Biodegradation of Pesticides

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781468440904
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 2/28/2013
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
  • Pages: 312
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.69 (d)

Table of Contents

I Biodegradation of Pesticides: Principles and Mechanisms.- 1 Degradation of Pesticides by Animals.- 1.1. Introduction.- 1.2. Phase I Metabolism.- 1.2.1. Dehydrohalogenation and Dehalogenation.- 1.2.2. Desulfuration.- 1.2.3. Epoxidation.- 1.2.4. Hydrolysis.- 1.2.5. Hydroxylation.- 1.2.6. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions.- 1.2.7. Isomerization.- 1.2.8. Nitrosation.- 1.3. Phase II Metabolism.- 1.3.1. Glycoside Formation.- 1.3.2. Sulfoconjugation.- 1.3.3. Other Conjugation Reactions.- 1.4. Conclusion.- References.- 2 Pesticide Metabolism in Plants: Reactions and Mechanisms.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Pesticide Metabolism in Plants.- 2.2.1. Absorption.- 2.2.2. Translocation and Distribution.- 2.2.3. Metabolism.- 2.3. Degradation Reactions of Pesticides in Plants.- 2.3.1. Oxidation.- 2.3.2. Reduction.- 2.3.3. Hydrolysis.- 2.3.4. Conjugation.- 2.3.5. Bound or Insoluble Residues.- 2.4. Conclusion.- References.- 3 Degradation of Pesticides in the Environment by Microorganisms and Sunlight.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Characteristics of Microbial Metabolism.- 3.2.1. Enzymatic Degradation.- 3.2.2. Criteria for Distinguishing One Type of Metabolism from Another.- 3.3. Commonly Occurring Metabolic Processes in Microorganisms.- 3.3.1. Hydrolytic Processes.- 3.3.2. Reductive Systems.- 3.3.3. Oxidative Reactions.- 3.4. Other Metabolic Reactions Related to Pesticide Degradation.- 3.4.1. Dehydrochlorination.- 3.4.2. Isomerization.- 3.4.3. Synthetic Metabolism.- 3.4.4. Polymerization.- 3.5. Degradation by Sunlight and Other Physical Factors.- 3.5.1. Hydrolysis: Nucleophilic Reaction.- 3.5.2. Dehalogenation.- 3.5.3. Oxidation.- 3.5.4. Isomerization and Polymerization.- 3.6. Conclusion.- References.- II Application of the Principles of Biodegrada Tion of Pesticides.- 4 Microbial Degradation of Pesticides in Tropical Soils.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Residues in Soil.- 4.3. Microbial Degradation.- 4.3.1. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides.- 4.3.2. Organophosphorous Insecticides.- 4.3.3. Carbamate Insecticides.- 4.3.4. Fungicides.- 4.4. Factors Influencing Persistence of Pesticides.- 4.4.1. Soil Moisture.- 4.4.2. Organic Matter.- 4.4.3. Redox Conditions.- 4.4.4. Soil Acidity.- 4.4.5. Soil Temperature.- 4.4.6. Sorption-Desorption.- 4.4.7. Mineral Constituents.- 4.4.8. Pesticide Combinations.- 4.5. Conclusion.- References.- 5 Persistence and Biodegradation of Herbicides.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Persistence.- 5.3. Degradation.- 5.3.1. Biodegradation.- 5.3.2. Nonbiodegradation.- 5.4. Man’s Activities.- 5.5. Conclusion.- References.- 6 Biodegradation of Agricultural Fungicides.- 6.1. Introduction.- 6.2. Toxicity of Fungicides to Nontarget Organisms.- 6.3. Stability of Fungicides.- 6.4. Biodegradation of Selected Fungicides.- 6.4.1. Triphenyltins.- 6.4.2. PCNB (Terraclor, Quintozene).- 6.4.3. Dithiocarbamates.- 6.4.4. Substituted Phthalimides.- 6.4.5. Chloroneb.- 6.4.6. Benzimidazoles.- 6.5. Effect of Fungicides on Pesticide Degradation.- 6.6. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 7 Biodegradable Insecticides: Their Application in Forestry.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Need for Insecticides.- 7.3. Use of DDT: 1945–1974.- 7.4. Alternatives to DDT and Other Insecticides.- 7.5. Insecticide Evaluation Research.- 7.6. Testing Protocol.- 7.6.1. Laboratory Testing and Evaluation.- 7.6.2. Bioassay Studies.- 7.6.3. Individual Tree Evaluations.- 7.6.4. Field Testing.- 7.7. Systemic Insecticides.- 7.8. Trends in Forest Pest Management.- 7.9. Conclusions.- References.- 8 The Use of Biodegradable Pesticides in Public Health Entomology.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. The Nature and Diversity of Arthropod-Borne Disease.- 8.3. Insecticides: The Recent Past.- 8.3.1. Mosquito Control in the United States.- 8.3.2. Malaria Control.- 8.4. Integrated Pest and Vector Management.- 8.5. Source Reduction.- 8.5.1. Salt Marsh Mosquitoes.- 8.5.2. Aedes vexons.- 8.5.3. Aedes aegypti.- 8.5.4. Aedes triseriatus.- 8.6. Mass-Produced Biocontrol Agents.- 8.6.1. Larvivorous Fish.- 8.6.2. Insectan Predators.- 8.6.3. Bacterial Pathogens.- 8.6.4. Fungi.- 8.6.5. Protozoa.- 8.6.6. Nematodes.- 8.7. Insecticides for Mosquito Control.- 8.7.1. Conventional Larvicides.- 8.7.2. Synthetic Pyrethroids.- 8.7.3. Insect Growth Regulators.- 8.8. The Need to Apply Existing Knowledge.- References.- 9 Pesticides for Stored Products.- 9.1. Introduction.- 9.2. Fumigants.- 9.3. Protectants.- 9.4. Alternative Chemical Control Techniques.- 9.4.1. Compounds That Affect Insect Development.- 9.4.2. Compounds That Affect Insect Behavior.- 9.5. Conclusion.- References.- 10 Application of Biodegradable Pesticides in India.- 10.1. Introduction.- 10.2. The Pesticide Industry in India.- 10.2.1. Consumption of Pesticides in India.- 10.2.2. Development of Process Technology within the Country.- 10.3. Biodegradation of Pesticides by Microorganisms.- 10.4. Insecticides of Plant Origin.- 10.5. Farm Management and Metabolism.- 10.5.1. Organophosphorus Compounds.- 10.5.2. Organochlorine Insecticides.- 10.5.3. Carbamate Compounds.- 10.5.4. Fungicides, Herbicides, and Fumigants.- 10.6. Postharvest Storage.- 10.7. Bioefficacy and Residue Effects of Pesticides.- 10.8. Pesticides in Forestry.- 10.9. Safety Evaluation Studies.- 10.9.1. Toxicity to Fish.- 10.9.2. Toxicity to Wildlife.- 10.9.3. Toxicity to Animals.- 10.9.4. Toxicity to Man.- 10.10. Future Perspectives.- References.
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