Overview

When busy people want to know more about the Bible and the Christian faith, the Zondervan Quick-Reference Library offers an instant information alternative. Covering the basics of the faith and Bible knowledge in an easy-to-use format, this series helps new Christians and seasoned believers find answers to their questions about Christianity and the Bible. The information is presented in units of one or two pages, so that each section can be read in a few minutes. The Zondervan Quick-Reference Library makes ...

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Biblical Archaeology

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Overview

When busy people want to know more about the Bible and the Christian faith, the Zondervan Quick-Reference Library offers an instant information alternative. Covering the basics of the faith and Bible knowledge in an easy-to-use format, this series helps new Christians and seasoned believers find answers to their questions about Christianity and the Bible. The information is presented in units of one or two pages, so that each section can be read in a few minutes. The Zondervan Quick-Reference Library makes important knowledge affordable, accessible, and easy to understand for busy people who don’t have a lot of time to read or study.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780310861164
  • Publisher: Zondervan
  • Publication date: 5/11/2010
  • Series: Zondervan Quick-Reference Library
  • Sold by: Zondervan Publishing
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 128
  • Sales rank: 528,453
  • File size: 393 KB

Meet the Author

John H. Sailhamer is professor of Old Testament at Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary in Brea, California and was formerly senior professor of Old Testament and Hebrew at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary.. His other works include An Introduction to Old Testament Theology and The NIIV Compact Bible Commentary.
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Read an Excerpt

A General Picture of Early Human Society

Archaeologists classify early human cultures by the materials they used for making tools and weapons. The earliest human societies used stone implements-- hence the Stone Age. The Old Stone Age, or Paleolithic, culture lasted from about 50, 000 to 10, 000 B.C. During that period, food was gathered from wild plants and hunting. At around 9, 000 B.C. human culture entered a rather sudden transitional phase, the Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age, when many human cultures ceased depending on hunting and gathering food and began the process of domesticating plants and animals.

The chief cause of this transition in basic economies was a dramatic change in global climatic conditions. As temperatures began to rise at the close of the last Ice Age, large areas of land were left exposed to the warm climate.

Vast forests rapidly covered the landscape. Paleolithic societies, which had once thrived on hunting large herds of reindeer, now found themselves having to stalk deer in densely forested terrain. Only by refining their tools and hunting implements (such as the bow and arrow, with finely tooled stone arrow tips) were people able to survive. The domestication of the dog also added to their hunting capacities.

The biblical city of Jericho provides a textbook picture of the progress of human culture throughout the early stages of prehistory. From the time of its early Mesolithic inhabitants, it was almost constantly occupied until the Israelites destroyed it in their conquest of Canaan. A Mesolithic culture flourished until its destruction in 7800 B.C. Its early inhabitants lived in modest mud huts at the top of an ancient hill at the center of the city.

The technological revolution of domesticated plants and animals led directly to the Neolithic, or New Stone Age culture. This period began with the destruction of the huts of the earlier Mesolithic culture. An estimated two thousand inhabitants now lived in mud huts surrounded by a formidable city wall. At the corner of the west end of the city wall they constructed a large tower to help them defend the city. The only identifiable domesticated animal at that time was the goat.

The early Neolithic people of Jericho occupied the city for nearly a thousand years. After a short period when the city was deserted, a new population moved onto the hill. These new inhabitants still hunted wild animals for food, but they had also domesticated several kinds of animals and raised their own crops. They were part of a larger group of people living in settlements throughout ancient Palestine.

After another brief period of abandonment, a new population moved into Palestine around 6, 000 B.C. and took up residence in Jericho. These people brought with them a highly developed use of pottery, domesticated livestock, and agricultural skills. In 4500 B.C. the first traces of metal tools were deposited in gravesites near Jericho. The city, however, remained unoccupied until another new population entered Palestine in 3100 B.C. and initiated an urbanized Early Bronze Age culture in Palestine.

Ancient Near Eastern Creation Accounts

Strictly speaking, there are no known creation accounts from the ancient Near East. There are, to be sure, several ancient myths from both Egypt and Mesopotamia that give accounts of creation in varying degrees and for different purposes. But there is no actual narrative account of creation, such as the one we find at the beginning of the Bible. Outside that biblical account, creation was not so much a fact from the past as it was an idea about the present.

Ancient creation myths were designed to explain why things happen in the world today as they do.

The most notable ancient creation myth is the epic poem known to the Babylonians and Assyrians as Enuma Elish. Its title is taken from the first words of the epic, which begins, "When on high (enuma elish) the heaven had not been named, firm ground below had not been called by name. . . ." Since the first discovery of ancient fragments of clay tablets recounting the epic

(1848-1876), Enuma Elish has been studied as an ancient account of creation that bears surprising similarity to the Genesis account. In actual fact, creation plays a relatively minor role in the epic. Central to the epic is the attempt to explain why the Babylonian god Marduk is to be revered as the chief among the gods. The epic probably dates only from the time of the earliest copies of the epic (ca. 1, 000 B.C.), though it may be older than that.

Enuma Elish begins by describing a primordial time when nothing yet existed except the three gods: Apsu (the primeval fresh water ocean), Tiamat (the salt water ocean), and their son, Mummu (the mist). In these three gods were represented all the elements of which the universe was thought to consist. As the epic story progresses, Apsu and Tiamat give birth to a multitude of gods. But a problem develops. The noise created by these younger gods begin to get on the nerves of the original pair. Apsu, taking matters into his own hands, decides to destroy the other gods and thus rest in silence. But his plan is thwarted by the god Ea, who casts a spell on Apsu, puts him into a deep sleep, and slays him in his sleep. Tiamat, understandably, is greatly disturbed by the death of her husband and sets out on a plan to avenge his death.

No one can contain Tiamat's rage against the other gods until the Babylonian chief deity, Marduk, is summoned to the fight. But he cleverly refuses to fight Tiamat until all the gods have pledged to make him the supreme god.

When the gods agree to this, Marduk wages war with Tiamat. In the account of his slaying of Tiamat the story of creation is told. Standing over the slain

Tiamat, Marduk "split her like a shellfish into two parts: Half of her he set up and ceiled it as sky"; with the other half he constructs an abode for the surviving gods. When the lesser gods complain of the work they are assigned, Marduk creates human beings to serve them.

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Table of Contents

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First Chapter

A General Picture of Early Human Society
Archaeologists classify early human cultures by the materials they used
for making tools and weapons. The earliest human societies used stone implements---
hence the Stone Age. The Old Stone Age, or Paleolithic, culture lasted
from about 50,000 to 10,000 B.C. During that period, food was gathered from
wild plants and hunting. At around 9,000 B.C. human culture entered a rather
sudden transitional phase, the Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age, when many
human cultures ceased depending on hunting and gathering food and began
the process of domesticating plants and animals.
The chief cause of this transition in basic economies was a dramatic
change in global climatic conditions. As temperatures began to rise at the close
of the last Ice Age, large areas of land were left exposed to the warm climate.
Vast forests rapidly covered the landscape. Paleolithic societies, which
had once thrived on hunting large herds of reindeer, now found themselves
having to stalk deer in densely forested terrain. Only by refining their tools
and hunting implements (such as the bow and arrow, with finely tooled stone
arrow tips) were people able to survive. The domestication of the dog also
added to their hunting capacities.
The biblical city of Jericho provides a textbook picture of the progress
of human culture throughout the early stages of prehistory. From the time
of its early Mesolithic inhabitants, it was almost constantly occupied until
the Israelites destroyed it in their conquest of Canaan. A Mesolithic culture
flourished until its destruction in 7800 B.C. Its early inhabitants lived
in modest mud huts at the top of an ancient hill at the center of the city.
The technological revolution of domesticated plants and animals led directly
to the Neolithic, or New Stone Age culture. This period began with the
destruction of the huts of the earlier Mesolithic culture. An estimated two
thousand inhabitants now lived in mud huts surrounded by a formidable city
wall. At the corner of the west end of the city wall they constructed a large
tower to help them defend the city. The only identifiable domesticated animal
at that time was the goat.
The early Neolithic people of Jericho occupied the city for nearly a thousand
years. After a short period when the city was deserted, a new population
moved onto the hill. These new inhabitants still hunted wild animals for
food, but they had also domesticated several kinds of animals and raised their
own crops. They were part of a larger group of people living in settlements
throughout ancient Palestine.
After another brief period of abandonment, a new population moved into
Palestine around 6,000 B.C. and took up residence in Jericho. These people
brought with them a highly developed use of pottery, domesticated livestock,
and agricultural skills. In 4500 B.C. the first traces of metal tools were
deposited in gravesites near Jericho. The city, however, remained unoccupied
until another new population entered Palestine in 3100 B.C. and initiated an
urbanized Early Bronze Age culture in Palestine.
Ancient Near Eastern Creation Accounts
Strictly speaking, there are no known creation accounts from the ancient
Near East. There are, to be sure, several ancient myths from both Egypt and
Mesopotamia that give accounts of creation in varying degrees and for different
purposes. But there is no actual narrative account of creation, such as
the one we find at the beginning of the Bible. Outside that biblical account,
creation was not so much a fact from the past as it was an idea about the present.
Ancient creation myths were designed to explain why things happen in
the world today as they do.
The most notable ancient creation myth is the epic poem known to the
Babylonians and Assyrians as Enuma Elish. Its title is taken from the first
words of the epic, which begins, 'When on high (enuma elish) the heaven had
not been named, firm ground below had not been called by name. . . .' Since
the first discovery of ancient fragments of clay tablets recounting the epic
(1848--1876) , Enuma Elish has been studied as an ancient account of creation
that bears surprising similarity to the Genesis account. In actual fact, creation
plays a relatively minor role in the epic. Central to the epic is the attempt
to explain why the Babylonian god Marduk is to be revered as the chief among
the gods. The epic probably dates only from the time of the earliest copies
of the epic (ca. 1,000 B.C.), though it may be older than that.
Enuma Elish begins by describing a primordial time when nothing
yet existed except the three gods: Apsu (the primeval fresh water ocean),
Tiamat (the salt water ocean), and their son, Mummu (the mist). In these
three gods were represented all the elements of which the universe was
thought to consist. As the epic story progresses, Apsu and Tiamat give birth
to a multitude of gods. But a problem develops. The noise created by these
younger gods begin to get on the nerves of the original pair. Apsu, taking
matters into his own hands, decides to destroy the other gods and thus rest
in silence. But his plan is thwarted by the god Ea, who casts a spell on Apsu,
puts him into a deep sleep, and slays him in his sleep. Tiamat, understandably,
is greatly disturbed by the death of her husband and sets out on a plan
to avenge his death.
No one can contain Tiamat's rage against the other gods until the Babylonian
chief deity, Marduk, is summoned to the fight. But he cleverly refuses
to fight Tiamat until all the gods have pledged to make him the supreme god.
When the gods agree to this, Marduk wages war with Tiamat. In the account
of his slaying of Tiamat the story of creation is told. Standing over the slain
Tiamat, Marduk 'split her like a shellfish into two parts: Half of her he set
up and ceiled it as sky'; with the other half he constructs an abode for the
surviving gods. When the lesser gods complain of the work they are assigned,
Marduk creates human beings to serve them.
Read More Show Less

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