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Biochemistry and Physiology of Herbicide Action / Edition 1

Biochemistry and Physiology of Herbicide Action / Edition 1

by Carl Fedtke

ISBN-10: 3642683770

ISBN-13: 9783642683770

Pub. Date: 07/31/2012

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Herbicides are part of modern agricultural production systems and therefore contribute significantly to the economy of agricultural products. At the same time, herbicides are potent and specific inhibitors of plant metabolism and may therefore be used as valuable tools in basic plant physiological research. A well-known example is the photosynthesis-inhibiting


Herbicides are part of modern agricultural production systems and therefore contribute significantly to the economy of agricultural products. At the same time, herbicides are potent and specific inhibitors of plant metabolism and may therefore be used as valuable tools in basic plant physiological research. A well-known example is the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide diuron, known to plant physiologists as DCMU, which has become one of the essentials in modern photosynthesis research. Similarly, knowledge in other areas of plant metabolism may be advanced by the use of herbicides as specific inhibitors. This book describes the effects of herbicides on the metabolism of higher plants from the viewpoint of the plant physiologist. The material of this book is therefore, as far as possible, divided into areas of metabolism. This book intends (1) to present the reader with current knowledge and views in the area of herbicide modes of action and (2) to promote the future use of herbicides as metabolic inhibitors in plant physiological research to the advantage of both, the pesticide and the plant sciences. I wish to express my thanks to my colleagues and friends Prof. N. Amrhein, Prof. E. Elstner, Dr. L. Eue, Dr. J. Konze, Dr. K. Liirssen, Dr. W.Oettmeier, Dr. H. Quader, Dr. R. R. Schmidt, Dr. R. H. Shimabukuro, Dr. J. Stetter, Prof.

Product Details

Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date:
Edition description:
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
Product dimensions:
6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

A. Approaches to and Definitions of the Mechanisms of Action of Herbicides.- I. Applications, Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Mechanisms of Herbicides.- II. Basic, Intermediate, and Secondary Plant Metabolism.- III. Supercomplex, Complex, and Defined Systems.- IV. Kinetics and Dose-Response Curves.- V. The Chain of Effects.- VI. Mobility and Selectivity of Herbicides.- References for A.- B. Plant Metabolism — a Synopsis of Principles.- I. Plant Growth as an Open System.- II. Cellular Organelles and Endomembrane Systems.- References for B.- Photosynthesis.- I. Physiology and Biochemistry of Photosynthesis.- II. Flow of Electrons in Photosynthesis.- III. Inhibition of Photosynthetic Electron Flow.- 1. Action on the Isolated Chloroplast.- 2. Herbicides Inhibiting at the “Diuron Site”.- a. General Aspects.- b. Urea Herbicides.- c. Carboxanilides.- d. s-Triazine Herbicides.- e. as-Triazinone Herbicides.- f. Uracile Herbicides.- g. Biscarbamates.- h. Pyridazinone Herbicides.- i. Hydroxybenzonitriles.- k. Nitrophenols.- l. Benzimidazole Herbicides.- IV. Unclassified and Quinoid Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Herbicides.- V. Binding at the “Diuron Site”.- 1. Native Binding.- 2. Herbicide-Insensitive Electron Transport.- a. Trypsin Treatment.- b. Cerulenin Treatment.- c. Resistance by Mutation.- 3. Models of the Binding Site.- VI. Light Excitation of Photosynthetic Pigments and Photosynthetic Oxygen Reduction.- VII. Toxicity after Inhibition of Photosystem II.- 1. General.- 2. Physiological Conditions Influencing the Appearance of Damage.- 3. Ultrastructural Damage.- 4. Possible Toxicants.- a. Energy Availability.- b. Nitrite.- c. Radicals and Activated Oxygen Species.- VIII. Physiological Effects Induced by Herbicides that Inhibit Photosynthesis.- 1. General.- 2. Regulatory Responses after Partial Inhibition of Photosynthesis.- 3. Hormone-Like Effects of s-Triazine Herbicides.- References for C. I-VIII.- IX. Herbicides Accepting Electrons from the Photosynthetic Pigment System I.- 1. Interference with Photosynthetic and Other Electron-Transport Systems.- 2. Physiology of Action and Selectivity.- 3. Sequence of Effects and Generation of Phytotoxicity.- References for C. IX.- X. Diphenyl Ether Herbicides.- 1. General Aspects.- 2. The Light-Dependent Herbicidal Action.- 3. Influence of Diphenyl Ether Herbicides on Photosynthesis and Respiration.- 4. Credazine.- References for C. X.- XI. Herbicides Interfering with Carotenoid Biosynthesis.- 1. Herbicidal Structures Interfering with Carotenoid Biosynthesis.- 2. Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Treated Plants.- a. Carotenoid Biosynthesis.- b. Carotenoids in Herbicide-Treated Plants.- c. The Influence of Light.- d. The Generation of Phytotoxicity.- e. Microbody Relations.- 3. Special Aspects of Individual Herbicides Inhibiting Carotenoid Biosynthesis.- a. Aminotriazole.- b. Fluometuron.- c. Pyridazinones.- d. Haloxydine and Pyriclor.- e. Others.- References for C. XI.- D. Energy Conservation.- I. Energy Conservation in Photosynthesis and Respiration.- II. Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation.- III. Respiratory Uncoupling in the Intact Tissue.- IV. Dichlobenil — an Inhibitor of Cellulose Biosynthesis.- References for D.- E. Nucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis.- References for E.- F. Microtubules.- I. Microtubules in the Cell Cycle of Higher Plants.- II. Flagella, Cilia, and Other Microtubular Systems.- III. Formation of Microtubules.- IV. Morphological and Cytological Effects Induced by Herbicides and Other Compounds Interfering with Microtubular Systems.- V. Herbicide Interference with Microtubular Systems.- 1. Dinitroanilines.- 2. Carbamates.- 3. Phosphoric Amides.- 4. Other Herbicides and Additional Compounds Interfering with Microtubules.- 5. Calcium Pumps.- Metabolic Effects of Antimitotic Herbicides.- Dinitroaniline Herbicides.- Carbamates.- References for F.- G. Lipid Metabolism.- I. Inhibition of Germination by Thiolcarbamate Herbicides.- II. Interference of Thiolcarbamates with Fatty Acid and Wax Formation.- III. Possible Mode of Herbicidal Action.- IV. Interference of Thiolcarbamate Herbicides with Photosynthetic and Respiratory Systems.- IV. Inhibition of Lipid Synthesis by Herbicides Other than Thiolcarbamates.- References for G.- H. Herbicidal Germination Inhibitors with Unknown Mode of Action.- I. Metabolic Pathways Involved in the Germination and Growth of Seedlings as a Target for Herbicidal Action.- II. Germination-Inhibiting Herbicides with Unknown Primary Biochemical Mode of Action.- 1. ?-Chloroacetamides.- a. Analysis of the Growth of Plants and Tissues Treated with ?-Chloroacetamides.- b. Effects of ?-Chloroacetamides on Cellular Metabolism.- 2. Other Germination-Inhibiting Herbicides.- References for H.- I. Herbicides with Auxin Activity.- I. Tests for Auxin Activity.- II. Structural Requirements for Auxin Activity.- III. Auxin Interaction with Other Plant Hormones.- 1. Interaction with Cytokinins.- 2. Interaction with Ethylene.- 3. Auxins and Oxidases/Peroxidases.- IV. Auxins and Nucleic Acid Synthesis.- V. Auxin-Binding Proteins.- VI. Sublethal Effects on Intact Growing Plants.- VII. Effects on Basic Plant Metabolism.- VIII. Selectivity.- IX. Phytotoxicity.- References for I.- K. Auxin-Inhibitor Herbicides.- I. Structural Requirements.- II. Degradation and Selectivity.- III. Inhibition of Auxin-Dependent Systems.- IV. General Metabolic Effects and Phytotoxicity.- References for K.- L. Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis.- I. Primary Mode of Action and Regulatory Responses.- II. Interference of Glyphosate and Glyphosine with Other Metabolic Reactions.- III. Phytotoxicity from Glyphosate.- References for L.- M. Other Herbicides and Mechanisms.- I. Competition with Nitrate.- II. Mefluidide.- References for M.

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