Biological Imaging and Sensing / Edition 1

Biological Imaging and Sensing / Edition 1

by Toshiyuki Furukawa
     
 

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ISBN-10: 354043898X

ISBN-13: 9783540438984

Pub. Date: 05/27/2004

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

This books provides an excellent survey of and introduction to new methods of biological imaging and sensing. The main topics discussed are cell imaging, multiphoton microscopy for biomedical studies, molecular imaging, infrared imaging, biomedical magnetic imaging and microscopy with laser-trapped particles. The book also deals with nanosurgery with light, the

Overview

This books provides an excellent survey of and introduction to new methods of biological imaging and sensing. The main topics discussed are cell imaging, multiphoton microscopy for biomedical studies, molecular imaging, infrared imaging, biomedical magnetic imaging and microscopy with laser-trapped particles. The book also deals with nanosurgery with light, the effects of ultrasound on tissue, diagnostics, near- and far-infrared transmission of biomedical information, and cell sensors. This book will be a valuable resource for both medical doctors and biophysicists.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9783540438984
Publisher:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date:
05/27/2004
Series:
Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering Series
Edition description:
2004
Pages:
298
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

1Biological Imaging and Sensing from Basic Techniques to Clinical Application1
1.1Introduction: A General View of the Electromagnetic Waves That Pass through the Living Body1
1.2Imaging Cells through a Multi-Photon Process2
1.2.1Nonlinear Optics in Cells2
1.2.2The Imaging Property of Multi-Photon Microscopy3
1.2.3Instrumentation5
1.2.4Calcium Ion Dynamics Revealed by Multi-Photon Microscopy6
1.3Nonstaining Molecular Imaging (CARS)9
1.3.1The Fundamentals of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering10
1.3.23D Resolution by CARS Microscopy11
1.3.3High-Speed Image Acquisition14
1.3.4Molecular Imaging by CARS Microscopy15
1.4Transcutaneous Near-Infrared Light Power/Information Transmission for Implantable Medical Devices19
1.4.1Feasibility of Powering, Controlling, and Monitoring Implantable Medical Devices Using Near-Infrared Light19
1.4.2Transcutaneous Power Transmission by Near-Infrared Light21
1.4.3Transcutaneous Information Transmission by Near-Infrared Light23
1.5Cell and Nanosurgical Operation with Light25
1.5.1Introduction and Interactions between Ultra-Short Pulses and Biological Materials25
1.5.2Laser-Induced Disruption in Biomaterials28
1.5.3Cell Nanosurgery by Focused Light28
1.6The Manipulation of Living Bodies by Light29
1.6.1Photon Pressure30
1.6.2Three-Dimensional Laser Trapping31
1.6.3Force Measurement32
1.6.4Microscopy with a Laser-Trapped Particle35
1.7Physiological Function Analysis of the Human Body and Organ-Using Far-Infrared Imaging40
1.7.1Static Analysis of Abnormal Temperature Distribution on the Skin [57]40
1.7.2Dynamic Analysis of Abnormal Temperature Distribution on the Skin [70]46
1.7.3Dynamic Analysis of the Surface Temperature of Internal Organs49
1.7.4Unsolved Problems51
1.8A New Technology for Detecting Coronary Artery Disease52
1.8.1Coronary Artery Disease52
1.8.2The Detection of Subclinical Coronary Stenosis52
1.8.3A Noninvasive Physiological Approach to the Detection of Coronary Artery Disease53
1.8.4The Rheological Basis53
1.8.5The Impossibility of Conventional Standard Phonocardiography Technology55
1.8.6The Theoretical Basis for the New Technology56
1.8.7The Principles of the New Laser Phonocardiography Technology57
1.8.8The New Laser Phonocardiography Technology Design58
1.8.9The Details of the Prototype Device59
1.8.10Data Acquisition of the Vibratory Signal of the Anterior Chest Wall62
1.8.11Signal Processing62
1.8.12The Future of the New Laser Phonocardiography Technology64
References65
2Imaging of Tissue/Organs with Ultrasound69
2.1Ultrasonic Biological Measurement (Ultrasonography)69
2.1.1The Principle of Ultrasonography69
2.1.2The Doppler Technique71
2.1.3Recent Advances in Ultrasound Imaging72
2.1.4The Ultrasonic Characterization of Myocardial Tissue74
2.2Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging of the Fetus76
2.2.1Conventional Ultrasound Imaging of the Fetus76
2.2.2The Development of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound79
2.2.3Clinical Applications of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound in Obstetrics81
2.2.4The Advantages and Limitations of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound82
2.2.5The Future Development of Three-Dimensional Ultrasound83
2.3Imaging by a Spherical Ultrasound Wave84
2.3.1An Instantaneous Imaging Method85
2.3.2Laser-Induced Breakdown86
2.3.3Ultrasound Generated by Laser-Induced Breakdown87
2.3.4Imaging Using Laser-Induced Breakdown89
2.3.5Summary93
2.4Imaging Tissues Using an Ultrasound Wave and Light93
2.4.1An Ultrasound Wave and Light for Tissues93
2.4.2Ultrasound-Assisted Optical Imaging94
2.4.3The Experimental Setup94
2.4.4An Experiment for Weak-Scattering Samples97
2.4.5An Experiment in a Strongly Scattering Medium100
2.4.6Conclusions101
2.5An Ultrasonic Drug Delivery System Using Microcapsules102
2.5.1The Requirement for a Drug Delivery System102
2.5.2The Acoustic Characteristics of Microcapsules as Drug Carriers103
2.5.3A Noninvasive Measurement System for DDS104
2.5.4Collapse Monitoring of Microcapsules105
2.5.5Conclusion107
2.6The Biological Effects of Ultrasound107
2.6.1The Utilization of Ultrasound Energy for Therapeutics108
2.6.2The Biological Effects of Diagnostic Ultrasound108
2.6.3The Effect of Ultrasound on the Cell Membrane109
2.6.4Ultrasound for Gene Therapy110
2.6.5Direct Effects on Cell Components111
2.6.6The Stress-Induced Cellular Response111
2.6.7Potential Applications of Low-Power Ultrasound113
References114
3The Imaging of a Magnetic Source117
3.1The Principle of Magnetic Field Measurement117
3.1.1The Magnetic Field117
3.1.2The Magnetic Dipole118
3.1.3Magnetic Flux119
3.1.4The Electromagnetic Coil119
3.1.5The Current Dipole120
3.1.6Time-Varying Magnetic Fields120
3.1.7The Search Coil Magnetometer121
3.1.8The Proton Magnetometer and Other Magnetometers122
3.1.9Magnetic Source Analysis124
3.2A High-Sensitivity Magnetic Field Sensor125
3.2.1The SQUID125
3.2.2A System for Biomagnetic Measurement137
3.3Magnetic Source Analysis149
3.3.1The Forward Problem149
3.3.2The Inverse Problem154
3.3.3Visualization170
3.4Biomagnetic Measurement177
3.4.1Magnetoencephalography177
3.4.2Other Biomagnetic Measurements192
3.5Other Applications of Magnetic Source Imaging194
3.5.1Field Observation195
References200
4Bioanalyses Using Electrochemical and Electrophysiological Methods205
4.1Introduction205
4.2The Electrochemical DNA Chip Sensor209
4.2.1Introduction209
4.2.2The Multiplexed Electrochemical DNA Sensor209
4.2.3The Microfluidic PCR Chamber and the Electrochemical Detector214
4.3Enzyme-Based Electrochemical Biosensors219
4.3.1Introduction219
4.3.2Biosensors Based on Redox Active Polymers220
4.3.3Glucose Sensors on the Market225
4.3.4Conclusion230
4.4Cell and Tissue Monitoring and Their Applications: The Whole Cell Sensor231
4.4.1Overview of Cell-Based Sensor231
4.4.2The Surface PhotoVoltage (SPV) and Its Application232
4.5Neural Network, Neural, or Brain Analyses: Measurements of Neural Activity and Their Application for Analyses of the Neural Network System in the Living Body239
4.5.1Ultra-Microglutamate Sensors for Brain Analyses239
4.6The Application of Micromachining Techniques to Chemical Sensors, Biosensors, and Microanalysis Systems242
4.6.1Introduction242
4.6.2Basic Technologies242
4.6.3Microsensors for Dissolved Gases and Electrolytes243
4.6.4Microfabricated Biosensors247
4.6.5The Integration of Sensors and Micro-Electrochemical Systems248
4.7Microneurography: Measurements and Stimulation of a Single Peripheral Nerve Fiber250
4.7.1Introduction250
4.7.2The History of Microneurography250
4.7.3The Technique of Microneurography251
4.7.4The Advantages and Disadvantages of Microneurography255
4.7.5Summary256
4.8A Microelectrode for the Neural Interface257
4.8.1Introduction257
4.8.2The Nerve Electrode (Handmade)258
4.8.3A Microelectrode for the Neural Interface260
4.8.4Conclusion263
4.9Regulation: On-Line Measurements of Humoral and Neural Information from the Living Body and Their Application for the Control of Artificial Organs and Limbs263
4.9.1The Control of Artificial Hearts Using Humoral Information263
4.9.2Control of Artificial Hearts Using Autonomic Nervous Signals270
4.9.3The Control of Somatic Sensations and the Generation of Artificial Sensations by Direct Stimulation of the Neural System275
4.9.4Control of the Motor Function of Artificial Limbs (by Neural Signals)286
References287
Index295

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