The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined

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Overview

A provocative history of violence—from the New York Times bestselling author of The Stuff of Thought and The Blank Slate

Believe it or not, today we may be living in the most peaceful moment in our species' existence. In his gripping and controversial new work, New York Times bestselling author Steven Pinker shows that despite the ceaseless news about war, crime, and terrorism, violence has actually been in decline over long stretches of history. Exploding myths about ...

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Overview

A provocative history of violence—from the New York Times bestselling author of The Stuff of Thought and The Blank Slate

Believe it or not, today we may be living in the most peaceful moment in our species' existence. In his gripping and controversial new work, New York Times bestselling author Steven Pinker shows that despite the ceaseless news about war, crime, and terrorism, violence has actually been in decline over long stretches of history. Exploding myths about humankind's inherent violence and the curse of modernity, this ambitious book continues Pinker's exploration of the essence of human nature, mixing psychology and history to provide a remarkable picture of an increasingly enlightened world.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble

Bad news doesn't just travel fast; it sticks. Day after day, we shield our heads from unceasing media barrages of shocking crimes and genocide. Well-reported news of bloody wars, terrorism, torture, and homegrown violence feed into a sense that things are getting worse. Famed cognitive scientist and popular science author Steven Pinker (The Stuff of Science; The Language Instinct) Steven Pinker thinks that we're reading the evidence wrong. In this counterintuitive, heartening book, he argues persuasively we are in fact living in the most peaceful era in our species' history. Presenting his case in empirical terms, he shows how warfare, slavery, racial extermination, rape, riot, massacres, child abuse, and animal cruelty flourished in previous ages in ways that we would think almost unimaginable. A major author; a timely topic; certain to be widely reviewed.

The New York Times Book Review
"For anyone interested in human nature, the material is engrossing, and when the going gets heavy, Pinker knows how to lighten it with ironic comments and a touch of humor. . . . A supremely important book. To have command of so much research, spread across so many different fields, is a masterly achievement."
The Wall Street Journal
"An extraordinary range of research . . . a masterly effort."
Slate
"Better Angels is a monumental achievement. His book should make it much harder for pessimists to cling to their gloomy vision of the future. Whether war is an ancient adaptation or a pernicious cultural infection, we are learning how to overcome it."
Peter Singer
…for anyone interested in understanding human nature, the material is engrossing, and when the going gets heavy, Pinker knows how to lighten it with ironic comments and a touch of humor…The Better Angels of Our Nature is a supremely important book. To have command of so much research, spread across so many different fields, is a masterly achievement. Pinker convincingly demonstrates that there has been a dramatic decline in violence, and he is persuasive about the causes of that decline.
—The New York Times Book Review
Publishers Weekly
In the perennial debate over nature versus nurture, Steven Pinker has established himself as the pre-eminent contemporary spokesman for biology as destiny. Every few years, Pinker, a professor of psychology at Harvard University, publishes a doorstop-sized, improbably readable tome that swiftly generates controversy. Pinker’s thesis is that the human condition is, in effect, coded into the human genome. We have about two dozen basic cognitive and emotional systems operating between our ears. They are the product of evolution. Our capabilities as a species (for example, language) as well as our all too obvious limitations (say, the penchant for aggression) have eons of momentum behind them. Thus human nature, while somewhat flexible, is, for the most part, fixed. So it proves mildly surprising to consider the subtitle of Pinker’s new book. The very claim that violence has declined seems counterintuitive. After all, the 20th century obliged us to invent new terms such as “genocide” and “concentration camp”—while this one has been plenty bloody so far. But rather than claiming that some homicidal imperative is hard-wired into us as organisms, Pinker maintains that we’ve grown less bloodthirsty over the course of recorded history. Through historical shortsightedness, we’re prone to underestimate just how pervasive routine violence was in previous eras. But Pinker’s graphs—and the evidence he harvests from anthropologists, historians, criminologists, and experts of many other kinds—suggest that the percentage of the population killed in warfare or everyday mayhem has declined, from century to century. The number of executions has gone down, and routine public displays of viciousness (such as torture and lynching) have grown less socially acceptable. By Pinker’s account, our evolutionary inheritance includes a tendency for dominance—as well as a knack for rationalizing violent actions as “provoked, justified, involuntary, or inconsequential.” But we also have capacities for self-control and empathy that become reinforced when societies undergo what the great sociologist Norbert Elias called “the civilizing process” of establishing a central, rational authority. Alas, that process has failed to pacify “the lower strata of the socioeconomic scale, and the inaccessible or inhospitable territories of the globe.” (The latter phrase evidently refers to the Third World, rather than Antarctica.) Better Angels is a fascinating and deeply irritating book—full of thought-provoking data, but also prone to bursts of dismissive sneering toward researchers whose work runs counter to Pinker’s current of thinking. He effectively reinvents Victorian notions of “the dangerous classes” and “lesser breeds without the law.” But his vision of “civilized” societies triumphing over humanity’s murderous impulses would be more credible if highly developed countries had not developed so many weapons capable of destroying all life on Earth several times over. Scott McLemee writes the weekly column Intellectual Affairs for Inside Higher Ed.
-The New York Times Book Review
"For anyone interested in human nature, the material is engrossing, and when the going gets heavy, Pinker knows how to lighten it with ironic comments and a touch of humor ... a supremely important book. To have command of so much research, spread across so many different fields, is a masterly achievement."
-The Wall Street Journal
"...an extraordinary range of research ... a masterly effort."
-Slate.com
" ...Better Angels is a monumental achievement. His book should make it much harder for pessimists to cling to their gloomy vision of the future. Whether war is an ancient adaptation or a pernicious cultural infection, we are learning how to overcome it."
Library Journal
Drawing on a wealth of data and multidisciplinary research, Pinker (psychology, Harvard; The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature) reaches the highly counterintuitive conclusion that we may be living in the most peaceful era in history. He defines violence broadly to include acts ranging from war, crime, and torture to bullying, battering, and abortion. The book is organized around six historical periods from prehistory to the post-World War II "Rights Revolution." The author explores the neurobiology of violence, including urges that fuel aggression and countervailing faculties like reason and self-control. Historical forces that have fostered peace and cooperation, like commerce and the rise of the modern state, are also analyzed. While supportive statistics for earlier times and non-Western nations are predictably less compelling than comparable current data for Western societies, and sweeping generalizations (e.g., decline of child abuse) are sometimes based on limited data, the book's thesis is well argued. VERDICT Scholarly yet readable, this book is recommended for readers interested in history, human evolution, and psychology. A stimulating volume that tackles a big issue with an unusual combination of intellectual rigor and optimism. [See Prepub Alert, 4/18/11.]—Antoinette Brinkman, M.L.S., Evansville, IN
Kirkus Reviews

Frightened of your own shadow? Worried about lone gunmen and psycho killers? Pinker (Psychology/Harvard Univ.; The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature, 2007, etc.) encourages readers not to fret so much.

Recognizing that the world can be a dangerous place, the author sets out as his overarching thesis the fact that violence has steadily declined in human society over the generations—"today we may be living in the most peaceable era in our species's existence." For those who consider humans to be simply well-armed chimpanzees, Pinker argues that there would seem to be nothing innate about "coalitional violence"—that is, the savage raiding that so characterizes chimpanzee society on one hand and what ethnologists used to call primitive human societies on the other. Yet, he adds, neither is there much reason to believe that we evolved to be peaceniks on the putative model of bonobos, who, in nature, turn out not to be the hippies of the primate world but who nonetheless cause less mayhem than their (and our) chimp relatives. In other words, our behavior is more situational and provisional than hard-wired, for which reason, as Pinker writes, the rate of violence (at least, of the non-coalitional sort) in most parts of the world is steadily declining. As evidence, he cites the steady disinvestment of many world powers in military enterprises, as well as the complex statistics in rates of death in warfare in state and nonstate societies (for the Aztecs, about 250 per 100,000; for America during the Vietnam era, about 3.7 per 100,000). Pinker ranges widely, citing the literature of neuroscience here and the poems of Homer there, visiting vast databases of statistics while pondering the wisdom of Thomas Hobbes' conception of human life as "nasty, brutish, and short," and analyzing such weighty matters as "the adaptive logic of violence" and "pathways to self-control."

Classic Pinker, jammed with facts, figures, and points of speculative departure; a big, complex book, well worth the effort for the good news that it delivers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780143122012
  • Publisher: Penguin Group (USA)
  • Publication date: 9/25/2012
  • Pages: 832
  • Sales rank: 86,691
  • Product dimensions: 5.80 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Steven Pinker

Steven Pinker is the Harvard College Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. A two-time Pulitzer Prize finalist and the winner of many awards for his research, teaching, and books, he has been named one of Time's 100 Most Influential People in the World Today and Foreign Policy's 100 Global Thinkers.

Biography

"When a gifted scientist and a gifted writer are all in one, you have Steven Pinker," writes fellow cognitive scientist Michael S. Gazzaniga. With his crisp prose style and zany, pop culture-inflected sense of humor, the MIT psychology professor has become famed for his ability to turn something like a discussion of regular and irregular verb forms into a rollicking good read.

As a psychology student at McGill University in Montreal, Pinker was drawn to the emergent field of cognitive science: "I found alluring the combination of psychology, computer science, artificial intelligence, the philosophy of mind, and linguistics," he said in a Scientific American interview. He earned his Ph.D. at Harvard, where his mentor was the psychology professor Roger Brown, who was a pioneer in the study of language acquisition and one of the first to apply Noam Chomsky's theories of language to field research. After accepting a post at MIT in 1982, Pinker began studying language acquisition in children, amassing enough data to demonstrate that children have an inborn facility for language.

Pinker's academic works on language development were admired by many of his peers, but in 1994 he sought—and gained—a broader audience with The Language Instinct, which suggests that human language is a biological adaptation, like web-spinning in spiders, rather than (as it is sometimes seen) a cultural invention, like the wheel. Pinker's lively and engaging treatise held tremendous appeal for a popular audience. Michael Coe, writing in The New York Times, called The Language Instinct "A brilliant, witty and altogether satisfying book."

But if humans have an instinct for language, how was that instinct acquired? That question led Pinker to the field of evolutionary psychology, and to the writing of his next book, How the Mind Works. If a particular behavior is common among humans, evolutionary psychologists reason, that behavior probably contributed to the ability of earlier humans to survive and pass along their genes. How the Mind Works, which uses this approach to examine behaviors from music-making to murder, was a finalist for the 1998 Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. Following its release, Pinker publicly tangled with Stephen Jay Gould over the scientific legitimacy of evolutionary psychology. Although the two scientists clashed on some issues, Pinker admired Gould's ability to write entertaining explications of complex ideas—"profundity with a light touch," as Pinker wrote in his Time magazine eulogy for Gould.

Pinker's next book, Words and Rules, returned to the subject of language; specifically, it explores the different mechanisms involved in learning regular and irregular verb forms. In a recent book The Blank Slate, Pinker tackled the objections some people have to a biological view of human nature. "There are fears that if you acknowledge that people are born with anything, it implies that some people have more of it than others, and therefore it would open the door to political inequality or oppression, for example," he explained in a New York Times interview. The Blank Slate is Pinker's attempt to demonstrate that there's no inherent contradiction between evolutionary psychology and the concepts of free will and moral behavior. "It's a fallacy to think that hunger and thirst and a sex drive are biological but that reasoning and decision making and learning are something else, something non-biological," he said. "They're just a different kind of biology."

Good To Know

Journalists often comment on Pinker's rock-star mane of curls, and indeed Pinker once flirted with the idea of becoming a rock musician: "I have to confess that watching rock 'n' roll concerts, I did fantasize about being up on stage," he told The Guardian. "Not in the lead. I never wanted to be Mick Jagger. Maybe the bass-player or the drummer. But I never, ever played air guitar."

Research at Pinker's lab, in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at MIT, focuses on the different mental processes involved in using grammatical rules (e.g., an English plural can be formed by adding –s to the end of a noun) and using exceptions to the rules (e.g., the plural of mouse is not mouses but mice). The lab has undertaken magnetoencephalographic (MEG) studies to identify "the time course of the processing of words and rules in the brain."

Pinker was named among Newsweek's "100 Americans for the Next Century" and included in Esquire's "Register of Outstanding Men and Women."

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    1. Hometown:
      Boston, Massachusetts
    1. Date of Birth:
      September 18, 1954
    2. Place of Birth:
      Montreal, Canada
    1. Education:
      B.A., McGill University, 1976; Ph.D., Harvard University, 1979
    2. Website:

Table of Contents

List of Figures xvii

Preface xxi

Chapter

1 A Foreign Country 1

Human Prehistory 2

Homeric Greece 4

The Hebrew Bible 6

The Roman Empire and Early Christendom 12

Medieval Knights 17

Early Modern Europe 18

Honor in Europe and the Early United States 21

The 20th Century 23

2 The Pacification Process 31

The Logic of Violence 31

Violence in Human Ancestors 36

Kinds of Human Societies 40

Rates of Violence in State and Nonstate Societies 47

Civilization and Its Discontents 56

3 The Civilizing Process 59

The European Homicide Decline 61

Explaining the European Homicide Decline 64

Violence and Class 81

Violence Around the World 85

Violence in These United States 91

Decivilization in the 1960s 106

Recivilization in the 1990s 116

4 The Humanitarian Revolution 129

Superstitious Killing: Human Sacrifice, Witchcraft, and Blood Libel 134

Superstitious Killing: Violence Against Blasphemers, Heretics, and Apostates 139

Cruel and Unusual Punishments 144

Capital Punishment 149

Slavery 153

Despotism and Political Violence 158

Major War 161

Whence the Humanitarian Revolution? 168

The Rise of Empathy and the Regard for Human Life 175

The Republic of Letters and Enlightenment Humanism 177

Civilization and Enlightenment 184

Blood and Soil 186

5 The Long Peace 189

Statistics and Narratives 190

Was the 20th Century Really the Worst? 193

The Statistics of Deadly Quarrels, Part 1: The Timings of Wars 200

The Statistics of Deadly Quarrels, Part 2: The Magnitude of Wars 210

The Trajectory of Great Power War 222

The Trajectory of European War 228

The Hobbesian Background and the Ages of Dynasties and Religions 231

Three Currents in the Age of Sovereignty 235

Counter-Enlightenment Ideologies and the Age of Nationalism 238

Humanism and Totalitarianism in the Age of Ideology 244

The Long Peace: Some Numbers 249

The Long Peace: Attitudes and Events 255

Is the Long Peace a Nuclear Peace? 268

Is the Long Peace a Democratic Peace? 278

Is the Long Peace a Liberal Peace? 284

Is the Long Peace a Kantian Peace? 288

6 The New Peace 295

The Trajectory of War in the Rest of the World 297

The Trajectory of Genocide 320

The Trajectory of Terrorism 344

Where Angels Fear to Tread 361

7 The Rights Revolutions 378

Civil Rights and the Decline of Lynching and Racial Pogroms 382

Women's Rights and the Decline of Rape and Battering 394

Children's Rights and the Decline of Infanticide, Spanking, Child Abuse, and Bullying 415

Gay Rights, the Decline of Gay-Bashing, and the Decriminalization of Homosexuality 447

Animal Rights and the Decline of Cruelty to Animals 454

Whence the Rights Revolutions? 475

From History to Psychology 480

8 Inner Demons 482

The Dark Side 483

The Moralization Gap and the Myth of Pure Evil 488

Organs of Violence 497

Predation 509

Dominance 515

Revenge 529

Sadism 547

Ideology 556

Pure Evil, Inner Demons, and the Decline of Violence 569

9 Better Angels 571

Empathy 573

Self-Control 592

Recent Biological Evolution? 611

Morality and Taboo 622

Reason 642

10 On Angels' Wings 671

Important but Inconsistent 672

The Pacifist's Dilemma 678

The Leviathan 680

Gentle Commerce 682

Feminization 684

The Expanding Circle 689

The Escalator of Reason 690

Reflections 692

Notes 697

References 739

Index 773

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Customer Reviews

Average Rating 4.5
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Sort by: Showing all of 20 Customer Reviews
  • Posted February 14, 2012

    A Must Read

    This book is fantastic, if you can tolerate a sober look at perhaps the most emotional of subject matter. Be prepared for some of your prejudices to be overturned. You will go on a journey through anecdotes of cruelty and tragedy, through social and psychological studies, and even through mapping the structure of the brain. Hundreds of pages long, this book will keep you reading and reading until you arrive at a cautiously optimistic endpoint. And far from heaps of speculation, nearly every page of the book cites at least one reference to the greater literature. This book has changed my thinking.

    That said, the eBook version has some serious shortcomings. The diagrams are nearly unreadable. The index at the back is useless without page numbers. What the heck? Get yourself a paper copy of this one, if you don't need to carry it around with you.

    -jw

    7 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 7, 2013

    e EXCELLENT

    Exhaustive. Well researched. Fascinating. Not for the faint of heart, though, as some of the descriptions of violent acts can be pretty graphic. Wothwhile read for sure.

    3 out of 3 people found this review helpful.

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  • Posted November 20, 2012

    Solid, clear, worth it.

    THE NOTION that in 2012 we live in the least violent times our species has ever known seems odd at first. The idea even makes one bridle in disbelief. Yet, that is the central idea in The Angels of Our Better Nature. Steven Pinker makes a good case—good enough that I frequently found myself examining ideas I previously held as settled fact to see if they might not be just settled prejudices. That's good writing. Any reader grows or learns only after reaching that point. Why take the trouble to look beyond what you 'know' unless something gives you reason to sense there might be more to be found. This is where Pinker shines. He is always there, the consummate guiding teacher, suggesting things to consider. This is encounter with the big picture though faithful attention to detail. He does not push, does not attempt to drag you his way with rhetoric. He neither blusters nor condescends. Instead, he guides and offers for your consideration. Then he always brings you back to your own life. You just understand it better. It is not recitation of fact and argument. It is conversation. There is a person in there. For sure, there is careful argument, with equally careful examination of counter-evidence and plausible synthesis of threads from many, many sources in science, history, math, logic and psychology—even art. He brings a reader not so much to acceptance of his point as to greater comprehension of it in the context of human life. “Draw your own conclusions.” he seems to say. His prose sparkles with clarity. This book has some passages that rely on analytical mathematics, things most of us don't deal with very often. I am interested in math but I am by no means a mathematician. I had to read some passages repeatedly, but I was rewarded. I didn't learn mathematics (well, maybe a little bit) but his presentation succeeded in giving me a clear sense of the mechanics of the phenomena described by the math. Without inflicting pain. That's a worthy achievement.

    2 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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    Posted September 17, 2012

    1 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 14, 2012

    Thought provoking and fascinating read

    Dr. Pinker knows how to make history, psychology, anthropology and economics into a blended, cohesive and utterly fascinating text. This bok wil provoke countless discussions and i certainly plan to use it in my teaching as well. Truly brilliant and thoroughly researched. I give it a very strong recommendation for anyone who likes to think and learn.

    1 out of 2 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 15, 2012

    Pinkfur

    She waited.

    0 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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