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Discover the Best of Biological Anthropology: From its Earliest Foundations to its Most Current Innovations

Biological Anthropology, 3/e is written to appeal to a wide range of students. It continues to build upon the strength and success of its first and second editions by integrating the foundations of the field with the most current innovations happening today.

Over the past 40 years, biological anthropology has rapidly evolved from the study of physical anthropology into biological anthropology. Biological anthropology is now an integrative combination of information from the fossil record and the human skeleton, genetics of individuals and of populations, our primate relatives, human adaptation, and human behavior. The third edition of Biological Anthropology combines the most up-to-date, comprehensive coverage of the foundations of the field with modern innovations and discoveries.

Teaching and Learning Experience

Personalize Learning – MyAnthroLab delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals.

Improve Critical Thinking - Visual summaries, critical thinking questions, Insights and Advances boxes and author suggested readings found within each chapter encourage students to examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, assess conclusions, and more!

Engage Students - Woven into each chapter, student-oriented pedagogy, art, photos, and maps help students gain a better understanding of key material.

Support Instructors – Teaching your course just got easier! You can Create a Customized Text or use our author reviewed Instructor’s Manual, Electronic “MyTest” Test Bank or PowerPoint Presentation Slides. Additionally, we offer fantastic bundling options for the lab portion of your course with our Method & Practice in Biological Anthropology: A Workbook and Laboratory Manual for Introductory Courses, or our Atlas of Anthropology. (Both able to be packaged at a significant discount!)

Note: MyAnthroLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MyAnthroLab, please visit: or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MyAnthroLab (at no additional cost): VP ISBN-10: 0205179304 / VP ISBN-13: 9780205179305

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“The material and issues included are terrific - I could even say of all of the texts on the market, this book is the most appropriate and includes the most interesting material and topics. It's really innovative in this area.”

Professor Mary Willis, University of Nebraska — Lincoln

“It is evident that the authors have written this text after their experiences of teaching an introductory course, it appears they definitely had students' interests in mind when developing this text.”

Professor Kathleen Rizzo, University of Illinois — Chicago

“The examples make the material "real" for the students, rather than memorizing dry definitions.”

Professor Samantha Hens, University of California Sacramento

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205150687
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 8/15/2011
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 648
  • Sales rank: 169,041
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

In This Section:

I. Author Bio

II. Author Letter

I. Author Bio

Follow Us On Twitter: @BioAnthroSAA

Craig Stanford is a professor of anthropology and biological sciences at the University of Southern California, where he also directs the Jane Goodall Research Center. He has conducted field research on primate behavior in south Asia, Latin America, and East Africa. He is well known for his long-term studies of meat-eating among wild chimpanzees in Gombe, Tanzania, and of the relationship between mountain gorillas and chimpanzees in the Impenetrable Forest of Uganda. He has authored or coauthored more than 120 scientific publications. Craig has received USC’s highest teaching awards for his introductory biological anthropology course. In addition, he has published eleven books on primate behavior and human origins, including Significant Others (2001), Upright (2003) and Beautiful Minds (2008). He and his wife, Erin Moore, a cultural anthropologist at USC, live in South Pasadena, California, and have three children.

John Allen is a research scientist in the Dornsife Cognitive Neuroscience Imaging Center and the Brain and Creativity Institute at the University of Southern California. Previously, he was a neuroscience researcher at the University of Iowa College of Medicine and a faculty member in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, for several years. His primary research interests are the evolution of the human brain and behavior, and behavioral disease. He also has research experience in molecular genetics, nutritional anthropology, and the history of anthropology. He has conducted fieldwork in Japan, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Palau. He has received university awards for teaching introductory courses in biological anthropology both as a graduate student instructor at the University of California and as a faculty member at the University of Auckland. In addition to BiologicalAnthropology, he is also the author of Medical Anthropology: A Biocultural Approach (with Andrea S. Wiley; 2009) and The Lives of the Brain (2009). John and his wife, Stephanie Sheffield, have two sons, Reid and Perry.

Susan Antón is a professor in the Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology at New York University, where she also directs the M.A. program in Human Skeletal Biology. Her field research concerns the evolution of genus Homo in Indonesia and human impact on island ecosystems in the South Pacific. She is best known for her work on H. erectus in Kenya and Indonesia, for which she was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 2008. She is past editor of the Journal of Human Evolution. She received awards for teaching as a graduate student instructor of introductory physical anthropology and anatomy at the University of California, was Teacher of the Year while at the University of Florida, and a Golden Dozen teaching award recipient at NYU. She has been twice elected to Who’s Who Among America’s Teachers. Susan and her husband, Carl Swisher, a geochronologist, raise Anatolian shepherd dogs.

II. Author Letter

Dear Colleague,

It is our pleasure to be able to bring you the third edition of our textbook Biological anthropology: the natural history of

humankind.We are writing to you to share some highlights from the new edition. We have done our best to keep the book comprehensive, cutting edge, and accessibly readable. Over the past three years, new fossil discoveries, new revelations about primate behavior, and new breakthroughs in molecular biology have made an update of our previous edition essential. As always, we have endeavored to provide students and instructors with the very best coverage of these issues, and also the best photographs and images available.

We believe that Biological anthropology offers you an outstanding choice in its comprehensive coverage of topics as well

as its clarity, originality, critical-thinking approach, and presentation of beautifully done artwork and photography. All the traditional topics covered in other introductory biological anthropology texts are covered in detail. We also treat topics that are rarely covered in traditional texts, but are at the cutting edge of field. These include biomedical anthropology, brain evolution, and forager societies.

In addition, new aspects of the third edition include:

• Updated treatment of recent discoveries of Australopithecus sediba, Ardipithecus ramidus, Darwinius, and Denisova hominins,

plus advances in the study of Ancient DNA of Neandertals

• New discoveries about chimpanzee culture, including the latest research on tool use and hunting

• Updates on genetics, including ancient DNA and population genetics

• Expanded treatment of evolutionary aspects of human health and disease

• New photographs of fossils, primates, and other subjects

• New anatomical illustrations, featuring systematic redrawing of fossil and osteological artwork by medical artists

Each chapter of the book now contains an updated visual summary. Each chapter also features links, where appropriate, to

MyAnthroLab, which provides highly useful information and exercises for use in labs that accompany a biological anthropology course. MyAnthroLab is available at no cost to students who are using Biological anthropology.

We wrote the first edition of Biological anthropology because, as teaching assistants during our graduate school days, we

were disappointed in the overall quality of other books that were available. We are very pleased that Biological anthropology

has become a leader in the biological anthropology textbook market. We are, as always, grateful for feedback from instructors and we try our best to incorporate updates to both the content and appearance of the book with instructor needs in mind. We realize that you, the instructor, have a choice of books to assign and we were committed to producing a new third edition that would meet your needs and those of students in this fascinating field of study.

Sincerely yours,

Craig Stanford

John S. Allen

Susan c. Antón

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Table of Contents





Introduction: What Is Biological Anthropology?

Part I: Mechanisms of Evolution
Chapter 1: Origins of Evolutionary Thought
Chapter 2: Genetics: Cells and Molecules
Chapter 3: Genetics: From Genotype to Phenotype
Chapter 4: The Forces of Evolution and the Formation of Species
Chapter 5: Human Variation: Evolution, Adaptation, and Adaptability

Part II: Primates
Chapter 6: The Primates
Chapter 7: Primate Behavior

Part III: Paleontology and Primate Evolution
Chapter 8: Fossils in Geological Context
Chapter 9: Origin of Primates
Chapter 10: Becoming Human: The Ape—Hominin Transition

Part IV: The Human Fossil Record
Chapter 11: Early Hominins
Chapter 12: Rise of the Genus Homo
Chapter 13: Archaic Homo sapiens and Neandertals
Chapter 14: The Emergence and Dispersal of Homo sapiens

Part V: New Frontiers in Biological Anthropology
Chapter 15: Evolution of the Brain and Language
Chapter 16: Biomedical Anthropology
Chapter 17: The Evolution of Human Behavior
Chapter 18: Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology

Appendix A: Overview of the Brain
Appendix B: Primate and Human Comparative Anatomy
Appendix C: The Hardy—Weinberg Equilibrium
Appendix D: Metric—Imperial Conversions


About the Authors

Introduction: What Is Biological Anthropology?

The Scope of Biological Anthropology
Skeletal Biology and Human Osteology
Forensic Anthropology
Human Biology
The Roots of Modern Biological Anthropology
Anthropology and Its Subfields
Cultural Anthropology
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: A Paradigm Split in Anthropology?
Linguistic Anthropology
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Part I: Mechanisms of Evolution

Chapter 1: Origins of Evolutionary Thought
What Is Science?
The Early Thinkers
The Roots of Modern Science
Linnaeus and the Natural Scheme of Life
The Road to the Darwinian Revolution
The Uniformitarians: Hutton and Lyell
The Darwinian Revolution
The Galápagos
Refining the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Darwin versus Wallace?
The Response to Darwin
Science and Creationism
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: What Is Intelligent Design?
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 2: Genetics: Cells and Molecules
The Study of Genetics
Genetic Metaphors: Blueprints, Recipes, or What?
The Cell
Cell Anatomy
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Cloning Controversies
DNA Structure and Function
DNA Structure I: The Molecular Level
DNA Function I: Replication
DNA Function II: Protein Synthesis
DNA Structure II: Chromosomes and Cell Division
INNOVATIONS: The Wide World of RNA
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Biochemical Individuality
Molecular Tools For Bioanthropological Research
Indirect versus Direct Research Methods
PCR, Mitochondrial DNA, and Ancient DNA
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 3: Genetics: From Genotype to Phenotype
From Genotype to Phenotype
The ABO Blood Type System
Obesity: A Complex Interaction
Mendelian Genetics
Mendel’s Postulates
Linkage and Crossing Over
Point Mutation and Sickle Cell Disease
Trinucleotide Repeat Diseases
Mutations: Bad, Neutral, and Good
X-Linked Disorders
Mendelian Genetics in Humans
Genetics Beyond Mendel
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Popular Mendelism and the Shadow of Eugenics
Polygenic Traits, the Phenotype, and the Environment
Heritability and IQ Test Score Performance
Phenylketonuria: Illustrating Mendelian and Post-Mendelian Concepts
Genes and Environments
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 4: The Forces of Evolution and the Formation of Species
How Evolution Works
Where Does Variation Come From?
How Natural Selection Works
Other Ways by Which Evolution Happens
Classification and Evolution
Taxonomy and Speciation
What Is a Species?
A Guide to Species Concepts
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
The Origin of Species: How Species Are Formed
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: What’s in a Name? Species Concepts, Genetics, and Con-servation
The Tempo of Speciation
Is Everything Adaptive?
Hardy—Weinberg Equilibrium
Levels of Selection
Inclusive Fitness
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 5: Human Variation: Evolution, Adaptation, and Adaptability
Human Variation at the Individual and Group Level
What Is a Population?
Historical Perspectives on Human Variation
Recording Human Variation in Past Civilizations
The Monogenism—Polygenism Debate
Race and Racism in the Twentieth Century
Changing Attitudes toward Race in Anthropology
Deconstructing Racial Features
Population Genetics
Polymorphisms: ABO and Other Blood Type Systems
Gene Flow and Protein Polymorphisms
Polymorphisms and Phylogenetic Studies
Polymorphisms and Natural Selection in Human Populations
The Evolution of Lactose Tolerance
Balanced Polymorphisms: Sickle-Cell and Other Conditions
Adaptation and Adaptability
Levels of Adaptability
Heat and Cold
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Technology and Extreme Environments
Body Size and Shape
Living at High Altitude
Skin Color
Adaptability to Water
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Part II: Primates

Chapter 6: The Primates
The Primate Radiation
The Extraordinary Diversity of Nonhuman Primates
What Exactly Is a Primate?
Anatomical Traits
Life History Traits
Behavioral Traits: Activity and Sociality
A Guide to the Nonhuman Primates
The Strepsirhines
The Haplorhines
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: The Rarest of the Rare
The New World Monkeys
The Old World Monkeys
The Hominoids
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: The Impending Extinction of the Great Apes?
Primate Ecology
The Cycles of a Tropical Forest
You Are What You Eat: Dietary and Digestive Strategies
Diet and Feeding Competition
Territories and Ranges
Primate Communities
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 7: Primate Behavior
Studying Primates
The Evolution of Primate Social Behavior
Social Behavior and Reproductive Asymmetry
Male Reproductive Strategies
Female Reproductive Strategies
Why Are Nonhuman Primates Social?
The Paradox of Sociality
INNOVATIONS: Culture in Nonhuman Primates
Types of Nonhuman Primate Societies
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Are Chimpanzees from Mars and Bonobos from Venus?
Reconstructing the Evolution of Primate Societies
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Part III: Paleontology and Primate Evolution

Chapter 8: Fossils in Geological Context
How to Become a Fossil
The Importance of Context
The Geologic Time Scale
How Old Is It?
Relative Dating Techniques
Calibrated Relative Dating Techniques
Chronometric Dating Techniques
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Dating Controversies
INNOVATIONS: Time in a Bottle
The Earth in the Cenozoic
Continents and Land Masses
The Environment in the Cenozoic
Overview of Climatic Changes during the Cenozoic
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 9: Origin of Primates
The Mesozoic and Beyond
Dawn of the Age of Mammals
The Crater of Doom: What Happened at the K—T Boundary?
Changes in the Paleocene: The Origin of Primates?
Why Primates?
Early Primates of the Eocene
Adapoids (Strepsirhine Ancestors)
Omomyoids (Haplorhine Ancestors)
Continental Drift and Eocene Primates
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Subfossil Lemurs of Madagascar
Selective Pressures Favoring the Strepsirhine—Haplorhine Split
Evolution of Higher Primates
The First Monkeys?
New World Monkeys
Old World Monkeys
What Favored the Origin of Anthropoids?
The Earliest Apes
Selection Pressures and the Divergence of Monkeys and Apes
The Monkey’s Tale: What Happened to Primate Diversity in the Miocene?
Molecular Evolution in Primates
A Primate Molecular Phylogeny
Molecular Phylogeny and Human Origins
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 10: Becoming Human: The Ape—Hominin Transition
Becoming a Biped
Anatomical Changes
Constructing the Bipedal Body Plan
Locomotion of the Last Common Ancestor
Why Bipeds?
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Overheated Radiator?
The Transition to Human Behavior
Primate Intelligence: Why Are Human Brains Big?
What Made Humans Human?
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Part IV: The Human Fossil Record

Chapter 11: Early Hominins
Will You Know a Hominin When You See One?
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: A Rose by Any Other Name: Hominins versus Hominins
The First Hominins?
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Orrorin tugenensis
Ardipithecus ramidus and Ardipithecus kadabba
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Treasures of the Afar Triangle
Australopithecus and Kin
Australopithecus anamensis
Australopithecus afarensis
INNOVATIONS: Dikika and Development
Australopithecus bahrelghazali
Kenyanthropus platyops
Australopithecus garhi
Australopithecus africanus
The Robust Australopithecines (or Paranthropines)
Understanding the Australopithecine Radiation
Tools and Intelligence
Ancestors and Descendants
Questions for Future Paleoanthropologists
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 12: Rise of The Genus Homo
Defining the Genus Homo
Earliest Genus Homo
Early Tool Use
Hunting and Scavenging
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Understanding the Meat-Eating Past through the Pre-sent
Who Was Homo erectus?
Anatomical Features
Homo erectus versus Homo ergaster
Homo erectus around the World
African Origins
The First African Diaspora: Republic of Georgia
Dispersal into East Asia
The Status of Homo erectus in Europe
The Lifeways of Homo erectus
Homo erectus and the Early Stone Age
A Higher-Quality Diet: Homo erectus Subsistence
Homo erectus Life History
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: What’s Size Got to Do with It?
Homo erectus Leaves Africa
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 13: Archaic Homo sapiens and Neandertals
Hominin Evolution in the Middle to Late Pleistocene
Defining Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens
Archaic Homo sapiens
European Archaic Homo sapiens
African Archaic Homo sapiens
Asian Archaic Homo sapiens
Behavior of Archaic Homo sapiens
Stone Tools
Biodegradable Tools
Big Game Hunting
Fire, Campsites, and Home Sites
The Neandertals
Geographic and Temporal Distribution
History of Neandertal Discovery
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Neandertal Image Makeovers
Neandertal Anatomy and DNA
Growth and Development
Health and Disease
INNOVATIONS: Neandertal Genes
Neandertal Behavior
Material Culture
Coping with Cold
Hunting and Subsistence
Ritual and Symbolic Behavior
Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Issues: An Overview
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 14: The Emergence and Dispersal of Homo sapiens
The Emergence of Modern Humans
Models of Modern Human Origins
Multiregional and Replacement Models
Predictions of the Two Models
Anatomy and Distribution of Early Humans
Near East
Asia and Southeast Asia
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: The Little People of Flores

The Pacific Islands

Peopleing the New World
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Part V: New Frontiers in Biological Anthropology

Chapter 15: Evolution of the Brain and Language
Issues in Hominin Brain Evolution
Brain Size and Encephalization
Brain Size and the Fossil Record
Brain Reorganization
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: The Ten-Percent Myth: Evolution and Energy
Language: Biology and Evolution
The Evolution of Grammar
Language in the Brain
Language in the Throat
Language Ability and the Fossil Record
INNOVATIONS: Music, the Brain, and Evolution
Scenarios of Language Evolution
Brain Size, Language, and Intelligence
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 16: Biomedical Anthropology
Epidemiology: Basic Tools For Biomedical Anthropology
Rates: Mortality, Incidence, and Prevalence
Epidemiological Transitions
Biocultural and Evolutionary Approaches to Disease
The Biocultural Approach
The Evolutionary Approach
Birth, Growth, and Aging
Human Childbirth
Patterns of Human Growth
Stages of Human Growth
The Secular Trend in Growth
Menarche and Menopause
Infectious Disease and Biocultural Evolution
Human Behavior and the Spread of Infectious Disease
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Kuru, Cannibalism, and Prion Diseases
Infectious Disease and the Evolutionary Arms Race
Diet and Disease
The Paleolithic Diet
Agriculture and Nutritional Deficiency
Agriculture and Abundance: Thrifty and Nonthrifty Genotypes
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 17: The Evolution of Human Behavior
Studying the Evolution of Human Behavior
The Evolution of Human Behavior: Four Approaches
Behavioral Patterns and Evolution
Traditional Lives in Evolutionary Ecological Perspective
Quantification in Evolutionary Ecological Research
Hunting, Gathering, and the Sexual Division of Labor
Sexual Selection and Human Behavior
Risk-Taking Behavior
Inbreeding Avoidance and Incest Taboos
Language-Related Cross-Cultural Behaviors
Motherese or Infant-Directed Speech
Basic Color Terms
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: Reading, Writing, and Evolution
Behavioral Disease
Depression and Natural Selection
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

Chapter 18: Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology
Life, Death, and the Skeleton
Field Recovery Methods
Laboratory Processing, Curation, and Chain of Custody
The Biological Profile
Age at Death
Height and Weight
Premortem Injury and Disease
Perimortem Trauma
Postmortem Trauma
DNA, Kinship, and Identity
Identification and Forensic Anthropology
INSIGHTS AND ADVANCES: The Genghis Khan Effect
Time Since Death
Antemortem Records and Positive IDs
Facial Reconstruction
Applications of Bioarchaeology
Mortuary Archaeology
Biocultural Evolution of Health and Disease
Activity Patterns and Subsistence Change
Applications of Forensic Anthropology
Mass Fatalities
War Dead
War Crimes and Genocide
Summary • Critical Thinking Questions • Key Terms • Suggested Reading

APPENDIX A Overview of the Brain
APPENDIX B Primate and Human Comparative Anatomy
APPENDIX C The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
APPENDIX D Metric-Imperial Conversions

Photo Credits

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