The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease / Edition 1

The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease / Edition 1

by Megan Brickley, Rachel Ives
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0123704863

ISBN-13: 9780123704863

Pub. Date: 07/02/2008

Publisher: Elsevier Science

The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease provides a comprehensive and invaluable source of information on this important group of diseases. It is an essential guide for those engaged in either basic recording or in-depth research on human remains from archaeological sites. The range of potential tools for investigating metabolic diseases of bone are far

Overview

The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease provides a comprehensive and invaluable source of information on this important group of diseases. It is an essential guide for those engaged in either basic recording or in-depth research on human remains from archaeological sites. The range of potential tools for investigating metabolic diseases of bone are far greater than for many other conditions, and building on clinical investigations, this book will consider gross, surface features visible using microscopic examination, histological and radiological features of bone, that can be used to help investigate metabolic bone diseases.

• Clear photographs and line drawings illustrate gross, histological and radiological features associated with each of the conditions
• Covers a range of issues pertinent to the study of metabolic bone disease in archaeological skeletal material, including the problems that frequent co-existence of these conditions in individuals living in the past raises, the preservation of human bone and the impact this has on the ability to suggest a diagnosis of a condition
• Includes a range of conditions that can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis, including previous investigations of these conditions in archaeological bone

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780123704863
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
07/02/2008
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
350
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents


Acknowledgements     xi
Foreword     xiii
Introduction     1
Metabolic Bone Disease: A Definition     2
Format of the Book     3
The Study of Metabolic Bone Disease in Bioarchaeology     7
Approaches to the Study of Metabolic Bone Disease     7
Challenges in the Investigation of Metabolic Bone Disease     10
Museum Collections     10
Archaeological Human Bone     11
Paleopathological Diagnoses     17
Demographic Issues     18
Modern Medical Data     18
Genetics and Anthropology     19
Cultural and Social Anthropology     19
Nutritional and Medical Anthropology     20
Primatology     20
Conclusions     20
Background to Bone Biology and Mineral Metabolism     21
Bone Tissue: Cortical and Trabecular Bone     21
Different Types of Bone Structure: Woven Bone and Lamellar Bone     22
Bone Cells     24
Modelling and Remodelling: Growth and Adulthood     28
Mechanisms of Growth     28
Modelling     28
Remodelling     29
Bone Mineralisation: The Extracellular Matrix (osteoid)     30
Tooth Formation and Mineralisation     32
Reasons for Remodelling     32
Bone Biology in Context of the Life Course     33
Bone Biology in Fracture Healing     34
Mineral Metabolism During Life     36
Extracellular Mineral Metabolism     36
Conclusions     40
Vitamin C Deficiency Scurvy     41
Causes of Vitamin C Deficiency     41
Sources of Vitamin C     41
Scurvy and Weaning     45
The Role of Vitamin C     47
Vitamin C Requirements     47
Consequences of Scurvy     48
Consequences for Adults     48
Consequences for Children     49
Scurvy in the Modern Perspective     49
Anthropological Perspectives     51
Reference to Probable Scurvy in Early Texts     51
Subsistence Change and the Development of Scurvy: The Origins of Agriculture     52
A More Recent View of Scurvy in the Past     54
Paleopathological Cases of Scurvy     54
Diagnosis of Scurvy in Archaeological Bone     56
Macroscopic Features of Infantile Scurvy     56
Macroscopic Features of Adult Scurvy     61
Radiological Features of Infantile Scurvy     62
Radiological Features of Adult Scurvy     63
Histological Features of Infantile Scurvy     65
Histological Features of Adult Scurvy     67
Differential Diagnosis     69
Scurvy in Non-Human Primates: A Result of Human Actions     71
Conclusions     71
Summary of Published Archaeological Evidence for Vitamin C Deficiency     72
Vitamin D Deficiency     75
The Skeletal Requirement of Vitamin D     75
Terminology     77
Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency     77
Sunlight     77
Cultural Practices and Sunlight Exposure     81
Skin Pigmentation and Genetic Adaptations     81
Food Sources     82
Pregnancy and Lactation     84
Increased Age     86
Age-Related Osteoporosis     87
Additional Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency with Effects on Mineral Metabolism     87
Rickets     90
Consequences of Rickets     91
Historical Recognition of Rickets     92
Rickets in the Modern Perspective     92
Anthropological Perspectives: Rickets     94
Beyond Fighting: The Physiological Impact of Warfare      96
Paleopathological Cases of Rickets     96
Diagnosis of Rickets in Archaeological Bone     97
Macroscopic Features of Rickets     97
Radiological Features of Rickets     100
Histological Features of Rickets     101
Residual Rickets in the Anthropological Perspective: Adult Evidence of Childhood Vitamin D Deficiency     102
Diagnosis of Residual Rickets in Archaeological Bone     109
Macroscopic Features of Residual Rickets     109
Radiological Features of Residual Rickets     112
Histological Features of Rickets     112
Co-Morbidities     113
Differential Diagnosis     114
Vitamin D Deficiency Osteomalacia     114
Pseudofractures     118
Adult Vitamin D Deficiency in the Modern Perspective     119
Physical and Non-Violent Manifestations of Abuse     122
Anthropological Perspectives: Osteomalacia     123
Paleopathological Cases of Osteomalacia     123
Diagnosis of Osteomalacia in Archaeological Bone     125
Macroscopic Features of Osteomalacia     125
Radiological Features of Osteomalacia     125
Histological Features of Osteomalacia     126
Conclusions      133
Summary of Published Archaeological Evidence for Vitamin D Deficiency     134
Age-Related Bone Loss and Osteoporosis     151
Definitions of Osteoporosis     151
Causes of Age-Related Osteoporosis     152
Menopause     152
Increased Age     153
Peak Bone Mass     155
Mechanical Loading     155
Extremes of Exercise     156
Continuing Sub-Periosteal Apposition     157
Genetics and Population Groups     157
Nutrition and Lifestyle     158
Skeletal Features of Age-Related Osteoporosis     158
Consequences of Age-Related Osteoporosis: Fractures     158
Distal Radius Fractures (Colles' Fractures)     160
Vertebral Fractures     163
Femoral Fractures     167
Osteoporosis in the Modern Perspective     170
Anthropological Perspectives     171
Historical and Anthropological Perspectives of Aging     172
Age-Related Osteoporosis in Men     172
Animal Studies in Osteoporosis I: Age-Related Bone Loss     173
Problems in the Determination of Age-Related Bone Changes in Biological Anthropology     175
Paleopathological Cases of Age-Related Osteoporosis      176
Co-Morbidities     179
Diagnosis of Age-Related Bone Loss and Osteoporosis in Archaeological Bone     179
Macroscopic Features of Osteoporosis     179
Radiological Features of Osteoporosis     179
Histological Changes of Osteoporosis     182
Conclusions     183
Secondary Osteopenia and Osteoporosis     185
Causes of Secondary Osteopenia and Osteoporosis     185
Osteopenia and Mobility     185
Effects of Immobilisation     186
Animal Studies in Osteoporosis II: Immobilisation-Related Osteopenia     187
Trauma and Causes of Immobility     188
Non-Long Bone Trauma and Additional Causes of Disuse Osteoporosis     188
Bone Loss in Infectious Diseases     192
Immobility in Viral Conditions     197
Congenital and Developmental Conditions     197
Osteopenia in Spinal Cord or Neuromuscular System Afflictions     197
Implications of Immobility and Inferences of Disability     198
Osteopenia in Pathological Conditions     199
Joint Disease     199
Hematopoietic Conditions     200
Neoplastic and Malignant Conditions     200
The Influence of Diet on Osteoporosis Risk      202
Dietary Acid Load and Proposed Mechanisms of Bone Loss     202
Calcium     202
Protein     205
Fatty Acids     207
Fruit and Vegetables     207
Anthropological Perspectives     209
Calcium in the Evolutionary Perspective     209
The Effect of Meat Eating on Calcium Adequacy     211
The Health of Adaptive and Transitional Diets: Integrated Approaches?     212
Calcium Availability with the Onset of Domestication     213
Diagnosis of Secondary Osteopenia in Archaeological Bone     216
Conclusions     216
Paget's Disease of Bone     217
Possible Causes of Paget's Disease     217
Animal Paleopathology     219
Consequences of Paget's Disease     219
Pelvic Changes     221
Cranial Changes     221
Long Bone Changes     222
Other Bones that can be Affected     223
Co-Morbidities     224
Paget's Disease in the Modern Perspective     225
Age and Sex     225
Geographic Variation     226
Anthropological Perspectives     226
Paleopathological Cases of Paget's Disease      226
Diagnosis of Paget's Disease in Archaeological Bone     230
Macroscopic Features of Paget's Disease     230
Radiological Features of Paget's Disease     231
Histological Features of Paget's Disease     237
Differential Diagnosis     238
The Contribution of Paleopathology to Modern Medicine     238
Conclusions     239
Miscellaneous Conditions     241
Fluorosis     241
Consequences of Fluorosis     241
Dental Fluorosis     241
Skeletal Fluorosis     242
Co-Morbidities     243
Fluorosis in the Modern Perspective     243
Anthropological Perspectives: Fluorosis     245
Paleopathological Cases of Fluorosis     247
Other Conditions Linked to Intoxication     249
Hyperparathyroidism     250
Causes of Hyperparathyroidism     250
Primary Hyperparathyroidism     250
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism     250
Consequences of Hyperparathyroidism     251
Anthropological Perspectives: Hyperparathyroidism     251
Paleopathological Cases of Hyperparathyroidism     252
Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism in Archaeological Bone      252
Pellagra     252
Anthropological Investigations of Displaced Peoples     256
Starvation     257
Malnutrition, Starvation and Osteoporosis     258
Rare Metabolic Bone Diseases     258
Hyperostosis     258
Hypophosphatasia     259
Osteogenesis Imperfecta     260
Osteopetrosis     260
Conclusions     260
Overview and Directions for Future Research     261
Bone Biology     261
Vitamin C Deficiency, Scurvy     262
Vitamin D Deficiency, Rickets and Osteomalacia     262
Age-Related Osteoporosis     263
Secondary Osteopenia and Osteoporosis     264
Paget's Disease of Bone     265
Miscellaneous Metabolic Bone Diseases     265
Conclusions     265
Bibliography     267
Index     321

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