Biofuels / Edition 1

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This book gives a broad overview of the key topics in this field ofstudy, approaching them from a technical and economic angle givingthe reader a comprehensive insight into biofuels as a whole.Dealing specifically with liquid and gaseous biofuels that can beproduced from renewable resources this text also gives a summary ofthe past, present and future production technologies andapplications of biofuels. 
This book is particularly relevant as it highlights the extensivedebate of the on-going global needs to find alternative fuels,making it not only a necessary text for working professionals andresearchers in the field, but for anyone with an interest insustaining the earth.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"This compilation provides a worthwhile insight into the past accomplishments, future needs, and economics in developing this industry that will meet a growing demand for energy." (CHOICE, October 2009)

"This book highlights in a highly topical, competent and clear-cut presentation the significance of producing energy carriers from biobased feedstocks and their transformation processes. It encompasses developments in agriculture and a multitude of production technologies regarding both sustainability of future feedstock and requirements of human nutrition." (Starch, June 2009)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470026748
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/27/2009
  • Series: Wiley Series in Renewable Resource Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 256
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Series Preface


List of Contributors

Chapter 1

Biofuels in Perspective

W. Soetaert and E. Vandamme

Fossil versus renewable energy resources

Economic impact

Comparison of bio-energy sources



Chapter 2

Sustainable Production of Cellulosic Feedstock forBiorefineries in the U.S.A.

James R. Hettenhaus, Brent Erickson and Matthew T.Carr


Availability of Cellulosic Feedstocks

Feedstock Options

Sustainable Removal

Erosion Control

Tilling Practice

Transitioning to No-till

Realizing Removal

Removal Economics

Climate Change Mitigation


Farmer in Value Chain

The Start—Preprocessing Pentose Sugars and Lignin

Continuing downstream—Fungible Fermentation Sugars

Looking Upstream



Policy Recommendations


Chapter 3

Bio-ethanol Development in the U.S.A.

Brent Erickson and Matthew T. Carr


Federal Policy

The U.S. Ethanol Market

Corn Ethanol Technology

Cellulosic Ethanol

The Future


Chapter 4

Bio-ethanol development(s) in Brazil

Arnaldo Walter


The Brazilian experience with ethanol

Policy and regulatory instruments applied to deploy large-scaleethanol production

Cost reductions

Technological development

Is the ethanol production in Brazil sustainable?

Is Brazilian experience replicable?



Chapter 5

Process Technologies for Biodiesel Production


Biodiesel Production Worldwide

Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production

Chemical Principles of Biodiesel Production [5]

Catalysts for transesterification and esterificationreactions

Alkaline catalysis

Acid catalysis

Heterogeneous catalysis

Enzymes as Catalysts

Transesterification in supercritical alcohols

Alternative approaches

Overview of Process Technologies

Single Feedstock Technologies

Multi Feedstock Technologies

Small scale production units

Alternative process technologies

Chapter 6

Bio-based Fischer-Tropsch Diesel ProductionTechnologies

Robin Zwart & René van Ree

Chapter 7

Plant Oil Biofuel: Rationale, Production andApplication

Dr. Barnim Jeschke


Plant Oil Biofuels – the underlying Idea

History of the Plant Oil Fuel Market

Positioning of Plant Oils within the Biofuel Markets

Perspectives of the Plant Oil Fuel Market

The Market

Market Drivers

System Requirements

Plant Oil Conversion Technology

One Tank System

Two Tank System

The User Perspective

Engine Suitability for Plant Oil Conversion

Choice of Conversion Technology and Approach

Operations and Maintenance


Chapter 8

Enzymatic production of biodiesel

Hideki Fukuda


Enzymatic transesterification by lipase

Use of extracellular lipases

Transesterification with various types of alcohol

Effective methanolysis using extracellular lipase

Phenomenon of acyl migration in presence of lipase

Use of intracellular lipase as whole-cell biocatalyst

Immobilization by BSP-technology

Methanolysis in a packed-bed reactor using cells immobilizedwithin BSPs

Effect of fatty acid cell membrane composition

Lipase localization in cells immobilized within BSPs

Use of cell-surface displaying cells as whole-cellbiocatalyst

Novel cell-surface display system

Flocculation profile of yeast cells displaying FSProROL andFLProROL fusion proteins

Methanolysis reaction using yeast cells displaying ProROL

Conclusions and future prospects


Chapter 9

Production of Biodiesel from waste lipids

R. Verhé, C.V. Stevens


Alternative resources for biodiesel production

Conversion of waste frying and cooking oils intobiodiesel 

 Processing of crude and waste lipids into biodiesel




Chapter 10

Biomass Digestion to Methane in Agriculture: A SuccessfulPathway for the Energy Production and Waste TreatmentWorldwide

P. Weiland, W.Verstraete& A. Van Haandel


Biogas productionpotential



Biogas productionconfigurations

Configurations forwastewater digestion

Different processconfigurations for wet digestion fermenters

Different process configurations for dry digestionfermenters

Biogas utilization




Chapter 11

Biological hydrogen production by anaerobicmicroorganisms

W.M. Kengen, Heleen P. Goorissen, Marcel Verhaart, Ed W.J.van Niel, Pieternel A.M. Claassen and Alfons J.M. Stams


Hydrogen formation in natural ecosystems

Thermodynamics of hydrogen formation



The genus Clostridium

The genus Caldicellulosiruptor

The genus Thermoanaerobacter

The genus Thermotoga

The genus Pyrococcus/Thermococcus

Approaches for improving hydrogen production

Concluding remarks



Chapter 12

Improving Sustainability of the Corn-EthanolIndustry

Paul W. Gallagher and Hosein Shapouri


Energy Balance

Crop Production and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

CO2 Adjustment in a Changing Ethanol Industry



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