Biodiesel: A Realistic Fuel Alternative for Diesel Engines / Edition 1

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Environmental and political concerns are generating a growing interest in alternative engine fuels such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is a renewable energy source produced from natural oils and fats, which can be used as a substitute for petroleum diesel without the need for diesel engine modification. In addition to being biodegradable and non-toxic, biodiesel is also essentially free of sulfur and aromatics, producing lower exhaust emissions than conventional gasoline whilst providing similar properties in terms of fuel efficiency. The greatest drawback of using pure vegetable oils as fuels are their high viscosity, although this can be reduced by techniques such as dilution, micro-emulsification, pyrolysis or transesterification. Of these processes, the transesterification of vegetable oil triglycerides in supercritical methanol has been shown to be particularly promising, producing high yields of low-viscosity methyl esters without the need of a catalyst. Furthermore, these methyl esters have considerably lower flash points than those of pure vegetable oils. Biodiesel: A Realistic Fuel Alternative for Diesel Engines describes the production and characterization of biodiesel, along with current experimental research work in the field. The book will be of great interest to advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in renewable energy, as well as to fuel engineers. Written for: Advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in renewable energy; fuel engineers

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781846289941
  • Publisher: Springer London
  • Publication date: 12/10/2007
  • Edition description: 2008
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 208
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Ayhan Demirbas is a full professor at Sila Science and Energy. He was a professor in Energy Technologies Science at Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey, between 1991 and 2001, and at Selcuk University, Turkey, from 2003 to 2007. His research is mainly concerned with renewable and sustainable energy.

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Table of Contents

Introduction     1
Introduction to Energy Sources     1
Global Energy Sources and the Present Energy Situation     3
Renewable Energy Sources     6
Biomass Energy and Biomass Conversion Technologies     8
Hydropower     23
Geothermal Energy     24
Wind Energy     25
Solar Energy     27
Biohydrogen     28
Other Renewable Energy Sources     30
References     33
Biofuels     39
Introduction to Biofuels     39
Bioethanol     42
Biomethanol     45
Biohydrogen from Biomass by Steam Reforming     49
Steam-reforming Process     50
Fuels from Bio-syngas via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis     51
Biodiesel     56
Bio-oil     57
Global Biofuel Scenarios     59
References     60
Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats     65
Use of Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats in Fuel Engines     65
Vegetable Oil Resources     67
Inedible Oil Resources     69
Vegetable Oil Processing     72
Recovery of Vegetable Oils from Plants     72
Vegetable Oil Refining     73
The Use of Vegetable Oils as Diesel Fuel     74
Physical and Chemical Properties of Vegetable Oils     75
Direct Use of Vegetable Oils in Diesel Engines     79
New Engine Fuels from Vegetable Oils     83
Pyrolysis of Vegetable Oils and Fats     83
Cracking of Vegetable Oils     85
Pyrolysis Mechanisms of Vegetable Oils     86
Gasoline-rich Liquid from Sunflower Oil by Alumina Catalytic Pyrolysis     88
Diesel-like Fuel from Tallow (Beef) by Pyrolysis and Steam Reforming     91
Converting Triglyceride-derived Synthetic Gas to Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis     95
Triglyceride Analyses     99
Viscosity     99
Density     100
Cetane Number     100
Cloud and Pour Points     101
Distillation Range     101
Heat of Combustion     101
Water Content     102
Discussion of Fuel Properties of Triglycerides     102
Triglyceride Economy     105
References     105
Biodiesel     111
Introduction to Biodiesel Concept     111
History     112
Definitions      114
Biodiesel as an Alternative to Diesel Engine Fuel     115
Sources of Biodiesel     117
References     118
Biodiesel from Triglycerides via Transesterification     121
Biodiesel from Triglycerides via Transesterification     121
Catalytic Transesterification Methods     123
Supercritical Alcohol Transesterification     125
Biocatalytic Transesterification Methods     132
Recovery of Glycerine     133
General Reaction Mechanism of Transesterification     133
Esterification of Fatty Acids with Diazomethane     137
Non-catalytic Supercritical Alcohol Transesterification     137
Enzyme-catalyzed Processes     138
References     139
Fuel Properties of Biodiesels     141
Viscosity, Density, and Flash Point     141
Cetane Number, Cloud Point, and Pour Point     144
Characteristics of Distillation Curves     145
Higher Combustion Efficiency of Biodiesel     145
Water Content     146
Comparison of Fuel Properties and Combustion Characteristics of Methyl and Ethyl Alcohols and Their Esters     146
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biodiesels     151
Advantages of Biodiesel as Diesel Fuel      151
Availability and Renewability of Biodiesel     151
Lower Emissions from Biodiesel     152
Biodegradability of Biodiesel     155
Thermal Degradation of Fatty Acids During Biodiesel Production     156
Disadvantages of Biodiesel as Diesel Fuel     157
References     158
Current Technologies in Biodiesel Production     161
Biodiesel Production Processes     166
Primary Raw Materials Used in Biodiesel Production     166
Biodiesel Production with Batch Processing     167
Biodiesel Production with Continuous Process     168
Biodiesel Production with Non-catalyzed Transesterification     169
Basic Plant Equipment Used in Biodiesel Production     171
References     172
Engine Performance Tests     175
Engine Combustion Process and Combustion-related Concepts     177
Engine Performance Tests     179
Alcohol-diesel Emulsions     179
Using Microemulsions for Vegetable Oil     180
Diesel Engine Fumigation     180
Dual Injection     180
Injector Coking     181
Heated Surfaces     181
Torque Tests     181
Spark Ignition      181
Oxidation     182
References     182
Global Renewable Energy and Biofuel Scenarios     185
Global Renewable Energy Sources     187
Renewable Energy Scenarios     189
References     193
The Biodiesel Economy and Biodiesel Policy     195
Introduction to the Biodiesel Economy     195
Economic Benefits of Biodiesel     197
Biodiesel Costs     199
General Biodiesel Policy     201
European Biofuel Policy     202
References     203
Index     205
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