Bioenergy and Biofuel from Biowastes and Biomass

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More About This Textbook

Overview

Sponsored by the Bioenergy and Biofuel Task Committee of the Environmental Council of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of ASCE.

Biofuel and bioenergy produced from biowastes and biomass is a clean energy source that can be produced renewably. The 21 chapters of this book provide state-of-the-art reviews, current research, and technology developments with respect to first-, second-, and third-generation biofuels and bioenergy. The book focuses on the biological/biochemical pathway, as this option has been reported to be the most cost-effective method for biofuel/bioenergy production. The opening chapter covers the overview of the current status of biofuel and bioenergy production. The other chapters are grouped into seven categories covering biomethane production, microbial fuel cells, feedstock production, preprocessing, biomass pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and syngas fermentation. Algal processes for biofuel production, biobutanol production, bioreactor systems, and value-added processing of biofuel residues are included. This book addresses life cycle analyses of first- and second-generation biofuels (from corn, soybean, jatropha, and cellulosic biomass) and the emerging applications of nanotechnology in biofuel/bioenergy production. Each chapter builds a foundation for the one that follows, and each chapter concludes with current research trends and further research needs.

Bioenergy and Biofuel from Biowastes and Biomass is one of the first books in this emerging field to provide in-depth technical information on the broad topics of biofuel and bioenergy with extensive illustrations, case studies, summary tables, and up-to-date references. This book will be valuable to researchers, instructors, senior undergraduate and graduate students, decision-makers, professionals, and others interested in the field of biofuel/bioenergy.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780784410899
  • Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers
  • Publication date: 4/1/2010
  • Series: Committee Reports
  • Pages: 522
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.40 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Bioenergy and Biofuel Production: Some Perspectives 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Why Biofuels? 2

1.3 Current Status of Biofuel/Bioenergy Generation 4

1.4 Biochemical or Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass? 9

1.5 Cost Analysis of Cellulosic Biofuels 10

1.6 Sustainability of Biofuel Industries 12

1.7 Summary 14

1.8 References 15

Appendix 18

Anaerobic Biotechnology

Chapter 2 High Strength Wastewater to Bioenergy 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Energy Recovery from Anaerobic Processes 24

2.3 Possible Future Combination of Anaerobic Technology with FCs 37

2.4 Summary 38

2.5 References 39

Chapter 3 Food Waste to Bioenergy 43

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Anaerobic Digestion 44

3.3 Key Affecting Factors in Food Waste Digestion 50

3.4 Case Study of Biomethane Production 59

3.5 Future Research Direction 64

3.6 Summary 65

3.7 References 65

Chapter 4 Bioenergy Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) through Dry Anaerobic Digestion 71

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Dry Anaerobic Digestion of OFMSW 73

4.3 Factors Affecting Dry Anaerobic Digestion 79

4.4 Case Studies 81

4.5 Future Perspective of Dry Anaerobic Digestion 84

4.6 Summary 86

4.7 References 86

Chapter 5 Bioenergy from Landfills 88

5.1 Introduction 88

5.2 Development and Utilization of Bioenergy from Landfills 90

5.3 Benefits of LFG Recovery and Utilization 93

5.4 Gas Quantities, Characteristics, and Monitoring 97

5.5 Factors Affecting Biogas Production 98

5.6 Gas Collection, Treatment and Energy Recovery 99

5.7 Tools and Models 104

5.8 Economic Evaluation 106

5.9 Future Work 108

5.10 Summary 109

5.11 References 110

Chapter 6 Microbial Electricity Generation from Cellulosic Biomass 116

6.1 Introduction 116

6.2 Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) 116

6.3 Electricity Generation from Cellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates 119

6.4 Effects of Furan Derivatives and Phenolic Compounds on Electricity Generation 122

6.5 Direct Electricity Generation from Cellulosic Biomass 125

6.6 Engineering and Economic Considerations 125

6.7 References 126

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Biofuels

Chapter 7 Evaluation of Cellulosic Feedstocks for Biofuel Production 130

7.1 Introduction 130

7.2 Criteria for Third Generation Feedstock Crops 130

7.3 Additional Criteria to Evaluate Feedstock 132

7.4 Evaluation of Three Feedstock Crops 134

7.5 Economic Analysis of Three Feedstock Crops 140

7.6 Summary 145

7.7 References 145

Appendix 152

Chapter 8 Preprocessing of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biofuel Production 158

8.1 Introduction 158

8.2 Merits of Biomass Preprocessing 159

8.3 IBSAL Model in Biomass Preprocessing 161

8.4 Biomass Preprocessing Methods 162

8.5 Important Considerations in Biomass Preprocessing 165

8.6 Field (Decentralized) or Plant (Centralized) Preprocessing? 166

8.7 Advances and Future Research in Biomass Preprocessing 167

8.8 Summary 168

8.9 References 169

Chapter 9 Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment 172

9.1 Introduction 172

9.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass Structure 173

9.3 Recalcitrance of Lignocellulosic Biomass 175

9.4 Biomass Pretreatment 176

9.5 Lignin Recovery and Use 190

9.6 High Solids Loading 191

9.7 Water 193

9.8 Economics 193

9.9 Scale-Up 194

9.10 Future Research 195

9.11 Summary 195

9.12 References 196

Chapter 10 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass 201

10.1 Introduction 201

10.2 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass 203

10.3 Major Advances in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass 216

10.4 Challenges and Future Research Direction in Enzyme Hydrolysis 218

10.5 Summary 219

10.6 References 219

Chapter 11 Syngas Fermentation to Ethanol: Challenges and Opportunities 225

11.1 Introduction 225

11.2 Lignocellulosic Processes for Ethanol Production 228

11.3 Metal Catalysis of Syngas 229

11.4 Syngas Generation 230

11.5 Syngas Fermentation: Metabolic Pathway 233

11.6 Syngas Fermentation: Current Progress and Challenges 236

11.7 Summary 240

11.8 References 240

Chapter 12 Lignin Recovery and Utilization 247

12.1 Introduction 247

12.2 Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass 247

12.3 Lignin Chemistry 249

12.4 Recovery of Lignins 251

12.5 Lignin Utilization 258

12.6 Summary 267

12.7 References 267

Bioreactor Systems

Chapter 13 Bioreactor Systems for Biofuel/Bioelectricity Production 275

13.1 Introduction 275

13.2 Biofuel/Bioenergy Production 275

13.3 Biomethane 279

13.4 Biohydrogen through Dark Fermentation 283

13.5 Photofermentative Hydrogen Production 287

13.6 Biological Electricity Production 289

13.7 Biobutanol 295

13.8 Bioethanol Production 299

13.9 Biodiesel 302

13.10 Summary 307

13.11 References 307

Algal Biofuels

Chapter 14 Algal Biodiesel Production: Challenges and Opportunities 313

14.1 Introduction 313

14.2 Properties of Biodiesel 314

14.3 Sources of Biodiesel Raw Materials 316

14.4 Microalgae and Oil Production 322

14.5 Biosynthetic Pathway and Enhancement of Oil Production through Strain Improvement 324

14.6 Microalgal Biomass Production for Biodeisel 327

14.7 Microalgal Harvesting 332

14.8 Extraction of Oil from Microalgae 333

14.9 Biodiesel Conversion from Oils 334

14.10 Microalge vs Carbon Sequestration and Other Environmental Pollutants 334

14.11 Future Perspective of Microalgal Biodiesel 336

14.12 Summary 337

14.13 Acknowledgements 337

14.14 References 338

Chapter 15 Heterotrophic Algal-Biodiesel Production: Challenges and Opportunities 346

15.1 Introduction 346

15.2 Growth 348

15.3 Product Recovery 356

15.4 Cost and Scale-up 364

15.5 Integrated Biorefinery Approach 365

15.6 Future Research Directions 366

15.7 Summary 370

15.8 Acknowledgements 370

15.9 References 370

Chapter 16 Microalgal Ethanol Production: A New Avenue for Sustainable Biofuel Production 377

16.1 Introduction 377

16.2 Algal Bioethanol Production 378

16.3 Algae and Their Culturing Advantage 380

16.4 Application of Starch-Accumulating Microalgal for Bioethanol Production 381

16.5 Microalgal Ethanol Production under Anaerobic Conditions 383

16.6 Summary 386

16.7 Acknowledgements 386

16.8 References 386

Biofuel Residues/Wastes Management

Chapter 17 Value-Added Processing of Residues from Biofuel Industries 389

17.1 Introduction 389

17.2 Types and Characteristics of Biofuel Industrial Residues 390

17.3 Potential Value-Added Products from Residues 392

17.4 Process Options for Recovery of Products 400

17.5 Disposal or Reuse Options of Residues from Recovery Processes 402

17.6 Energy Implications of Producing Further Co-Products 402

17.7 Summary 403

17.8 References 404

Life-Cycle Analysis

Chapter 18 Energy Life Cycle Analysis of a Biofuel Production System 411

18.1 Introduction 411

18.2 ISO Standards for LCA 414

18.3 Corn Ethanol ELCA 420

18.4 Soybean Biodiesel ELCA 425

18.5 Analysis of Uncertainty 428

18.6 Summary 429

18.7 References 429

Chapter 19 Comprehensive Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Using Hybrid Eco-LCA 434

19.1 Introduction 434

19.2 Review of LCA Studies on Cellulosic Ethanol 436

19.3 Methodology 438

19.4 Results 443

19.5 Land Requirements and Ethanol Production Potential 452

19.6 Challenges and Future Research Direction 452

19.7 Summary 453

19.8 Acknowledgements 454

19.9 References 454

Advanced Technology in Biofuel

Chapter 20 Biobutanol Production from Agri-Residues 457

20.1 Introduction 457

20.2 Microbiology of Butanol Fermentation 458

20.3 Butanol Production Pathway 458

20.4 Bioreactor Configuration and Butanol Yield 460

20.5 Agri-Residues as Substrate 464

20.6 Important Considerations in Biobutanol Fermentation 464

20.7 Butanol Recovery Technologies 467

20.8 Techno-Economic Analysis of Butanol Fermentation 468

20.9 Limitations of Butanol Fermentation and Future Perspective 469

20.10 Summary 469

20.11 Acknowledgements 470

20.12 References 470

Chapter 21 Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials in Bioenergy and Blends Production 478

21.1 Introduction 478

21.2 Why Nanotechnology? 480

21.3 Nanotechnologies as New Concepts and Tools for Biofuel Production 481

21.4 Limitations of Current Technologies 489

21.5 Future Research/Development Directions 490

21.6 Summary 491

21.7 Acknowledgements 491

21.8 References 492

Editor Biographies 497

Index 501

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