, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychiatric nursing, psychiatry, social work, speech therapy, and sport psychology) who are concerned directly with enhancing various forms of behavioral development.

MySearchLab provides students tools for writing and research in one convenient website. Access to MySearchLab is available at no additional charge in a package with a Pearson textbook and is also available for purchase standalone online at www.mysearchlab.com or in your campus bookstore.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205792726
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 6/24/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 480
  • Sales rank: 149,789
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Garry Martin, a native Manitoban, attended Colorado College on a hockey scholarship, where he received the BA degree. He then attended Arizona State University for the MA and PhD degrees. Garry returned to Manitoba in 1966 and taught in the Department of Psychology at the University of Manitoba until his retirement at the end of 2008. He is currently a Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the U of M, and he continues to supervise graduate students, teach part-time, and write and publish. He has co-authored or co-edited 8 books and over 150 journal articles on various areas in behavioral psychology. His book, Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It, with Dr. Joseph Pear, first published in 1978, is used as a primary text at many universities in 14 countries and various editions have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Chinese, and Korean. His research on behavioral training technologies for improving the quality of life of people with developmental disabilities and children with autism has been supported continuously by the Medical Research Council of Canada, and now the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the past 32 years. He has been an invited speaker at numerous national and international conferences around the world. He has supervised 38 Masters theses, and 32 PhD theses at the University of Manitoba, and has received numerous honors and awards, including induction into the Royal Society of Canada. At the 2010 Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Garry received the CPA Education and Training Award, the most prestigious education and training award the discipline confers in Canada.

Dr. Joseph J. Pear, Professor of Psychology at the University of Manitoba, received the B.S. degree from the University of Maryland and the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from The Ohio State University. A fellow of Division 6 (Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology) and Division 25 (Behavior Analysis) of the American Psychological Association, Dr. Pear has done both basic and applied research. His early applied work was with children with developmental disabilities at the St. Amant Centre, where he founded the Behaviour Modification Unit (now the Psychology Department) in the early 1970s. More recently, he developed Computer-Aided Personal System of Instruction (CAPSI), an instructional program based on the Keller Plan. CAPSI is an award winning program that is being used to teach a number of courses at University of Manitoba and at several other universities in Canada and the United States. It is also a research tool that Dr. Pear and his graduate students use to research the teaching and learning dimensions of university education. Dr. Pear has also done basic research with pigeons and fish using a tracking system that he developed. In addition to Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It with Dr. Garry Martin, Dr. Pear has written two other books: The Science of Learning and A Historical and Contemporary Look at Psychological Systems. He has also written numerous research articles and two encyclopedia articles: “Psychological Systems” in The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (Fourth Edition) and “Physiological Homeostasis and Learning” in Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. He has received awards for Outstanding Contribution to Behaviour Analysis in Manitoba and for Innovative Excellence in Teaching, Learning, and Technology. He also received the Fred S. Keller Behavioral Education Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education.

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Table of Contents

Brief Contents

PREFACE

PART I THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH

1 Introduction

2 Areas of Application: An Overview

PART II BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES

3 Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement

4 Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement

5 Decreasing a Behavior with Extinction

6 Developing Behavioral Persistence Through the Use of Intermittent

Reinforcement

7 Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior

8 Doing the Right Thing at the Right Time and Place: Stimulus Discrimination and

Stimulus Generalization

9 Changing the Control of a Behavior with Fading

10 Getting a New Behavior to Occur with Shaping

11 Getting a New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur with Behavioral Chaining

12 Eliminating Inappropriate Behavior Through Punishment

13 Establishing Behavior by Escape and Avoidance Conditioning

14 Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning

15 Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together

16 Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making It Last: Generality of

Behavior Change

PART III CAPITALIZING ON ANTECEDENT CONTROL PROCEDURES

17 Antecedent Control: Rules and Goals

18 Antecedent Control: Modeling, Guidance, and Situational Inducement

19 Antecedent Control: Motivation

PART IV DEALING WITH DATA

20 Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations

21 Direct Behavioral Assessment: What to Record and How

22 Doing Research in Behavior Modification

PART V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL PROGRAMS

23 Functional Assessment of the Causes of Problem Behavior

24 Planning, Applying, and Evaluating a Behavioral Program

25 Token Economies

26 Helping an Individual to Develop Self-Control

27 Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Self-Directed Coping Methods, and ACT.

28 Areas of Clinical Behavior Therapy

PART VI A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES

29 Giving It All Some Perspective: A Brief History

30 Ethical Issues

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

AUTHOR INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

____________________________________________________

Table of Contents

PREFACE

Changes in the Eighth Edition

Instructors Resource Manual with Tests and Practica

Acknowledgments

To the Student

PART I THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH

1 INTRODUCTION

What Is Behavior?

Summary Labels for Behavior

What Is Behavior Modification?

What Is Behavioral Assessment?

Behavior Modification and Applied Behavior Analysis

Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy, & Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Some Misconceptions About Behavior Modification

The Approach of This Book

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

2 AREAS OF APPLICATION: AN OVERVIEW

Parenting and Child Management

Education: From Preschool to University

Developmental Disabilities

Schizophrenia

Behavior Therapy: Behavior Modification in Clinical Settings

Self-Management of Personal Problems

Medical and Health Care

Gerontology

Community Behavioral Analysis

Business, Industry, and Government

Sport Psychology

Behavior Modification with Diverse Populations

Conclusion

Notes and Extended Discussion

PART II BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES

3 GETTING A BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR MORE OFTEN WITH POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

“Do you want to sit here, Mommy?”

Reinforcing Darren’s Cooperative Behavior

Positive Reinforcement

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement

Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

4 DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING BEHAVIOR WITH CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT

“Don’t be so rude! Be nice!”

Erin’s Points Program

Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement

Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Conditioned Reinforcement

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

5 DECREASING A BEHAVIOR WITH EXTINCTION

“Louise, let’s get rid of your migraines.”

Louise’s Case

Extinction

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction

Pitfalls of Extinction

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Extinction

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

6 DEVELOPING BEHAVIORAL PERSISTENCE THROUGH THE USE OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT

“Jan, let’s see how many arithmetic problems you can do.”

Improving Jan’s Work Rate in Math Class

Some Definitions

Ratio Schedules

Simple Interval Schedules

Interval Schedules with Limited Hold

Duration Schedules

Overview of Eight Basic Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior

Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement

Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

7 INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE BEHAVIOR

“Tommy, a little less talking out, please!”

Decreasing Tommy’s Talking Out

The Schedules in This Chapter

Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates

Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding

Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior

Application Exercises

Note and Extended Discussion

8 DOING THE RIGHT THING AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION AND STIMULUS GENERALIZATION

“Now, children, please work at your desks.”

Learning to Follow Teacher’s Instructions

Learning to Respond at the Right Time and Place

Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and SΔs

Stimulus Discrimination

Stimulus Generalization

Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training

Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training

Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

9 CHANGING THE CONTROL OF A BEHAVIOR WITH FADING

“Peter, what’s your name?”

Teaching Peter His Name

Fading

Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading

Pitfalls of Fading

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

10 GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR WITH SHAPING

“Frank, did you do your jogging?”

Improving Frank’s Exercising

Shaping

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping

Pitfalls of Shaping

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

11 GETTING A NEW SEQUENCE OF BEHAVIORS TO OCCUR WITH BEHAVIORAL CHAINING

“Steve, your preputt routine is inconsistent.”

Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Preputt Routine

Behavioral Chaining

Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain

Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Chaining

Pitfalls of Behavioral Chaining

Guidelines for the Effective Use of Behavioral Chaining

Application Exercises

Note and Extended Discussion

12 ELIMINATING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR THROUGH PUNISHMENT

“Ben, don’t be so aggressive.”

Eliminating Ben’s Aggressiveness

The Principle of Punishment

Types of Punishers

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment

Some Examples of Therapeutic Punishment

Potential Harmful Side Effects of Punishment

Should Punishment Be Deliberately Used?

Pitfalls of Punishment

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

13 ESTABLISHING BEHAVIOR BY ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING

“Jason, that’s bad for your health!”

Curing Jason’s Slouching

Escape Conditioning

Avoidance Conditioning

Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning

Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning

Application Exercises

Note and Extended Discussion

14 PROCEDURES BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF RESPONDENT

CONDITIONING

“I hate that word!”

Making Words Unpleasant

Operant Versus Respondent Behavior

Principle of Respondent Conditioning

Higher-Order Conditioning

Respondent Extinction

Counterconditioning

Common Respondently Conditioned Responses

Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared

Applications of Respondent Conditioning

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

15 RESPONDENT AND OPERANT CONDITIONING TOGETHER

“I have to finish my term paper!”

Responding to Meet Deadlines

Operant–Respondent Interactions

Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions

Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking

Private Thoughts and Feelings: More Respondent–Operant Interactions

Application Exercises

Note and Extended Discussion

16 TRANSFERRING BEHAVIOR TO NEW SETTINGS AND MAKING IT LAST: GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE

“Hi, there. I have a nice surprise for you in my car.”

Teaching Stan to Protect Himself

Generality

Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior

Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior

Pitfalls of Generality

Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

PART III CAPITALIZING ON ANTECEDENT CONTROL PROCEDURES

17 ANTECEDENT CONTROL: RULES AND GOALS

“What if I don’t skate well?”

Helping Susan to Skate Well

Antecedent Control

Rules

Goals

Application Exercises

Note and Extended Discussion

18 ANTECEDENT CONTROL: MODELING, GUIDANCE, AND SITUATIONAL INDUCEMENT

“James, feel the soles of your feet.”

A Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Aggression

Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control

Modeling

Physical Guidance

Situational Inducement

Study Questions

Application Exercises

Note and Extended Discussion

19 ANTECEDENT CONTROL: MOTIVATION

“Ok, team! Here’s how you can earn an Eagle Effort Award.”

Coach Dawson’s Motivation Program

A Traditional View of Motivation

A Behavioral View of Motivation

Some Applications of Motivating Operations

Motivating Operations and Behavior Modification

Application Exercise

Notes and Extended Discussion

PART IV DEALING WITH DATA

20 BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Minimal Phases of a Program

Sources of Information for Preprogram Assessment

Data! Data! Data! Why Bother?

Behavioral Assessment Compared to Traditional Assessment

Note and Extended Discussion

21 DIRECT BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: WHAT TO RECORD AND HOW

Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded

Strategies for Recording Behavior

Assessing the Accuracy of Observations

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

22 DOING RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION

The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Research Design

Multiple-Baseline Designs

The Changing-Criterion Design

Alternating-Treatments (or Multielement) Design

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

PART V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL PROGRAMS

23 FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CAUSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

Functional Assessment Procedures

Major Causes of Problem Behaviors

Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors

Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment

Application Exercises

Note and Extended Discussion

24 PLANNING, APPLYING, AND EVALUATING A BEHAVIORAL PROGRAM

A Problem Has Been Referred: Should You Design a Program?

Selecting and Implementing an Assessment Procedure

Strategies of Program Design and Implementation

Program Maintenance and Evaluation

Application Exercise

Notes and Extended Discussion

25 TOKEN ECONOMIES

Initial Steps in Setting Up a Token Economy

Specific Implementation Procedures

Preparing a Manual

Programming Generality to the Natural Environment

Ethical Considerations

A Summary of Considerations in Designing a Token Economy

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

26 HELPING AN INDIVIDUAL TO DEVELOP SELF-CONTROL

Causes of Self-Control Problems

A Model for Self-Control

Steps in a Self-Control Program

Circumventing the Therapist

Application Exercises

Notes and Extended Discussion

27 COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY, SELF-DIRECTED COPING METHODS, & ACT

Cognitive Restructuring Methods

Self-Directed Coping Methods

Mindfulness and Acceptance Strategies

A Behavioral Interpretation of Cognitive Restructuring, Self-Directed Coping Methods,

& ACT

Concluding Comments

Application Exercise

Notes and Extended Discussion

28 AREAS OF CLINICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY

Specific Phobias

Other Anxiety Disorders

Depression

Alcohol Problems

Eating Disorders

Couple Distress

Sexual Dysfunction

Habit Disorders

Notes and Extended Discussion

PART VI A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES

29 GIVING IT ALL SOME PERSPECTIVE: A BRIEF HISTORY

The Respondent-Conditioning (and Wolpean) Orientation

The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis

Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations

The Terms Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Modification

& Applied Behavior Analysis

The Future of Behavior Modification

Notes and Extended Discussion

30 ETHICAL ISSUES

A Behavioral View of Ethics

Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior

Ethical Guidelines

Conclusions

Notes and Extended Discussion

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

AUTHOR INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

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