Biological Science / Edition 2

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This pioneering book combines research-focused storytelling with the Socratic method to get students to think like practicing scientists. Each page of the book is designed in the spirit of active learning, asking students to apply critical thinking skills as they learn key concepts. Accounts of real researchers designing and analyzing real experiments, carefully punctuated by thoughtful questions and exercises, train introductory students in the process of DOING biology.

Biology and the Tree of Life, Water and Carbon: The Chemical Basis of Life, Protein Structure and Function, Nucleic Acids and the RNA World, An Introduction to Carbohydrates, Lipids, Membranes, and the First Cells, Inside the Cell, Cell-Cell Interactions, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation, Photosynthesis, The Cell Cycle, Meiosis,Mendel and the Gene, DNA and the Gene: Synthesis and Repair, How Genes Work, Transcription and Translation, Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria, Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes, Analyzing and Engineering Genes, Genomics, Principles of Development, An Introduction to Animal Development, An Introduction to Plant Development, Evolution by Natural Selection, Evolutionary Processes, Speciation, Phylogenies and the History of Life, 28 Bacteria and Archaea, Protists, Green Plants, Fungi, An Introduction to Animals, Protostome Animals, Deuterostome Animals, Viruses, Plant Form and Function, Water and Sugar Transport in Plants, Plant Nutrition, Plant Sensory Systems, Signals, and Responses,Plant Reproduction,

Animal Form and Function, Water and Electrolyte Balance in Animals, Animal Nutrition, Gas Exchange and Circulation, Electrical Signals in Animals, Animal Sensory Systems and Movement, Chemical Signals in Animals, Animal Reproduction, The Immune System in Animals, An Introduction to Ecology, Behavior, Population Ecology, Community Ecology, Ecosystems, Biodiversity and Conservation.

Intended for those interested in studying the basics of biology.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131924949
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall (School Division)
  • Publication date: 1/28/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1326

Meet the Author

Scott Freeman

Scott Freeman received his Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Washington and was subsequently awarded an Albert Sloan Postdoctoral Fellowship in Molecular Evolution at Princeton University. His research publications explore a range of topics, including the behavioral ecology of nest parasitism and the molecular systematics of the blackbird family. Scott teaches the majors' general biology course as a Lecturer at the University of Washington. He assisted in the groundbreaking and influential redesign of the course, which emphasizes an inquiry-based appraoch and the logic of experimental design. With Jon Herron, Scott is co-author of the standard-setting Evolutionary Analysis, which over 50,000 students have used to explore evolution with the same spirit of inquiry. He is currently conducting research on how active learning and peer teaching techniques affect student learning.

Kim Quillin

Illustrator, Kim Quillin, combines expertise in biology and information design to create lucid and scientifically accurate visual

representations of biological principles. She received her B.A. in Biology at Oberlin College and her Ph.D. in Integrative Biology

(as a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow) from the University of California, Berkeley, and has taught undergraduate biology at both schools.

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Table of Contents

1 Biology and the Tree of Life

Unit 1:The Molecules of Life

2. Water and Carbon: The Chemical Basis of Life

3. Protein Structure and Function

4. Nucleic Acids and the RNA World

5. An Introduction to Carbohydrates

6. Lipids, Membranes, and the First Cells

Unit 2: Cell Structure and Function

7. Inside the Cell

8. Cell-Cell Interactions

9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

10. Photosynthesis

11. The Cell Cycle

Unit 3: Gene Structure and Expression

12. Meiosis

13. Mendel and the Gene

14. DNA and the Gene: Synthesis and Repair

15. How Genes Work

16. Transcription and Translation

17. Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria

18.Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes

19. Analyzing and Engineering Genes

20. Genomics

Unit 4: Developmental Biology

21. Principles of Development

22. An Introduction to Animal Development

23. An Introduction to Plant Development

Unit 5: Evolutionary Processes and Patterns

24. Evolution by Natural Selection

25. Evolutionary Processes

26. Speciation

27. Phylogenies and the History of Life

Unit 6: The Diversification of Life

28. Bacteria and Archaea

29. Protists

30. Green Plants

31. Fungi

32. An Introduction to Animals

33. Protostome Animals

34. Deuterostome Animals

35. Viruses

Unit 7: How Plants Work

36. Plant Form and Function

37. Water and Sugar Transport in Plants

38. Plant Nutrition

39. Plant Sensory Systems, Signals, and Responses

40. Plant Reproduction

Unit 8: How Animals Work

41. Animal Form and Function

42. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Animals

43. Animal Nutrition

44. Gas Exchange and Circulation

45. Electrical Signals in Animals

46. Animal Sensory Systems and Movement

47. Chemical Signals in Animals

48. Animal Reproduction

49. The Immune System in Animals

Unit 9: Ecology

50. An Introduction to Ecology

51. Behavior

52. Population Ecology

53. Community Ecology

54. Ecosystems

55. Biodiversity and Conservation

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Faculty who teach introductory biology may have the most exciting and difficult job on campus. The excitement springs from the breathtaking pace of advances in the biological sciences and the wide array of training and career options that are now open to prospective majors; the difficulty lies in introducing students to an already imposing and rapidly increasing number of facts and concepts.

When I took introductory biology as an undergraduate in 1975, faculty members were coping with the information explosion by extending the length of their introductory courses and using ever-larger textbooks. Today we don't have those options. Course length is capped at one year and most texts already run in excess of 1100 pages. Over the past decade in particular, presenting a fact-based, synoptic overview of what we know about biology has become increasingly untenable.

In short, the information explosion has changed our jobs. Instead of asking students to focus primarily on memorizing facts, more and more instructors are focusing their course on teaching students how to think like a biologist.

Why a New Introductory Textbook?

I wrote Biological Science to support professors who want their students to experience a more inquiry-driven approach in introductory biology. My goal was to write a book infused with the questions and the enthusiasm for learning that drive biological research. To help students understand how biologists think, each chapter is built around a series of questions that are fundamental to the topic being addressed. While exploring each question, the presentation incorporates data for students to interpret, offers evidence for competing hypotheses, introduces contemporary researchers, refers to work in progress, and highlights what researchers don't yet know. My aim was to help you teach biology the way you do biology—by asking questions and analyzing data to find answers.

At the same time, I made a strong commitment to covering the basics. We teach students who want to become doctors, researchers, science journalists, teachers, and conservationists. We have an obligation to prepare them for success in upper division courses, MCATs, and GREs, and to introduce the canon of facts and concepts that they must master to major in biology. Instead of listing these facts and concepts in an encyclopedic manner, however, Biological Science introduces them in the context of answering a question. In this textbook, facts become tools for understanding—not ends in themselves.

In addition to finding an appropriate balance between covering facts and exploring the scientific process, the level of the presentation is crafted to be appropriate for introductory Students. Sections and sub-sections in the text begin with an overview of what question is being asked and end with commentary that helps students pull the material together. Instead of getting lost in the details of how an experiment was done, the text emphasizes why it was done and what the data mean. Because beginning students are concerned about themselves and their world, most chapters explore how the topic relates to human welfare and all chapters end with an essay inspired by medical, commercial, or environmental concerns.

The Forest and the Trees: Helping Students to Synthesize and Unify

In addition to coping with an enormous amount of content in this course, instructors have to manage its diversity. In Biological Science, the emphasis on inquiry and experimentation provides ,a unifying theme from biochemistry through ecosystem ecology. In addition, the text highlights the fundamental how and why questions of biology. How does this event or process occur at the molecular level? In an evolutionary context, why does it exist?

The majority of chapters include at least one case history of an analysis done at the molecular level. Natural selection is introduced by exploring the evolution of antibiotic resistance via point mutations in. the RNA polymerase gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the diversity unit, students learn about extracellular digestion in fungi by exploring experiments on the regulation of cellulase genes. A section of the behavior chapter features research on a gene involved in fruit fly foraging behavior. These are just three of many examples.

Similarly, evolutionary analyses do not begin and end with the evolution unit. Concepts like adaptation, homology, natural selection, and tree thinking are found in virtually every chapter. Unit 1, for example, presents traditional content in biochemistry—ranging from covalent bonding to the structure and function of macromolecules—in the context of chemical evolution and the origin of life. Meiosis is analyzed in terms of its consequences for generating genetic variation and making natural selection possible. Shared mechanisms of DNA repair and pattern formation are explained in the context of gene homologies. The overriding idea is that molecular and evolutionary analyses can help unify introductory biology courses, just as molecular tools and evolutionary questions are helping to unify many formerly disparate research fields within biology.

Supporting Visual Learners

Clear, attractive, and extensive graphics are critical to our success in the classroom. To emphasize the importance of analyzing figures in biology and to support students who learn particularly well visually, the book's art program is both extensive and closely interwoven with the manuscript. Each figure originated with rough sketches that I made while working on the first draft manuscript, which Dr. Kim Quillin then revised to increase clarity and improve appearance.

Throughout this process, our intent was to build an 4rt program that is easy to read and that supports the book's focus on thinking like a biologist. A quick glance through the book should convince you that the art is as distinctive as the text. Color is used judiciously to highlight the main teaching points. Layouts flow from top to bottom and left to right, and extensive labeling lets students work through each figure in a step-by-step manner. Questions and exercises in the captions challenge students to actively interpret the graphics. The overall look and feel of the art is clean, clear, and inviting.

Serving a Community of Teachers

By de-emphasizing the encyclopedic approach to learning biology and focusing more on the questions and experimental tools that make biology come alive, our hope was to offer a book that is more readable and attractive to students and teachers alike. Embarking on an introductory course that launches a career in biology should be exciting, not anxiety-ridden. Learning concepts well enough to apply them to new examples and datasets may be more challenging for some students than memorizing facts, but it is also more compelling. By motivating the presentation with questions, and then using facts as tools to find answers, students of biology may come to think and feel more like the people who actually do biology.

I've always viewed working on this project as a gift, because it was a chance to serve the community of bright, enthusiastic, and dedicated people who teach this course. Thank you for your devotion to biology, for your commitment to your students, and for considering Biological Science. Teachers change lives.

For Students

It's difficult to imagine a more exciting time to launch a career related to biology. The advent of whole-genome sequencing and a rising interest in conservation biology are giving new momentum to a knowledge explosion that began several decades ago. From biochemistry, cell biology, and genetics to physiology, ecology, and evolution, the pace of discovery in the biological sciences is nothing short of astonishing. Your instructors are introducing you to what may currently be the most dynamic of all human endeavors.

Delving into biology through this introductory course should help you further two important goals. The first involves personal growth. The topics you'll be learning about pervade your life. Biology is about the food you eat and the air you breathe. It's about the history of life on Earth and the organisms that share the planet with us now. You'll be learning why we get sick, how we reproduce, how plants make food from sunlight. Biology is so basic that understanding it is a fundamental part of becoming an educated person. Taking this course can open your eyes, help you see and think about life in a new way, and fuel a lifelong curiosity about the natural world.

The second goal of a course like this involves a potential career path. By preparing you for more advanced classes and a major in the biological sciences, this introductory course will be a crucial first step in acquiring the background you'll need to enter a biology-related profession and help solve pressing problems in health, conservation, or agriculture. Many of the great challenges facing us today—from climate change and species extinctions to antibiotic resistance and emerging viruses—demand expertise in biology.

The purpose of this text is to help you make that important first step toward majoring in the biological sciences andtpursuing a career related to biology. Its goal is not only to be a valuable reference for the fundamentals but also to introduce you to the excitement that drives this science. The presentation focuses on the questions that biologists ask about the natural world and how they go about answering them. Its objective is to introduce the core ideas that biologists use to make sense of the massive amount of information emerging from laboratories around the world.

The overall theme in this text is to help you learn how to think like a biologist. No matter what path your career takes, it is virtually certain that you will need to evaluate new hypotheses, analyze new types of data, and draw conclusions that change the direction of your work almost daily. Many of the facts you learn as an introductory student will change, but the analytical skills you learn in this course will serve you for life. Learning to think like a biologist will prepare you for upper-level courses and make you a better professional—whether you end up as a physician, pharmacist, educator, conservationist, or researcher.

If you approach this book with an open and inquiring mind, ready to challenge knowledge even as you absorb it, then you will have done your job. If this book communicates a sense of excitement about biological science and inspires you to keep learning more, it will have done its job. Thank you for joining a great adventure.

Scott Freeman
University of Washington

Print and Media Resources for Instructors and Students

For the Instructor

Lecture Presentation Tools

The Instructor Resource CD-ROM for Biological Science simplifies your life by placing powerful, customizable tools at your fingertips. This comprehensive, easy-to-use electronic resource provides everything you need to both prepare for and present a lecture. It features all of the illustrations and and photographs from the book—both as exportable images and as prepared PowerPoint slides. The PowerPoint slides are fully editable, allowing you complete customization capabilities. The Instructor Resource CD-ROM also features hundreds of animations and activities that can be incorporated into your lecture presentation. These same animations and activities are part of a series of more comprehensive, chapter-specific animations and activities located on the Student CD-ROM. Each animation and activity can be presented either with or without text, audio narration, and self-grading quizzes. Imagine being able to put together a presentation using art from the textbook, video clips, and animations from the Student CD. Students are motivated to explore and use the media provided with their text when they see it presented to them in the classroom. This tool gives you the power to visually present and highlight a key concept from the text and then assign it as homework. All of the answers to the activities, end-of-chapter material, and website quizzes are included on the Instructor Resource CD-ROM.

Transparencies are an effective way to visually reinforce your lecture presentation. Every illustration from the text—including art, photographs, and tables—is available on four-color transparency acetates. We've put a lot of thought into how to deliver such a large number of acetates to you in a way that is easy for you to use and organize for lecture. The transparency set is three-hole-punched and organized by chapter in manila folders, which are stored in an Instructor Resource Kit file box along with the printed lecture tools from the Instructor Resource Guide. Some labels and all of the hand pointers in the test illustrations have been deleted from these transparencies to enhance projection. Labels and images have been enlarged and modifed to ensure optimal readability in a large lecture hall.

Edited by Julie Palmer, University of Texas at Austin Contributors: Carole Kelley, Cabrillo College; Judith Heady, University of Michigan at Dearborn; David Pindel, Corning Community College; Susan Rouse, Emory University.

The Instructor Guide for Biological Science includes not only the traditional instructor support tools—lecture outlines and student objectives—but it also provides additional, more contemporary resources for today's teaching challenges—motivating students, reinforcing their understanding of the material, and helping them to develop critical thinking skills. These resources include chapter-by-chapter suggestions for inquiry-based classroom activities, simple demonstrations, and problems involving the data presented in a given chapter. Answers to all of the activities and problems—including answers to the figure caption questions and exercises and the end-of-chapter questions—are included in this Instructor Guide, making it easier to assign them to students. All content in the Instructor Guide is available in a printed volume or included electronically on the Instructor Resource CD-ROM.

Assessment Tools

The Test Questions for Biological Science have been written and edited by the author, Scott Freeman, and a team of talented instructors, to ensure the quality and accuracy of this important resource as well as its tight integration with the text. It contains a variety of questions compiled from our reviewers, top educators, and the author's own teaching experience. The Test Questions contain multiple choice questions in the following formats: factual recall, conceptual, and application/data interpretation questions that are 'in keeping with the most recent MCAT and GRE standards. The Test Questions are available as a printed volume and as part of the TestGen EQ Computerized Testing Software, a text-specific testing program that is networkable for administering tests. It allows instructors to view and edit electronic questions, export the questions as tests, and print them in a variety of formats.

Laboratory Support

With Symbiosis, you can custom-build a lab manual that exactly matches your teaching style, your content needs, and your course organization. You choose the labs you want from our extensive list of Prentice Hall publications or Pearson Custom Publishing's own library of biology labs. You choose the sequence. Using the template tools provided in our unique Lab Ordering and Authoring Kit, you can create your own custom-written labs and then incorporate graphics from our biology graphics library. You can even add your course notes, syllabi, or other favorite materials. The result is a cleanly designed, well-integrated lab manual to share with your students.

Course Management Tools

Blackboard is a comprehensive and flexible eLearning software platform that delivers a course management system, customizable institution-wide portals, online communities, and an advanced architecture that allows for web-based integration of multiple administrative systems.

WebCT provides you with high-quality, class-tested material pre-programmed and fully functional in the WebCT environment. Whether used as an online supplement to either a campus-based or a distance-learning course, our pre-assembled course content gives you a tremendous headstart in developing your own online courses.

Course Compass is a dynamic, interactive eLearning program. Its flexible, easy-to-use course management tools allow you to combine Pearson Higher Education content with your own.

Instructors 1st For qualified adopters, Prentice Hall is proud to introduce Instructors 1st—the first integrated service committed to meeting your customization, support, and training needs for your course.

For the Student

The Student CD-ROM for Biological Science provides resources to help students visualize difficult concepts, explore complex biological processes, and review their understanding of the most challenging material presented in this course. This comprehensive, easy-to-use electronic resource is integrated with the textbook, providing students either with rapid access to extended learning opportunities while reading the chapter or with detailed textbook references while working through an activity on the CD. These activities include animations to visualize elaborate biological concepts or processes and animated tutorials that allow students to explore more complex topics. The Student CD has an intuitive interface, a familiar chapter-based organization, and a powerful search engine, all designed to help students expertly navigate this resource. Each activity includes full audio narration, an integrated glossary, and an audio pronunciation guide. In addition, the CD also serves as a portal to the review and research tools provided on the Student Website, bringing together all of the resources to help students succeed in their course.

The Student Website for Biological Science provides students with the self-assessment, current research, and communication tools needed to help them succeed in their introductory biology course. Within each chapter on the Website, self-grading quizzes allow students to assess their understanding of the chapter material as well as providing an explanation should a student choose an incorrect answer to a question. Further, the Website includes a broad collection of science and research links for the subject areas described in each chapter. These links are outstanding tools for students wishing to explore a chapter's concepts or to extend their knowledge beyond the scope of the text. In combination with the Student CD, the Student Website provides a valuable set of resources to help students develop the skills that will help them in both their introductory biology course as well as in upper-division courses.

Edited by Warren Burggren, University of North Texas.

Contributors: Jay Brewster, Pepperdine University; Laurel Hester, South Carolina Governor's School for Science and Mathematics; Brian Bagatto, University of Akron.

The Student Study Guide helps students focus on the fundamentals chapter-by-chapter and contains additional resources to help students prepare for a career in the biological sciences. Each chapter presents a breakdown of chapter themes, key biological concepts, exercises, self-assessment activities, and quizzes. Additionally, the Study Guide features four introductory, stand-alone chapters: Introduction to Experimentation and Research in the Biological Sciences, Presenting Biological Data, Understanding Patterns in Biology and Improving Study Techniques, and Reading and Writing to Understand Biology.

Andrew Stull, Prentice Hall and Harry Nickla, Creighton University.

This free, practical resource provides straightforward step-by-step directions for accessing regularly updated biology resource areas online as well as an overview of general online navigation strategies. This booklet is a helpful companion to the Student Website for Biological Science.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 23, 2006


    This is the best biology book I have ever seen or read. The tutorial CD that accompanies the book is awesome! Even the narrater sounds professional as opposed to other CD narrators that sound like the building janitor Highschool dropout.

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