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Should patents on living organisms be permitted?
When does "consciousness" begin in human being?
Are there circumstances under which people should be sterilized?
Questions such as these and others are the basis of assignments, debate topics, and life and death decisions people face everyday. They are aspects of a broad and ...
Should patents on living organisms be permitted?
When does "consciousness" begin in human being?
Are there circumstances under which people should be sterilized?
Questions such as these and others are the basis of assignments, debate topics, and life and death decisions people face everyday. They are aspects of a broad and dynamic field called Bioethics. Bioethics is the where ethics--right and wrong--intersect with biology, medicine, biotechnology, politics, law, religion and philosophy. It encompasses issues of profound importance to students, faculty and laypersons. Yet balanced, objective information--free from business, political or religious agendas--is hard to come by.
The encyclopedia used a basic conceptual framework involving 3 clear steps to explore, understand, and address key issues and questions; these are
• Identifying applicable moral principles, ideals, or standards;
• Assessing current practice or behavior in light of principles;
• And suggesting policies or procedures to bring practice into line with principles.
With its initial publication in 1978, Bioethics became the first reference to focus solely on a then burgeoning field, in effect helping to define the discipline. Both the first and second (1995) editions won the Dartmouth Medal, and the set remains the standard reference on bioethics for teachers, students, and those in related fields of health care, philosophy, environmentalism, law, and religious studies. The fourth edition offers hundreds of revisions or addenda to entries from previous editions as well as over 100 new or rewritten entries on topics such as key cases in bioethics, the human biome, genetically modified foods, emergency preparedness and response, social justice, sustainability, chemical warfare and torture, among many others. Revised articles will explain the events as well as legislation changes of the past decade. The work is also being expanded to include views of nations and cultures other than the United States on such issues as abortion, medical triage, social responsibility, access to health care, stem cell research, etc.
•In nearly 500 entries averaging 4000 words, key concepts and issues in bioethics are explained.
•Many subjects--such as abortion, animal rights, genetic testing--are discussed in terms of various perspectives: religious, ethical, policy/law, etc.
•Entries will have bibliographies and cross references to other articles; also included will be tables/charts/graphs, a topical outline, an annotated bibliography, an annotated list of legal cases, an annotated filmography, and an index.
List of Articles.
List of Contributors.
Abortion: I. Medical Perspectives.
Abortion: II. Ethical Perspectives.
Abortion: III. Legal & Regulatory Issues.
Abortion: IV. Jewish Perspectives.
Abortion: V. Roman Catholic Perspectives.
Abortion: VI. Protestant Perspectives.
Abortion: VII. Islamic Perspectives.
Abortion: VIII. Buddhist Perspectives.
Abortion: IX. Hindu Perspectives.
Abuse, Interpersonal: I. Child Abuse.
Abuse, Interpersonal: II. Abuse Between Domestic Partners.
Abuse, Interpersonal: III. Elder Abuse.
Abuse, Interpersonal: IV. Abuse of Health Care Workers.
Access to Health Care.
Addiction & Dependence.
Advance Directives and Advance Care Planning.
Advertising and Marketing in Health Care.
Africa, Bioethics in: I. Subsaharan Africa.
Africa, Bioethics in: II. South Africa.
Aging & the Aged: I. Societal Aging.
Aging & the Aged: II. Health Care for the Aging.
Aging & the Aged: III. Research Ethics.
Agriculture & Biotechnology.
AIDS: I. Public Health Issues.
AIDS: II. Health Care & Research Issues.
Alcohol & Other Drugs in a Public Health Context.
Alternative Therapies: I. Social History.
Alternative Therapies: II. Ethical & Legal Issues.
America, Bioethics in: I. United States.
America, Bioethics in: II. Canada.
America, Bioethics in: III. Latin America.
Animal Research: I. Historical Aspects.
Animal Research: II. Philosophical Issues.
Animal Research: III. Law & Policy.
Animal Welfare & Rights: I. Ethical Perspectives on the Treatment & Status of Animals.
Animal Welfare & Rights: II. Vegetarianism.
Animal Welfare & Rights: III. Wildlife Conservation & Management.
Animal Welfare & Rights: IV. Pet & Companion Animals.
Animal Welfare & Rights: V. Zoos & Zoological Parks.
Animal Welfare & Rights: VI. Animals in Agriculture & Factory Farming.
Animal Welfare & Rights: VII. Policies and Organizations.
Artificial Nutrition & Hydration.
Asia, Bioethics in.
Australia & New Zealand, Bioethics in.
Authority in Religious Traditions.
Biocentrism vs. Anthropocentrism.
Bioethics Commissions, History of.
Bioethics Education: I. Medicine.
Bioethics Education: II. Nursing.
Bioethics Education: III. Other Health Professions.
Bioethics Education: IV. Public Education.
Bioethics: I. History of.
Bioethics: II. Key Cases in.
Bioethics: III. Discourse in.
Bioethics: IV. Professionalism in.
Bioethics: V. Ethics of.
Bioethics: VI. Research Methods in.
Bioethics: VII. Empirical Methods in.
Bioethics: VIII. Sociology of.
Bioethics: IX. Anthropology of.
Bioethics: X. Politics of.
Biology, Philosophy of.
Body: I. Embodiment in the Phenomenological Tradition.
Body: II. Cultural & Religious Perspectives.
Body: III. Commodification.
Buddhism, Bioethics in.
Cancer, Ethical Issues Related to Diagnosis & Treatment.
Care: I. History of the Notion of Care.
Care: II. Care and Society/Public Policy.
Childbirth, Medical Procedures in.
Children: I. History of Childhood.
Children: II. Rights of Children.
Children: III. Health Care & Research Issues.
Children: IV. Mental Health Issues.
China, Bioethics in: I. Prerepublican China.
China, Bioethics in: II. Contemporary China.
Christianity, Bioethics in.
Chronic Illness and Chronic Care.
Clinical Ethics: I. Development, Role & Methodologies.
Clinical Ethics: II. Clinical Ethics Consultation.
Cloning: I. Scientific Background.
Cloning: II. Reproductive.
Cloning: III. Religious Perspectives.
Cognitive Impairment/Traumatic Brain Injury.
Commercialism in Scientific Research.
Communitarianism & Bioethics.
Community Based Participatory Research.
Community Engagement/Deliberative Democracy.
Comparative Effectiveness, Ethics of Science of Health Care Delivery.
Conflict of Interest.
Confucianism, Bioethics in.
Conscience, Rights of.
Consensus, Role & Authority of.
Contractarianism & Bioethics.
Corporate Responsibility in Health (ethics vs. economics).
Cross Border Medical Travel.
Cross Border Reproductive Travel.
Death, Definition & Determination of: I. Criteria for Death.
Death, Definition & Determination of: II. Legal Issues in Pronouncing Death.
Death, Definition & Determination of: III. Philosophical & Theological Perspectives.
Death: I. Cultural Perspectives.
Death: II. Eastern Thought.
Death: III. Western Philosophical Thought.
Death: IV. Western Religious Thought.
Death: V. Death in the Western World.
Death: VI. Professional Education.
Deep Brain Stimulation.
Disability: I. Ethical & Societal Perspectives.
Disability: II. Legal Issues.
Disability: III. Theories of.
Divided Loyalties in Mental Health Care.
DNR (Do Not Resuscitate).
Double Effect, Principle or Doctrine of.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Bioethics in.
Economic Concepts in Health Care.
Embryo & Fetus: I. Developments from Fertilization to Birth.
Embryo & Fetus: II. Embryo Research.
Embryo & Fetus: III. Embryonic Stem Cell Research.
Embryo & Fetus: IV. Religious Perspectives.
Endangered Species & Biodiversity.
Enhancement Uses of Medical Technology.
Environmental Ethics: I. Overview.
Environmental Ethics: II. Deep Ecology.
Environmental Ethics: III. Land Ethics.
Environmental Ethics: IV. Ecofeminism.
Environmental Health Ethics.
Environmental Policy & Law.
Ethics: I. History of Ethics.
Ethics: II. Task of Ethics.
Ethics: III. Metaethics.
Ethics: IV. Normative Ethical Theories.
Ethics: V. Religion & Morality.
Eugenics: I. Historical Aspects.
Eugenics: II. Ethical Issues.
Europe, Bioethics in: I. Introduction.
Europe, Bioethics in: II. Southern Europe.
Europe, Bioethics in: III. The Benelux Countries.
Europe, Bioethics in: IV. United Kingdom.
Europe, Bioethics in: V. Republic of Ireland.
Europe, Bioethics in: VI. German-Speaking Countries & Switzerland.
Europe, Bioethics in: VII. Nordic Countries.
Europe, Bioethics in: VIII. Central & Eastern Europe.
Europe, Bioethics in: IX. Russia.
Family and Family Medicine.
Fertility Control: I. Medical Aspects.
Fertility Control: II. Social & Ethical Issues.
Fertility Control: III. Legal & Regulatory Issues.
Freedom & Free Will.
Future Generations, Reproductive Technologies and Obligations to.
Genetic Counseling, Ethical Issues in.
Genetic Counseling, Practice of.
Genetic Engineering, Human.
Genetic Testing & Screening: I. Reproductive Genetic Testing.
Genetic Testing & Screening: II. Newborn Genetic Screening.
Genetic Testing & Screening: III. Population Screening.
Genetic Testing & Screening: IV. Public Health Context.
Genetic Testing & Screening: V. Predictive Genetic Testing.
Genetic Testing & Screening: VI. Pediatric Genetic Testing.
Genetics & Environment in Human Health.
Genetics & Human Behavior: I. Scientific & Research Issues.
Genetics & Human Behavior: II. Philosophical & Ethical Issues.
Genetics & Human Self-Understanding.
Genetics & Racial Minorities.
Global Health Inequalities and Inequities.
Globalization and Health.
Green Design of Hospitals/Impact.
Grief and Bereavement.
Harmful Substances, Legal Control of.
Hazardous Wastes & Toxic Substances.
Health & Disease: I. History of the Concepts.
Health & Disease: II. Sociological Perspectives.
Health & Disease: III. Anthropological Perspectives.
Health & Disease: IV. Philosophical Perspectives.
Health & Disease: V. The Experience of Health & Illness.
Health Care Institutions.
Health Care Professionals, Legal Regulation of.
Health Care Resources, Allocation of: I. Macroallocation.
Health Care Resources, Allocation of: II. Microallocation.
Health Care Systems.
Health Care, Delivery of.
Health Care, Ethic of Care in.
Health Care, Quality Improvement.
Health Care, Worker Migration.
Health Care, Workplace Conditions.
Health Policy and Politics.
Health Policy in the United States.
Health Services Management Ethics.
Hinduism, Bioethics in.
Homosexuality, Religious Perspectives.
Hospital, Contemporary Ethical Problems of the.
Hospitals, Ethical Issues in the Governance of.
Human Evolution and Bioethics.
Human Gene Transfer Research.
Human Genome Analysis/Return of Results.
Human Genome Diversity Project.
Human Genome Project.
Immigration, Health Care Access.
Infants, Ethical Issues with.
Infants, Medical Aspects & Issues in the Care of.
Infants, Public Policy & Legal Issues.
Information Disclosure, Ethical Issues of.
Informed Consent: I. History of Informed Consent.
Informed Consent: II. Meaning & Elements.
Informed Consent: III. Consent Issues in Human Research.
Informed Consent: IV. Clinical Aspects of Consent in Health Care.
Informed Consent: V. Legal & Ethical Issues of Consent in Health Care.
Informed Consent: VI. Issues of Consent in Mental Health Care.
Injury & Injury Control.
Insanity & the Insanity Defense.
Institutional Review Boards.
Institutionalization & Deinstitutionalization.
Islam, Bioethics in.
Jainism, Bioethics in.
Japan, Bioethics in: I. Japan through the 19th Century.
Japan, Bioethics in: II. Contemporary Japan.
Judaism, Bioethics in.
Labor Unions in Health Care.
Law & Bioethics.
Law & Morality.
Life Sustaining Treatment and Euthanasia: I. Ethical Aspects of.
Life Sustaining Treatment and Euthanasia: II. Historical Aspects of.
Life, Quality of: I. Quality of Life in Clinical Decisions.
Life, Quality of: II. Quality of Life in Health Care Allocation.
Life, Quality of: III. Quality of Life in Legal Perspective.
Life, Sanctity of.
Literature & Health Care.
Long-Term Care: I. Concepts & Policies.
Long-Term Care: II. Nursing Homes.
Long-Term Care: III. Home Care.
Long-Term Care: IV. Financing, US and Intl.
Maternal-Fetal Relationship: I. Medical Aspects.
Maternal-Fetal Relationship: II. Ethical Issues.
Maternal-Fetal Relationship: III. Legal & Regulatory Issues.
Medical Codes & Oaths: I. History.
Medical Codes & Oaths: II. Ethical Analysis.
Medicine, Anthropology of.
Medicine, Art of.
Medicine, Philosophy of.
Medicine, Profession of.
Medicine, Sociology of.
Mental Health Services: I. Settings & Programs.
Mental Health Services: II. Ethical Issues.
Mental Health Therapies.
Mental Health, Meaning of Mental Health.
Mental Illness: I. Definition, Use and Meaning.
Mental Illness: II. Cultural Perspectives.
Mental Illness: III. Issues in Diagnosis.
Mental Illness: IV. Biomedical Models.
Mental Institutions, Commitment to.
Mentally Disabled & Mentally Ill Persons: I. Health Care Issues.
Mentally Disabled & Mentally Ill Persons: II. Research Issues.
Metaphor & Analogy.
Military Personnel as Research Subjects.
Minorities as Research Subjects.
Mormonism (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints), Bioethics in.
National Security Ethics.
Native American Religions, Bioethics in.
Nazi Legacy in Bioethics.
Near & Middle East, Bioethics in: I. Turkey.
Near & Middle East, Bioethics in: II. Arab World.
Near & Middle East, Bioethics in: III. Israel.
NGOs in Health Care.
Nursing, Profession of.
Nursing, Theories & Philosophy of.
Obligation & Supererogation.
Occupational Safety & Health: I. Ethical Issues.
Occupational Safety & Health: II. Occupational Health Care Providers.
Organ & Tissue Procurement: I. Medical & Organizational Aspects.
Organ & Tissue Procurement: II. Ethical & Legal Issues Regarding Living Donors.
Organ Transplants, Medical Overview of.
Organ Transplants, Sociocultural Aspects ofOrgan Transplants, Medical Overview of.
Organizational Ethics in Health Care.
Pain & Suffering.
Palliative & End-of-Life Care.
Pastoral Care and Health Care Chaplaincy.
Patenting Organisms and Basic Research.
Patient's Responsibilities: I. Duties of Patients.
Patient's Responsibilities: II. Co-Relative Rights.
Patients' Rights: I. Origin & Nature of Patients' Rights.
Patients' Rights: II. Mental Patients' Rights.
Pedagogy of Bioethics.
Pediatrics, Intensive Care in.
Pediatrics, Overview of Ethical Issues in.
Pediatrics, Public Health Issues in.
Persistent Vegetative State.
Pharmaceutics, Issues in Prescribing.
Physician Assisted Dying/Hastened Death.
Population Ethics: I. History of Population Theories.
Population Ethics: II. Normative Approaches.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: A. Introduction.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: B. Islamic Perspectives.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: C. Jewish Perspetives.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: D. Roman Catholic Perspectives.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: E. Eastern Orthodox Perspectives.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: F. Protestant Perspectives.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: G. Hindu Perspectives.
Population Ethics: III. Religious Traditions: H. Buddhist Perspectives.
Population Policies, Demographic Aspects of.
Population Policies, Migration & Refugees in.
Population Policies, Strategies for Fertility Control in.
Prevention and Promotion.
Prisoners as Research Subjects.
Prisoners, Health Care Issues of.
Privacy & Confidentiality in Research.
Privacy in Health Care.
Profession & Professional Ethics.
Professional-Patient Relationship: I. Historical Perspectives.
Professional-Patient Relationship: II. Sociological Perspectives.
Professional-Patient Relationship: III. Ethical Issues.
Profit & Commercialism.
Psychiatry, Abuses of.
Psychoanalysis & Dynamic Therapies.
Psychosurgery, Ethical Aspects of.
Psychosurgery, Medical & Historical Aspects of.
Public Health: I. History.
Public Health: II. Law.
Public Health: III. Philosophy.
Public Health: IV. Ethics.
Public Health: V. Methods.
Public Health: VI. Research.
Public Health: VII. Health Surveillance.
Public Health: VIII. Infectious Disease Control.
Public Health: IX. Social Determinants of Health.
Public Health: X. Behaviorial Control.
Public Health: XI. Emergency Preparedness and Response.
Public Health: XII. Emergency Allocation of Resources and Altered Standard of Care.
Public Policy & Bioethics.
Race & Racism.
Relativism, Cultural and Ethical.
Religious Objections to Care.
Reproductive Technologies: I. Introduction.
Reproductive Technologies: II. Sex Selection.
Reproductive Technologies: III. Fertility Drugs.
Reproductive Technologies: IV. Legal & Regulatory Issues.
Reproductive Technologies: V. Gamete Donation.
Reproductive Technologies: VI. Contract Pregnancy.
Reproductive Technologies: VII. Sperm, Ova, & Embryos.
Reproductive Technologies: VIII. Ethical Issues.
Reproductive Technologies: IX. In Vitro Fertilization & Embryo Transfer.
Research Ethics Consultation.
Research Methodology: I. Conceptual Issues.
Research Methodology: II. Controlled Clinical Trials.
Research Methodology: III. Subjects.
Research Policy: I. General Background.
Research Policy: II. Risk & Vulnerable Groups.
Research Policy: III. Subjects.
Research, Human: Historical Aspects.
Right to Die: Policy & Law.
Science, Philosophy of.
Science, Technology, and Society Studies.
Selective Termination/Reduction of Multiple Pregnancy.
Sexual Behavior, Medical Control of.
Sexual Ethics & Professional Standards.
Sexuality, Legal Approaches to.
Shared Decision Making.
Sikhism, Bioethics in.
Social Work, Profession of.
Southeast Asia, Bioethics in.
Sports, Bioethics of.
Students as Research Subjects.
Taoism, Bioethics in.
Teams, Health Care.
Technology: I. History of Medical Technology.
Technology: II. Philosophy of.
Tissue Banking, Ethical Issues in.
Transhumanism & Posthumanism.
Translational Research, Ethics of.
Vaccination and Immunization.
Virtue & Character.
Warfare: I. Introduction.
Warfare: II. Medicine & War.
Warfare: III. Public Health & War.
Warfare: IV. Chemical & Biological Weapons.
Warfare: V. Soldier Enhancement.
Warfare: VI. Torture.
Whistleblowing in Health Care.
Women, Historical & Cross-Cultural Perspectives.
Additional Resources in Bioethics.
Key Legal Cases in Bioethics.
Annotated Bibliography of Literature and Medicine.