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The rural-urban dichotomy is one of the most influential figures of thought in history, laying the foundation for academic disciplines such as rural and urban sociology. The dichotomy rests on the assumption that rural and urban areas differ fundamentally. By the mid-twentieth century, scholars had observed that many rural areas displayed a blend of rural and urban features. Since then, counterurbanisation, urban sprawl and ever-increasing flows of people, goods and ideas between rural and urban areas have blurred the distinctions even further.
Attempts to create new rural-urban classification systems, whether based on factors such as population size, density or distances, have largely failed. Clearly, new classification systems must use the meaning of observed changes in rural-urban systems as their point of departure rather than simple measurements of these changes. These meanings can, despite the interdependencies of our global world, be explored only in their political, cultural and economic settings.
What characterises exurban development in Germany, or in a post-communist Eastern European "exurbanised" village? How do farmers and rural residents in Europe, Australia and the USA see themselves and others in a rapidly changing world? These are but some of the questions that this volume endeavors to answer, in an effort to shed new light on rural-urban relations, their changes and how we should interpret these changes.
List of Contributors ix
Introduction: Beyond the Rural-Urban Divide Kjell Anderson Erland Eklund Minna Lehtola Pekka Salmi 1
Part I Differentiation Processes: Deep Rural Areas, Periurban Areas, Post-Socialist Countrysides
Chapter 1 The Emerging Shortage of Labour in Forestry in a Remote Coniferous Region: A Brake on the Massive Use of Biofuels Olli Lehtonen Markku Tykkyläet;inen 25
Chapter 2 From Suburbia to Rural Backwater: Exurban Rural Development In Germany Florian Düet;nckmann 57
Chapter 3 Why did Russia Fail in its Agricultural Reform? A Comparative Analysis of Property Rights in Russia and the Baltic Countries Ilkka Alanen 79
Chapter 4 The Future of Rural Communities in Bulgaria Eckhard Dittrich Rumiana Jeleva 107
Chapter 5 Perceptions of Agriculture's Multifunctional Role Among Rural Pennsylvanians Martin H. Lenihan Kathryn J. Brasier Richard C. Stedman 127
Chapter 6 Understanding the Sociocultural Processes that Contribute to Diversity and Conformity Among Farmers in Australia, Finland and the Netherlands Frank Vanclay Tina Silvasti 151
Part II Governing Differentiation
Chapter 7 Rural-Urban Relations in Livelihoods, Governance and Use of Natural Resources - Considerations of Fisheries in the Finnish Archipelago Sea Region Pekka Salmi 171
Chapter 8 Regimes and Vital Coalitions in Rural-Urban Regions in the Netherlands Ina Horlings Pieter Tops Julien van Ostaaijen 191
Chapter 9 Overcoming Jurisdictional Boundaries through Stakeholder Engagement and Collaborative Governance: Lessons Learned from White-Tailed Deer Management in the U.S. Kirsten M. Leong Daniel J. Decker T. Bruce Lauber Daniela B. Raik William F. Siemer221
Chapter 10 Managing Spatial Change in the Rural-Urban Fringe: The Role of Active Citizenship and Civil Society in the Republic of Ireland Mark Scott Paula Russell Declan Redmond 249
Chapter 11 Challenges of Governance and Land Management of the Exurban/Wilderness Frontier in the USA Heidi E. Kretser Jodi A. Hilty Michael J. Glennon Jeffery F. Burrell Zoëet; P. Smith Barbara A. Knuth 277
Chapter 12 Knowledge Integration and Power Relations: Pathways to Sustainability in Madrid Veronica Hernandez-Jimenez Nick Winder 305
Chapter 13 Finnish and Hungarian Joint Initiative in and for the Information Society: On the Pleasure and Pain of Mediating in Cyberspace Sarolta Nemeth 323