Biological Sludge Minimization and Biomaterials/Bioenergy Recovery Technologies

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Overview

A comprehensive guide to sludge management, reuse, and disposal

When wastewater is treated, reducing organic material to carbon dioxide, water, and bacterial cells—the cells are disposed of, producing a semisolid and nutrient-rich byproduct called sludge. The expansion in global population and industrial activity has turned the production of excess sludge into an international environmental challenge, with the ultimate disposal of excess sludge...

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Overview

A comprehensive guide to sludge management, reuse, and disposal

When wastewater is treated, reducing organic material to carbon dioxide, water, and bacterial cells—the cells are disposed of, producing a semisolid and nutrient-rich byproduct called sludge. The expansion in global population and industrial activity has turned the production of excess sludge into an international environmental challenge, with the ultimate disposal of excess sludge now one of the most expensive problems faced by wastewater facilities.

Written by two leading environmental engineers, Biological Sludge Minimization and Biomaterials/Bioenergy Recovery Technologies offers a comprehensive look at cutting-edge techniques for reducing sludge production, converting sludge into a value-added material, recovering useful resources from sludge, and sludge incineration. Reflecting the impact of new stringent environmental legislation, this book offers a frank appraisal of how sludge can be realistically managed, covering key concerns and the latest tools:

  • Fundamentals of biological processes for wastewater treatment, wastewater microbiology, and microbial metabolism, essential to understanding how sludge is produced
  • Prediction of primary sludge and waste-activated sludge production, among the chief design and operational challenges of a wastewater treatment plant
  • Technologies for sludge reduction, with a focus on reducing microbial growth yield as well as enhancing sludge disintegration
  • The use of anerobic digestion of sewage sludge for biogas recovery, in terms of process fundamentals, design, and operation
  • The use of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) system for the sustainable treatment of organic wastes and electrical energy recovery
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470768822
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 7/3/2012
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 536
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

ETIENNE PAUL, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering at the National Institute of Applied Sciences. He has more than fifteen years of experience in the field of biological treatment of water, wastewater, and waste.

YU LIU, PhD, is an associate professor in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Nanyang Technological University. He has authored or edited six books, four book chapters, and over ninety journal articles.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Contributors

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Biological Processes for Wastewater Treatment 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 An overview of biological wastewater treatment 1

1.3 Classification of microorganisms 3

1.4 Some important microorganisms in wastewater treatment 6

1.5 Measurement of microbial biomass 18

1.6. Microbial nutrition 22

1.7 Microbial metabolism 28

1.8 Functions of biological wastewater treatment 39

1.9 Activated sludge process 53

1.10 Suspended-growth and attached-growth processes 63

1.11 Sludge production, treatment and disposal 67

Chapter 2 Sludge Production: Quantification and Prediction for Urban Treatment Plants; Assessment of Strategies for Sludge Reduction 74

2.1 Introduction 74

2.2 Sludge fractionation and origin 74

2.3 Quantification of excess sludge production 80

2.4 Practical evaluation of sludge production 89

2.5 Strategies for excess sludge reduction 97

2.6 Remarks 103

Chapter 3 Characterization of municipal wastewater and sludge 110

3.1 Introduction 110

3.2 Definitions 112

3.4 Physical fractionation 116

3.5 Biodegradation assays for WW and sludge characterization 117

3.6 Application to WW COD fractionation 124

3.7 Assessment of the characteristics of sludge and disintegrated sludge 140

Chapter 4 Oxic-Settling-Anaerobic Process for Enhanced Microbial Decay 154

4.1 Introduction 154

4.2 Description of oxic-settling-anaerobic process 154

4.3 Effects of the inserted anaerobic exposure in the OSA system 156

4.4 Sludge production of the OSA system 160

4.5 Performance of the OSA system 161

4.6 Important influence factors 162

4.7 Possible sludge reduction in OSA process 165

4.8 Microbial community in OSA system 169

4.10 Cost and Energy evaluation 172

4.11 Evaluation of OSA process 173

4.12 Process development 174

Chapter 5 Energy Uncoupling for Sludge Minimization: Pros and Cons 181

5.1 Introduction 181

5.2 Overview of Adenosine triphoshate (ATP) synthesis 182

5.3 Control of ATP synthesis   184

5.4 Energy uncoupling for sludge reduction 187

5.5 Modeling of uncoupling effect on sludge production 201

5.6 Side-effect of chemical uncouplers 203

5.7 Full scale application 205

Chapter 6 Reduction of Excess Sludge Production using Ozonation or Chlorination: Performance and Mechanisms of action 211

6.1 Introduction 211

6.2 Significant operational results for ESP reduction with ozone 212

6.3 Side effects of sludge ozonation 219

6.4 Cost assessment 224

6.5 Effect of ozone on sludge 225

6.6 Modelling ozonation effect 236

6.7 Remarks on sludge ozonation 239

6.8 Chlorination in water and wastewater treatment 240

Chapter 7 High Dissolved Oxygen Biological Process for Sludge Reduction 253

7.1 Introduction 253

7.2 Mechanism of high dissolved oxygen reduced sludge production 254

7.3 Limits of high dissolved oxygen process for reduced sludge production 255

Chapter 8 Minimizing excess sludge production through membrane bioreactors integrated processes 266

8.1 Introduction 266

8.2 Mass balances 267

8.3 Integrated processes based on lysis-cryptic growth 270

8.4 Predation 287

8.5 Summary and concluding remarks 289

Chapter 9 Microbial Fuel Cell Technology for Sustainable Treatment of Organic Wastes and Electrical Energy Recovery 294

9.1 Introduction 294

9.2 Fundamentals, evaluation and design of MFC 295

9.3 Performance of anode 297

9.4 Cathode performances 301

9.5 Separator 308

9.6 pH gradient and buffer 309

9.7 Applications of MFC-based technology 310

9.8 Conclusion and remarks 315

Chapter 10 Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge 320

10.1 Introduction 320

10.2 Principles of anaerobic digestion 321

10.3 Environment requirements and control 324

10.4 Design considerations for anaerobic sludge digestion 328

10.5 Component design of anaerobic digester systems 330

10.6 Reactors configurations 334

10.7 Advantages and limitations of anaerobic sludge digestion 343

10.8 Summary and new horizons 343

Chapter 11 Mechanical Pretreatment-Assisted Biological Processes 347

11.1 Introduction 347

11.2 Mechanisms of mechanical pretreatment 347

11.3 Impacts of treatment – rate vs extent of degradability 350

11.4 Equipment for Mechanical Pretreatment 351

11.5 Side effects 355

11.6 Mechanical treatment combined with AS 356

11.7 Mechanical treatment combined with anaerobic digestion 357

11.8 Conclusion 363

Chapter 12 Thermal Methods to Enhance Biological Treatment Processes 367

12.2 Mechanisms 367

12.3 Devices for thermal treatment 382

12.4 Applications of thermal treatment 384

12.5 Conclusion 391

Chapter 13 Gasification, Pyrolysis and Combustion of Sewage Sludge for Energy Recovery 398

13.1 Introduction 398

13.2 Characteristics and dewatering of swage sludge 399

13.3 Energy recovery from sludge 400

Chapter 14 Aerobic Granular Sludge Technology for Wastewater Treatment 418

14.1 Introduction 418

14.2 Technological starting points: cultivating aerobic granules 419

14.3 Mechanisms of aerobic granulation process 423

14.4 Characterization of aerobic granular sludge 425

14.5 Modeling granule-based SBR for wastewater treatment 433

14.6 Bioremediation of wastewaters with aerobic granular sludge technology 437

14.7 Remarks441

Chapter 15 Biodegradable Bioplastics from Fermented Sludge, Wastes and Effluents 449

15.1 Introduction 449

15.2 PHA structure 452

15.3 Microbiology for PHA production 453

15.4 Metabolism of PHA production 454

15.5 PHA kinetics 461

15.6 PHA storage to minimize excess sludge production in WWTP? 462

15.7 Choice of process and reactor design for PHA production 463

15.8 Culture selection, Enrichment strategies 467

15.9 PHA quality and recovery 468

15.10 Industrial developments 469

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