BN.com Gift Guide

Bioinformatics in the Post-Genomic Era: Genome, Transcriptome, Proteome, and Information-Based Medicine

Paperback (Print)
Buy Used
Buy Used from BN.com
$32.35
Used and New from Other Sellers
Used and New from Other Sellers
from $1.99
Usually ships in 1-2 business days
(Save 96%)
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (17) from $1.99   
  • New (4) from $1.99   
  • Used (13) from $1.99   

Overview

"Augen's book provides a thorough review of bioinformatics that presages the coming era of information-based medicine."
—John Reynders, VP of Informatics, Celera Genomics

"Augen is to be congratulated on producing an indispensable book. He not only lays out and explains the essential tools in bioinformatics, but he also validates the critical role that computational biology will play in the future of medical research. This is a fabulous achievement—there is something here for novice and expert alike."
—Kevin Davies, Editor-in-Chief, Bio-IT World

"Jeff has created an erudite, yet amazingly accessible overview of the intersection between biology, biomedicine, and high-performance computing."
—Andrea Califano, Director, Genome Center Bioinformatics, Columbia University

"This book is essential for anyone wishing to understand the information technology transformation of the life sciences."
—W.R. Pulleyblank, Director, Deep Computing Institute, IBM Research

"Because of its unusually broad scope, Jeff Augen's new book has the capacity to deliver value to a wide variety of audiences. As a longtime investor in biotechnology and healthcare, I find the discussions surrounding the future of medicine and information technology particularly interesting and useful."
—G. Steven Burrill, Chief Executive Officer, Burrill and Company

"Augen takes you on a complete guided tour of computational biology, combining historical perspectives with discussions of the leading-edge technologies being employed today. This book would be useful for anyone in the field. It provides an entire overview to scientists new to computational biology, while giving experts detailed information about new developments in the field."
—Salvatore Salamone, Senior IT Editor, Bio-IT World and Health-IT World

"There are books about bioinformatics with a focus on information technology and books on molecular biology with a focus on bioscience, but I am not aware of any book that provides a summary of fundamentals of both bioscience and information science with a technical bridge between the two disciplines. This book is unique in covering theoretical and practical aspects of bioinformatics. Everyone from biologists and geneticists to computer scientists and engineers will benefit from Augen's book."
—O.K. Baek, Chief Architect, Biomedical Informatics and Information-Based Medicine, IBM

Today, advances in high-performance computing, data management, and the Internet are transforming many aspects of biomedical research and have produced a new generation of tools for studying gene and protein sequences, macromolecular structures, and metabolic systems. These tools have greatly accelerated the drug discovery and testing process and promise to change the way diseases are predicted and treated in the future.

Bioinformatics in the Post-Genomic Era is the first comprehensive look at the role of information technology in biological and medical research. Bridging these two disciplines, the book's structure parallels the flow of biological information from gene to message, protein, and metabolic system. Along the way, industry expert Jeff Augen covers both theoretical and practical aspects of bioinformatics, giving readers a vision of the future of medical research while providing technical details working professionals can use today.

  • Inside, you will find in-depth information on the following:
  • Gene and protein sequence databases
  • Bioinformatic tools
  • Transcription profiling
  • The proteome and the protein translation process
  • Protein structure prediction
  • Medical informatics and information-based medicine
  • Little-discussed topics such as transcription profiling of minor messages and pattern-discovery algorithms and neural networks
  • Cutting-edge developments such as high-throughput whole-genome sequencing, systems biology, and presymptomatic disease prediction.

Designed for both biomedical researchers and students, this book will become an indispensable aid to anyone seeking to understand the links between information technology, molecular biology, and clinical medicine.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321173867
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 8/27/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 388
  • Product dimensions: 6.93 (w) x 9.19 (h) x 0.95 (d)

Meet the Author

Jeff Augen has a 20-year history in information technology and computational biology. Most recently, as President and CEO of the technical computing software company TurboWorx Inc., Jeff has focused on the design of parallel computing solutions for biomedical research and drug discovery. In his former position as the Director of Strategy for IBM's Life Sciences Division, Jeff was responsible for the company's entry into several new areas of the life sciences computing market including, most notably, information-based medicine. He is a frequent speaker at industry events, a member of several editorial boards, and an author of many recent review articles and editorials, in addition to a chapter on computational biology for Anti-Cancer Drug Development; Lippincott 2003.

Augen's academic background includes graduate and undergraduate degrees in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from the University of Texas and Rice University, respectively. His thesis research involved the development of algorithms for predicting protein tertiary structure.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

  • Document Styles Tyrrell Albaugh \Program Files\Microsoft Office\Templates\AWtemplate.dot End User 2 1 2003-02-04T04:41:00Z 2004-05-12T17:44:00Z 2004-05-12T17:44:00Z 3 810 4622 Addison Wesley Longman 38 9 5676 9.3220 6 pt 6 pt 0 0 &#lt;style&#gt;@font-face {font-family:"Times New Roman"; panose-1:0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0; mso-font-alt:Times; mso-font-charset:77; mso-generic-font-family:roman; mso-font-format:other; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:50331648 0 0 0 1 0;}@font-face {font-family:Arial; panose-1:0 2 11 6 4 2 2 2 2 2; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:50331648 0 0 0 1 0;}@font-face {font-family:"Courier New"; panose-1:0 2 7 3 9 2 2 5 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:50331648 0 0 0 1 0;}@font-face {font-family:Verdana; panose-1:0 2 11 6 4 3 5 4 4 2; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:50331648 0 0 0 1 0;}@font-face {font-family:Garamond; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:auto; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:50331648 0 0 0 1 0;} p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;}h1 {mso-style-parent:HA; mso-style-next:HB; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-line-height-alt:21.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; mso-outline-level:1; mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:116.6pt; font-size:36.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; mso-font-kerning:0pt; font-weight:normal; font-style:italic;}h2 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:2; mso-list:l0 level2 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal;}h3 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:3; mso-list:l0 level3 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal;}h4 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:4; mso-list:l0 level4 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal;}h5 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:5; mso-list:l0 level5 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal;}h6 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:6; mso-list:l0 level6 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:normal;}p.MsoHeading7, li.MsoHeading7, div.MsoHeading7 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:7; mso-list:l0 level7 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";}p.MsoHeading8, li.MsoHeading8, div.MsoHeading8 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:8; mso-list:l0 level8 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";}p.MsoHeading9, li.MsoHeading9, div.MsoHeading9 {mso-style-next:Normal; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-outline-level:9; mso-list:l0 level9 lfo1; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";}p.MsoHeader, li.MsoHeader, div.MsoHeader {margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:center 3.0in right 6.0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;}p.MsoFooter, li.MsoFooter, div.MsoFooter {margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:center 3.0in right 6.0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;}p.MsoCaption, li.MsoCaption, div.MsoCaption {mso-style-next:Normal; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial; font-weight:bold;}span.MsoEndnoteReference {vertical-align:super;}p.MsoEndnoteText, li.MsoEndnoteText, div.MsoEndnoteText {margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;}p.MsoBodyText, li.MsoBodyText, div.MsoBodyText {margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black;}p.MsoBodyText2, li.MsoBodyText2, div.MsoBodyText2 {margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:45.0pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-9.0pt; mso-pagination:none; mso-hyphenate:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;}a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:windowtext; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;}a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:windowtext; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;}em {mso-style-parent:""; font-weight:bold;}p {margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";}pre {margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}tt {}p.AA, li.AA, div.AA {mso-style-name:AA; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:260.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.AU, li.AU, div.AU {mso-style-name:AU; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:292.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:13.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.BB, li.BB, div.BB {mso-style-name:BB; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:3.0pt; margin-left:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.5pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.BH, li.BH, div.BH {mso-style-name:BH; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:15.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.BI, li.BI, div.BI {mso-style-name:BI; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.BIO, li.BIO, div.BIO {mso-style-name:BIO; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:260.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.BL, li.BL, div.BL {mso-style-name:BL; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:none; tab-stops:.25in; font-size:10.5pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.BL1, li.BL1, div.BL1 {mso-style-name:BL1; mso-style-next:BL; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:none; tab-stops:.25in; font-size:10.5pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.Body, li.Body, div.Body {mso-style-name:Body; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.BT, li.BT, div.BT {mso-style-name:BT; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:60.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:30.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.BX, li.BX, div.BX {mso-style-name:BX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:.25in; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:decimal .25in; font-size:10.5pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.BXT, li.BXT, div.BXT {mso-style-name:BXT; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:.25in; background:#D9D9D9; mso-shading:white; mso-pattern:gray-15 auto; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black;}p.Callout, li.Callout, div.Callout {mso-style-name:Callout; margin-top:4.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.Cdate, li.Cdate, div.Cdate {mso-style-name:Cdate; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.CDT, li.CDT, div.CDT {mso-style-name:CDT; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.CDT1, li.CDT1, div.CDT1 {mso-style-name:CDT1; mso-style-next:CDT; margin-top:12.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:1.0pt 0in 0in 0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.CDTX, li.CDTX, div.CDTX {mso-style-name:CDTX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.CL, li.CL, div.CL {mso-style-name:CL; margin-top:4.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:.25in; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.CP, li.CP, div.CP {mso-style-name:CP; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.CP1, li.CP1, div.CP1 {mso-style-name:CP1; mso-style-next:CP; margin-top:12.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:1.0pt 0in 0in 0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.CPX, li.CPX, div.CPX {mso-style-name:CPX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.CQ, li.CQ, div.CQ {mso-style-name:CQ; mso-style-next:EX; margin-top:7.0pt; margin-right:.25in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.CR, li.CR, div.CR {mso-style-name:CR; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.DED, li.DED, div.DED {mso-style-name:DED; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center; line-height:21.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.EH, li.EH, div.EH {mso-style-name:EH; mso-style-next:ET; margin-top:34.0pt; margin-right:47.5pt; margin-bottom:8.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:1.0pt 0in 0in 0in; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}p.EL, li.EL, div.EL {mso-style-name:EL; margin-top:12.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:8.6pt 26.6pt 44.6pt 62.6pt 80.6pt 98.6pt 116.6pt; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.ELX, li.ELX, div.ELX {mso-style-name:ELX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:12.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:8.6pt 26.6pt 44.6pt 62.6pt 80.6pt 98.6pt 116.6pt; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.EMH, li.EMH, div.EMH {mso-style-name:EMH; mso-style-next:EMT; margin-top:34.0pt; margin-right:47.5pt; margin-bottom:8.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:1.0pt 0in 0in 0in; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}p.EMT, li.EMT, div.EMT {mso-style-name:EMT; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.Equation, li.Equation, div.Equation {mso-style-name:Equation; margin-top:10.0pt; margin-right:8.6pt; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-align:center; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.ET, li.ET, div.ET {mso-style-name:ET; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.EX, li.EX, div.EX {mso-style-name:EX; margin-top:4.0pt; margin-right:.25in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.FC, li.FC, div.FC {mso-style-name:FC; mso-style-next:FT; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.FGFN, li.FGFN, div.FGFN {mso-style-name:FGFN; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.25in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; color:black;}p.FN, li.FN, div.FN {mso-style-name:FN; mso-style-parent:Caption; mso-style-next:FC; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.FT, li.FT, div.FT {mso-style-name:FT; mso-style-next:Body; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.FTNChar, li.FTNChar, div.FTNChar {mso-style-name:"FTN Char"; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:11.5pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-11.5pt; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:11.5pt; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.GlossDef, li.GlossDef, div.GlossDef {mso-style-name:GlossDef; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.GlossFT, li.GlossFT, div.GlossFT {mso-style-name:GlossFT; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.GlossHead, li.GlossHead, div.GlossHead {mso-style-name:GlossHead; margin-top:16.0pt; margin-right:47.5pt; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}p.GlossTerm, li.GlossTerm, div.GlossTerm {mso-style-name:GlossTerm; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.GlossTitle, li.GlossTitle, div.GlossTitle {mso-style-name:GlossTitle; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:47.5pt; margin-bottom:13.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:27.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:24.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}p.GroupTitlesIX, li.GroupTitlesIX, div.GroupTitlesIX {mso-style-name:GroupTitlesIX; margin-top:10.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.HA, li.HA, div.HA {mso-style-name:HA; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-line-height-alt:21.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; tab-stops:116.6pt; font-size:36.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.HB, li.HB, div.HB {mso-style-name:HB; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:35.0pt; margin-left:116.6pt; text-indent:-116.6pt; mso-line-height-alt:19.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; tab-stops:116.6pt; font-size:28.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.HC, li.HC, div.HC {mso-style-name:HC; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:34.0pt; margin-right:47.5pt; margin-bottom:8.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:1.0pt 0in 0in 0in; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.HD, li.HD, div.HD {mso-style-name:HD; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:.25in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:4.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:15.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.HE, li.HE, div.HE {mso-style-name:HE; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:15.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.HF, li.HF, div.HF {mso-style-name:HF; margin-top:4.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.HG, li.HG, div.HG {mso-style-name:HG; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:15.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.IndexIX, li.IndexIX, div.IndexIX {mso-style-name:IndexIX; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Times; color:black;}p.INFT, li.INFT, div.INFT {mso-style-name:INFT; mso-style-next:IT; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.INFTC, li.INFTC, div.INFTC {mso-style-name:INFTC; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:4.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.INFTH, li.INFTH, div.INFTH {mso-style-name:INFTH; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:10.0pt; mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.INFTS, li.INFTS, div.INFTS {mso-style-name:INFTS; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:10.0pt; mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.INH, li.INH, div.INH {mso-style-name:INH; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.5in; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.IT, li.IT, div.IT {mso-style-name:IT; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.LC, li.LC, div.LC {mso-style-name:LC; mso-style-next:LC2; margin-top:2.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:1.0pt 0in 0in 0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.LC2, li.LC2, div.LC2 {mso-style-name:LC2; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.Level1, li.Level1, div.Level1 {mso-style-name:"Level 1"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.5in; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.Level2, li.Level2, div.Level2 {mso-style-name:"Level 2"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:26.6pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.25in; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; color:black;}p.Level3, li.Level3, div.Level3 {mso-style-name:"Level 3"; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.55in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.3in; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Times; color:black;}p.LH, li.LH, div.LH {mso-style-name:LH; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.Link-Title, li.Link-Title, div.Link-Title {mso-style-name:Link-Title; mso-style-next:Link-URL; margin-top:9.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Courier; color:black;}p.Link-URL, li.Link-URL, div.Link-URL {mso-style-name:Link-URL; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Courier; color:black;}p.LOC, li.LOC, div.LOC {mso-style-name:LOC; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.LSH, li.LSH, div.LSH {mso-style-name:LSH; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.LT, li.LT, div.LT {mso-style-name:LT; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}p.LX, li.LX, div.LX {mso-style-name:LX; mso-style-next:Body; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.MH, li.MH, div.MH {mso-style-name:MH; mso-style-next:MN; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.MN, li.MN, div.MN {mso-style-name:MN; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:1.0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.NCP, li.NCP, div.NCP {mso-style-name:NCP; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:1.25in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.NI, li.NI, div.NI {mso-style-name:NI; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.25in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.75in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.NL, li.NL, div.NL {mso-style-name:NL; mso-style-parent:NL1; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:.25in .5in; font-size:10.5pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.NL1, li.NL1, div.NL1 {mso-style-name:NL1; mso-style-next:NL; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:.25in .5in; font-size:10.5pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.NLB, li.NLB, div.NLB {mso-style-name:NLB; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:3.0pt; margin-left:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.NLC, li.NLC, div.NLC {mso-style-name:NLC; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.NLCX, li.NLCX, div.NLCX {mso-style-name:NLCX; mso-style-next:NLB; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:3.0pt; margin-left:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.NLX, li.NLX, div.NLX {mso-style-name:NLX; mso-style-parent:NL; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:3.0pt; margin-left:.25in; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:.25in .5in; font-size:10.5pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.NO, li.NO, div.NO {mso-style-name:NO; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.NoteB, li.NoteB, div.NoteB {mso-style-name:NoteB; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:1.25in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.NOX, li.NOX, div.NOX {mso-style-name:NOX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.PD, li.PD, div.PD {mso-style-name:PD; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:3.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:blue;}p.PN, li.PN, div.PN {mso-style-name:PN; mso-style-next:PT; margin-top:43.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:19.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-line-height-alt:19.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; tab-stops:52.55pt 134.6pt; font-size:36.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; font-variant:small-caps; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.Preface, li.Preface, div.Preface {mso-style-name:Preface; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:17.5pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.PT, li.PT, div.PT {mso-style-name:PT; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.5in; margin-bottom:1.25in; margin-left:116.6pt; text-indent:-116.6pt; mso-line-height-alt:21.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; tab-stops:116.6pt; font-size:36.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.PTFT, li.PTFT, div.PTFT {mso-style-name:PTFT; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.Quotation, li.Quotation, div.Quotation {mso-style-name:Quotation; mso-style-next:EX; margin-top:7.0pt; margin-right:.75in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.RHR, li.RHR, div.RHR {mso-style-name:RHR; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:right; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:center 2.25in right 4.5in; font-size:8.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.RHV, li.RHV, div.RHV {mso-style-name:RHV; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:center 2.25in right 4.5in; font-size:8.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.SB, li.SB, div.SB {mso-style-name:SB; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.SBX, li.SBX, div.SBX {mso-style-name:SBX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.SH, li.SH, div.SH {mso-style-name:SH; margin-top:34.0pt; margin-right:47.5pt; margin-bottom:8.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; border:none; mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:1.0pt 0in 0in 0in; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}p.TB, li.TB, div.TB {mso-style-name:TB; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:4.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.TB1, li.TB1, div.TB1 {mso-style-name:TB1; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:4.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.TBFN, li.TBFN, div.TBFN {mso-style-name:TBFN; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:23.75pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-12.25pt; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:23.75pt; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.TBX, li.TBX, div.TBX {mso-style-name:TBX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:4.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.TCCP, li.TCCP, div.TCCP {mso-style-name:TCCP; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:4.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.TCEM, li.TCEM, div.TCEM {mso-style-name:TCEM; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:4.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.TCH, li.TCH, div.TCH {mso-style-name:TCH; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:10.0pt; mso-line-height-rule:exactly; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.TH, li.TH, div.TH {mso-style-name:TH; mso-style-next:TS; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.TIH, li.TIH, div.TIH {mso-style-name:TIH; mso-style-next:TIB; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; tab-stops:63.35pt; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:bold;}p.TIB, li.TIB, div.TIB {mso-style-name:TIB; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.TitleTOCIndex, li.TitleTOCIndex, div.TitleTOCIndex {mso-style-name:"TitleTOC\/Index"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:24.0pt; font-family:Times; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.TN, li.TN, div.TN {mso-style-name:TN; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Times; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.TS, li.TS, div.TS {mso-style-name:TS; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.UC, li.UC, div.UC {mso-style-name:UC; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:3.0pt; margin-left:13.65pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:13.65pt; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.UL, li.UL, div.UL {mso-style-name:UL; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:13.65pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:13.65pt; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.UL1, li.UL1, div.UL1 {mso-style-name:UL1; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:13.65pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:13.65pt; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.ULX, li.ULX, div.ULX {mso-style-name:ULX; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:3.0pt; margin-left:13.65pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:13.65pt; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.XREF, li.XREF, div.XREF {mso-style-name:XREF; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}span.BulletSymbol {mso-style-name:BulletSymbol; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:11.0pt; color:black; font-weight:bold;}span.C1 {mso-style-name:C1; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:10.0pt; color:black;}span.ChapterNumber {mso-style-name:ChapterNumber; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:10.0pt; color:black; font-weight:bold;}span.E1 {mso-style-name:E1; mso-style-parent:""; font-weight:bold;}span.E2 {mso-style-name:E2; mso-style-parent:""; font-style:italic;}span.EquationNumber {mso-style-name:EquationNumber; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:8.0pt; color:black; font-weight:bold;}span.EquationVariables {mso-style-name:EquationVariables; mso-style-parent:"";}span.FirstLetterTitle {mso-style-name:FirstLetterTitle; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:42.0pt; color:black; font-style:italic;}span.Glossary-Term {mso-style-name:Glossary-Term; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:10.5pt; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}span.IC {mso-style-name:IC; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:50.0pt; color:gray;}span.IXI {mso-style-name:IXI; mso-style-parent:"";}span.Legends {mso-style-name:Legends; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:10.0pt; color:red;}span.PageNumber {mso-style-name:PageNumber; mso-style-parent:""; font-weight:bold;}span.PartNumber {mso-style-name:PartNumber; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:36.0pt; color:black; font-style:italic;}span.StepNumber {mso-style-name:StepNumber; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:8.0pt; color:black; font-weight:bold;}span.SUB1 {mso-style-name:SUB1; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:8.0pt; vertical-align:sub;}span.SUP1 {mso-style-name:SUP1; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:9.0pt; vertical-align:super;}span.SYM1 {mso-style-name:SYM1; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:11.0pt; color:black;}span.SYM2 {mso-style-name:SYM2; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:12.0pt; color:black;}span.SYM3 {mso-style-name:SYM3; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:12.0pt; color:black;}span.SYM4 {mso-style-name:SYM4; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:12.0pt; color:black;}span.XIND {mso-style-name:XIND; mso-style-parent:""; font-size:11.0pt;}p.nt, li.nt, div.nt {mso-style-name:nt; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.25in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:1.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in 1.5in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Helvetica; color:black;}p.EMX, li.EMX, div.EMX {mso-style-name:EMX; mso-style-parent:Body; mso-style-next:Body; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.6in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-indent:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; border:none; mso-border-bottom-alt:solid windowtext .75pt; padding:0in; mso-padding-alt:0in 0in 1.0pt 0in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.BXH, li.BXH, div.BXH {mso-style-name:BXH; mso-style-parent:Body; mso-style-next:BXT; margin-top:0in; margin-right:.5in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:.5in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; background:#D9D9D9; mso-shading:white; mso-pattern:gray-15 auto; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.CO, li.CO, div.CO {mso-style-name:CO; mso-style-parent:Body; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-style:italic;}p.NoteH, li.NoteH, div.NoteH {mso-style-name:NoteH; mso-style-parent:TIB; mso-style-next:NO; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:1.1in 1.5in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black; font-weight:bold;}span.E3 {mso-style-name:E3; mso-style-parent:""; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}p.BodyNoIndent, li.BodyNoIndent, div.BodyNoIndent {mso-style-name:BodyNoIndent; mso-style-parent:Body; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}span.BodyChar {mso-style-name:"Body Char"; font-size:11.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.BodyNoIndentChar {mso-style-name:"BodyNoIndent Char"; mso-style-parent:"Body Char"; font-size:11.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.EndnoteTextCharChar {mso-style-name:"Endnote Text Char Char";}span.FTNCharChar {mso-style-name:"FTN Char Char"; font-size:9.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.FGFNChar {mso-style-name:"FGFN Char"; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}p.FTN, li.FTN, div.FTN {mso-style-name:FTN; margin-top:3.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:11.5pt; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-11.5pt; line-height:13.0pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:11.5pt; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.text, li.text, div.text {mso-style-name:text; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black;}p.textwide, li.textwide, div.textwide {mso-style-name:textwide; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black;}p.small1, li.small1, div.small1 {mso-style-name:small1; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black;}p.small2, li.small2, div.small2 {mso-style-name:small2; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana; color:black;}p.small3, li.small3, div.small3 {mso-style-name:small3; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Courier; color:black;}p.gutter1, li.gutter1, div.gutter1 {mso-style-name:gutter1; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial;}p.gutter2, li.gutter2, div.gutter2 {mso-style-name:gutter2; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Arial;}p.h1, li.h1, div.h1 {mso-style-name:h1; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:18.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.h2, li.h2, div.h2 {mso-style-name:h2; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:16.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.h3, li.h3, div.h3 {mso-style-name:h3; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:14.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.h4, li.h4, div.h4 {mso-style-name:h4; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black; font-weight:bold;}p.h5, li.h5, div.h5 {mso-style-name:h5; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Arial; color:black; font-weight:bold; font-style:italic;}span.NL1Char {mso-style-name:"NL1 Char"; font-size:10.5pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.NLChar {mso-style-name:"NL Char"; mso-style-parent:"NL1 Char"; font-size:10.5pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.NLXChar {mso-style-name:"NLX Char"; mso-style-parent:"NL Char"; font-size:10.5pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.text1 {mso-style-name:text1; font-size:11.0pt;}span.BBChar {mso-style-name:"BB Char"; font-size:10.5pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.BLChar {mso-style-name:"BL Char"; font-size:10.5pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.ULChar {mso-style-name:"UL Char"; font-size:11.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.NOChar {mso-style-name:"NO Char"; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.NOXChar {mso-style-name:"NOX Char"; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.Hyperlink2 {mso-style-name:Hyperlink2; font-size:10.0pt; color:blue; text-decoration:underline; text-underline:single;}p.intro, li.intro, div.intro {mso-style-name:intro; margin-top:7.5pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:5.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Verdana; color:black; font-weight:bold;}span.green1 {mso-style-name:green1; font-size:9.0pt; color:windowtext; text-decoration:none; text-underline:none;}span.ETChar {mso-style-name:"ET Char"; font-size:11.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.content1 {mso-style-name:content1; font-size:7.5pt; text-decoration:none; text-underline:none;}p.endnoteChar, li.endnoteChar, div.endnoteChar {mso-style-name:"endnote Char"; mso-style-parent:"Endnote Text"; margin-top:6.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond; color:black;}span.endnoteCharChar {mso-style-name:"endnote Char Char"; font-size:12.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}p.maintext, li.maintext, div.maintext {mso-style-name:"main text"; margin-top:24.0pt; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:24.0pt; margin-left:0in; line-height:200%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond; color:black;}span.maintextChar1 {mso-style-name:"main text Char1"; font-size:12.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.BodyTextChar {mso-style-name:"Body Text Char"; font-size:12.0pt; color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;}span.h11 {mso-style-name:h11; font-size:18.0pt; font-weight:bold;}span.gutter11 {mso-style-name:gutter11; font-size:10.0pt; color:white;}span.textwide1 {mso-style-name:textwide1; font-size:12.0pt;}p.MainText0, li.MainText0, div.MainText0 {mso-style-name:"Main Text"; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; line-height:200%; mso-pagination:none; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond;}p.NumCDT, li.NumCDT, div.NumCDT {mso-style-name:NumCDT; mso-style-parent:CDT; margin-top:0in; margin-right:0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.25in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:-.25in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:.25in; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Courier New"; color:black;}p.WAB, li.WAB, div.WAB {mso-style-name:WAB; mso-style-parent:TIB; margin-top:0in; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; tab-stops:41.75pt .8in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; color:black;}p.WAH, li.WAH, div.WAH {mso-style-name:WAH; mso-style-parent:TIH; mso-style-next:WAB; margin-top:5.0pt; margin-right:1.0in; margin-bottom:0in; margin-left:.5in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-indent:0in; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; page-break-after:avoid; tab-stops:1.25in; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-weight:bold;} @page {mso-endnote-numbering-style:arabic;}@page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-page-numbers:1; mso-footer:url(":0321173864Preface_files:header.htm") f1; mso-paper-source:0;}div.Section1 {page:Section1;} @list l0 {mso-list-id:-5; mso-list-template-ids:1669907214;}@list l0:level1 {mso-level-style-link:"Heading 1"; mso-level-text:"Chapter %1"; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; mso-level-legacy:yes; mso-level-legacy-indent:.25in; mso-level-legacy-space:6.0pt; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level2 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 2"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level3 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 3"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level4 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 4"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level5 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 5"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level6 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 6"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level7 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 7"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level8 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 8"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}@list l0:level9 {mso-level-number-format:none; mso-level-style-link:"Heading 9"; mso-level-suffix:none; mso-level-text:""; mso-level-tab-stop:none; mso-level-number-position:left; margin-left:0in; text-indent:0in;}ol {margin-bottom:0in;}ul {margin-bottom:0in;}—></style>

Preface

Computational biology is an unusualscience, not because it lies at the intersection of two distinctly differentdisciplines, but because its development is strongly dependent on simultaneoustechnical advances in both areas – information technology and molecularbiology. Moreover, molecular biology at its core has always been an informationscience built on an ever-growing list of code words, sequences, patterns,3-dimensional structures, and the general flow of information from gene toprotein to complete organism.

Today we take it for granted thatbiological information is carried in gene sequences that are ultimatelytranscribed into messages that form the template for protein synthesis.However, 50 years ago when James Watson and Francis Crick published theirlandmark paper describing the 3-dimensional structure of DNA, none of theseconcepts were obvious. The DNA code words had yet to be deciphered, there wasno hint of a messenger molecule, and the mechanisms that underlie proteinsynthesis were still a mystery. During the ensuing years some of the mostingenious scientific experiments of our time were used to solve these problems.The system that emerged is remarkably straightforward at the level of anoverview yet enormously complex and flexible. One might expect such a system toembody many levels of subtlety because it must be capable of storing enoughinformation, in a very small space, to code for a living creature.

Recent advances in informationtechnology coupled with new chemical and physical techniques have allowedresearchers to capitalize on this understanding of molecular biology. Theresult has been a new generation of tools for studying gene and protein sequences,macromolecular structures, and the interactions that comprise metabolicsystems. These tools, both computational and physical, are the subject of thisbook.

Approach and Organization

Throughout the book I have attempted topresent an equal mix of biology and computer science. The goal has been tocreate a framework for thinking about molecular biology as an informationscience. In this sense the current work is unique. Its design parallels theflow of biological information from gene to message to protein and finally tometabolic system. I’ve also chosen to extend this theme by including asection on the emerging field of information-based medicine. Because it buildson topics presented throughout the book such as database infrastructure designand transcriptional profiling, this chapter is presented near the end. However,some have commented that they skipped to this section first, and I have triedto make the information as accessible as possible to the first time reader.Moreover, the book is intended as an in-depth introduction to many areas ofcomputational biology and the reader is encouraged to pursue specific subjectareas in greater depth through the scientific literature.

Finally, I have tried to focus on anumber of topics that have enormous biological impact but have been almostuniversally overlooked elsewhere. Most significant among these is thediscussion around minor messages – those expressed in vanishingly smallquantities within a cell. It has recently come to light that the majority ofintracellular mRNA species are present in very small copy counts and that,despite their scarcity, these messages can have important implications forhealth and disease. That said, the strengths and weaknesses of varioustranscriptional profiling techniques emerges as an important topic because someare specifically designed to provide accurate copy counts at very low levels.As a result I have included a lengthy section on technologies fortranscriptional profiling with the goal of presenting a balanced view of thestrengths and weaknesses of each. I have also included a section on neuralnetworks and pattern discovery algorithms as an adjunct to the more commonstatistical techniques used to analyze such data.

Audience

In developing the content it has been mygoal to create a reference with broad appeal. In that regard, the discussionsof gene and protein structure, transcription, and translation are perfectlyreasonable standalone tutorials on those topics. The introductory sections ongene and protein sequence databases, basic bioinformatic tools, andtranscription profiling share the same design characteristic; they should beaccessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of biological processes. Generallyspeaking, the book was designed for undergraduate and graduate studentsentering the field of bioinformatics or professionals with a need to understandbioinformatics and a desire to frame that understanding in a biologicalcontext. Conversely, the chapter on information-based medicine is designed tobe helpful to doctors and other clinical professionals who are in the process ofdeveloping next generation computer infrastructure for delivering medical care.This portion of the book is also likely to appeal to pharmaceutical andinsurance company executives whose organizations are core components of themedical care delivery system. Finally, it is hoped that the content will behelpful to those who already have strong backgrounds in biology and computationand are seeking a reference with a broad base of coverage across the field. Forthose readers I have attempted to include information about many newdevelopments such as high throughput whole genome sequencing, systems biology,and presymptomatic disease prediction. These topics are relatively new andgenerally covered only in the scientific literature.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface.

1. Introduction.

Overview.

Computationally Intense Problems: A Central Theme in Modern Biology.

Building the Public Infrastructure.

The Human Genome’s Several Layers of Complexity.

Toward Personalized Medicine.

Illnesses are Polygenic.

New Science, New Infrastructure.

The Proactive Future of Information-Based Medicine.

2. Introduction to Bioinformatics.

Introduction.

The Emergence of Bioinformatics.

The Public Database Infrastructure.

Building Database Infrastructure for Bioinformatics.

Traditional Bioinformatic Tools and Algorithms.

Summary.

3. Gene Structure.

Introduction.

The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.

The Genetic Code.

Structure and Content of the Genome.

Computational Techniques for the Identification of Genomic Features.

High-Throughput Gene Sequencing.

Summary.

4. Computational Techniques for Sequence Analysis.

Introduction.

Hidden Markov Models.

Perceptrons and Neural Networks.

Pattern Discovery, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and Haplotype Identification.

Summary.

5. Transcription.

Introduction.

The Transcriptome.

Technologies for Transcriptional Profiling.

Hierarchical Clustering.

Summary.

6. Overview of the Proteome and the Protein Translation Process.

Introduction.

Ribosomal Structure and the Protein Translation Process.

Special Features of the Eukaryotic-Translation Process.

Summary.

7. Protein Structure Prediction.

Introduction.

Overview of Ab Initio and Database-Driven Approaches.

Overview of Protein Structure.

Protein Structure Databases.

Ab Initio Structure Prediction.

Predicting Lead–Target Interactions.

Summary.

8. Medical Informatics and Information-Based Medicine.

Introduction.

The Continuous Evolution in Understanding that Leads to Genomic Medicine.

Electronic Medical Records.

Grid Computing and Medical Informatics.

Modeling and Predicting Disease.

Summary.

9. New Themes in Bioinformatics.

Introduction.

Overview of Parallel Computing and Workflow Distribution in Bioinformatics.

Workflow Computing.

High-Performance Computing and Systems Biology.

The Delineation of Metabolic Pathways.

Systems Biology.

Summary.

Further Reading.

Index.

Read More Show Less

Preface

Computational biology is an unusualscience, not because it lies at the intersection of two distinctly differentdisciplines, but because its development is strongly dependent on simultaneoustechnical advances in both areas – information technology and molecularbiology. Moreover, molecular biology at its core has always been an informationscience built on an ever-growing list of code words, sequences, patterns,3-dimensional structures, and the general flow of information from gene toprotein to complete organism.

Today we take it for granted thatbiological information is carried in gene sequences that are ultimatelytranscribed into messages that form the template for protein synthesis.However, 50 years ago when James Watson and Francis Crick published theirlandmark paper describing the 3-dimensional structure of DNA, none of theseconcepts were obvious. The DNA code words had yet to be deciphered, there wasno hint of a messenger molecule, and the mechanisms that underlie proteinsynthesis were still a mystery. During the ensuing years some of the mostingenious scientific experiments of our time were used to solve these problems.The system that emerged is remarkably straightforward at the level of anoverview yet enormously complex and flexible. One might expect such a system toembody many levels of subtlety because it must be capable of storing enoughinformation, in a very small space, to code for a living creature.

Recent advances in informationtechnology coupled with new chemical and physical techniques have allowedresearchers to capitalize on this understanding of molecular biology. Theresult has been a new generation of tools for studying gene and protein sequences,macromolecular structures, and the interactions that comprise metabolicsystems. These tools, both computational and physical, are the subject of thisbook.

Approach and Organization

Throughout the book I have attempted topresent an equal mix of biology and computer science. The goal has been tocreate a framework for thinking about molecular biology as an informationscience. In this sense the current work is unique. Its design parallels theflow of biological information from gene to message to protein and finally tometabolic system. I’ve also chosen to extend this theme by including asection on the emerging field of information-based medicine. Because it buildson topics presented throughout the book such as database infrastructure designand transcriptional profiling, this chapter is presented near the end. However,some have commented that they skipped to this section first, and I have triedto make the information as accessible as possible to the first time reader.Moreover, the book is intended as an in-depth introduction to many areas ofcomputational biology and the reader is encouraged to pursue specific subjectareas in greater depth through the scientific literature.

Finally, I have tried to focus on anumber of topics that have enormous biological impact but have been almostuniversally overlooked elsewhere. Most significant among these is thediscussion around minor messages – those expressed in vanishingly smallquantities within a cell. It has recently come to light that the majority ofintracellular mRNA species are present in very small copy counts and that,despite their scarcity, these messages can have important implications forhealth and disease. That said, the strengths and weaknesses of varioustranscriptional profiling techniques emerges as an important topic because someare specifically designed to provide accurate copy counts at very low levels.As a result I have included a lengthy section on technologies fortranscriptional profiling with the goal of presenting a balanced view of thestrengths and weaknesses of each. I have also included a section on neuralnetworks and pattern discovery algorithms as an adjunct to the more commonstatistical techniques used to analyze such data.

Audience

In developing the content it has been mygoal to create a reference with broad appeal. In that regard, the discussionsof gene and protein structure, transcription, and translation are perfectlyreasonable standalone tutorials on those topics. The introductory sections ongene and protein sequence databases, basic bioinformatic tools, andtranscription profiling share the same design characteristic; they should beaccessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of biological processes. Generallyspeaking, the book was designed for undergraduate and graduate studentsentering the field of bioinformatics or professionals with a need to understandbioinformatics and a desire to frame that understanding in a biologicalcontext. Conversely, the chapter on information-based medicine is designed tobe helpful to doctors and other clinical professionals who are in the process ofdeveloping next generation computer infrastructure for delivering medical care.This portion of the book is also likely to appeal to pharmaceutical andinsurance company executives whose organizations are core components of themedical care delivery system. Finally, it is hoped that the content will behelpful to those who already have strong backgrounds in biology and computationand are seeking a reference with a broad base of coverage across the field. Forthose readers I have attempted to include information about many newdevelopments such as high throughput whole genome sequencing, systems biology,and presymptomatic disease prediction. These topics are relatively new andgenerally covered only in the scientific literature.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)