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Synthetic and semi-synthetic polymeric materials were originally developed for their durability and resistance to all forms of degradation including biodegradation. Such materials are currently widely accepted because of their ease of processability and amenability to provide a large variety of cost effective items that help to enhance the comfort and quality of life in the modern industrial society. However, this widespread utilization of plastics has contributed to a serious plastic waste burden, and the expectation for the 21st century is for an increased demand for polymeric material.
This volume focuses on a more rational utilization of resources in the fabrication, consumption and disposal of plastic items, specifically:
-Environmentally Degradable Polymeric Materials (EDPs);
-Water-soluble/Swellable Biodegradable Polymers;
-EDPs from Renewable Resources;
-Bioresorbable Materials for Biomedical Applications;
-Standards and Regulations on EDPs.
Part 1: Standards and Policies:
1: Science and Standards; G. Scott. 1. Why Are Standards Necessary. 2. Life Cycle Assessment of Biodegradable Polymers. 3. Degradation of Carbon-Chain Polymers. 4. Hydroperoxides and the Peroxidation Chain Mechanism. 5. Microbial Degradation of Carbon-Chain Polymers. 6. Characterisation of Biodegradable Polymers. 7. Applications of Degradable Plastics in Agriculture and Horticulture. 8. Applications of Degradable Plastics in Waste Management. 9. Oxo-Biodegradable Polymers in the Soil. 10. Science-Based Standards for Degradable Polymers. 11. Conclusions.
2. Biodegradability And Compostability; F. Degli Innocenti. 1. Everything is Biodegradable. Can Everything be Bio-Recycled. 2. Role of Standardization. 3. Compostability of Packaging: the EN 13432. 4. Other Notable Standards on Compostability. 5. Other Notable Standards on Compostability. 6. New Frontiers in Standardisation.
3: Study of The Aerobic Biodegradability of Plastic Materials Under Controlled Compost; A. Hoshino, M. Tsuji, M. Ito, M. Momochi, A. Mizutani, K. Takakuwa, S. Higo, H. Sawada, S. Uematsu. 1. Introduction. 2. Materials and Methods. 3. Results and Discussion. 4. Conclusions.
4: Environmentally Degradable Plastics And ICS-UNIDO Global Program; S. Miertus, Xin Ren. 1. Introduction. 2. EDPS and Waste Management. 3. EDPS and Renewable Resources. 4. Life Cycle Consideration. 5. Situation and Needs in Developing Countries. 6. ICS-UNIDO Activities on EDPS. 7. Conclusions.
5: Biodegradable Plastics: Views of APME (Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe); F. Maréchal. 1. Introduction. 2. APME Position. 3. Background. 4. Conclusions.
6: Market Introduction of Compostable Packaging: Consumers' Acceptance and Disposal Habits in the Kassel Project; J. Reske. 1. Introduction. 2. Background: The Situation before the Kassel Project. 3. The Project: Issues and Participants. 4. Results.
Part 2: Biobased Systems:-
7: Do Biopolymers Fulfill Our Expectations Concerning Environmental Benefits; M. Patel. 1. Biopolymers - A Relevant Topic? 2. Environmental Superiority? - Having a Closer Look at Starch Polymers. 3. Environmental Comparison - A Bird's View. 4. Are We Critical Enough? 5. What Can We Conclude?
8: Biobased Polymeric Materials; H. Hatakeyama, Y. Asano, T. Hatakeyam. 1. Introduction. 2. Methods of Characterisation. 3. Saccharide- and Lignin-Based PU Derivatives. 4. Saccharide and Lignin-Based PCL Derivatives. 5. Polyurethanes from Saccharide and Lignin Based PCLs. 6. Conclusions.
9: Biodegradable Kraft Lignin-Based Thermoplastics; Yan Li, S. Sarkanen. 1. Introduction. 2. Towards the first Thermoplastics with High Lignin. 3. Alkylated Kraft Lignin-Based Thermoplastics. 4. Conclusions.
10: Biodegradable Hybrid Polymeric Materials Based On Lignin and Synthetic Polymers; A. Corti, F. Cristiano, R. Solaro, E. Chiellini. 1. Introduction. 2. Materials and Methods. 3. Results and Discussion. 4. Conclusions.
11: Production and Applications Of Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoates; Guo-Qiang Chen. 1. Introduction. 2. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). 3. Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoates as Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering. 4. Conclusions.
12: The Solid-State Structure, Thermal and Crystalline Properties of Bacterial Copolyesters Of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid With (R)-3-Hydroxyhexanoic Acid; Zhihua Gan, K. Kuwabara, H. Abe, Y. Doi. 1. Introduction. 2. Experimental Methods. 3. Results and Discussion. 4. Conclusions.