Biology of Fishes

Biology of Fishes

by Q. Bone, Norman Bertram. Marshall
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0412001713

ISBN-13: 9780412001710

Pub. Date: 01/01/1982

Publisher: Chapman & Hall

This book, the first edition of which was published in 1982, has been largely rewritten with many new figures, to take account of recent information resulting from the huge rate of publication of scientific papers and books on fishes. As an example, the continuing series "Fish Physiology" (Academic Press) has just reached its 12th volume, covering in two parts only

Overview

This book, the first edition of which was published in 1982, has been largely rewritten with many new figures, to take account of recent information resulting from the huge rate of publication of scientific papers and books on fishes. As an example, the continuing series "Fish Physiology" (Academic Press) has just reached its 12th volume, covering in two parts only the cardio-vascular systems of fishes. The original authors, Q. Bone and N.B. Marshall, invited J.H.S. Blaxter to help widen the expertise on fish reproduction, behaviour and exploita­ tion, leading to new chapters on behaviour, fisheries and aquaculture. A chapter on endocrines has been added and earlier chapters have been brought up-to-date. We have chosen those topics which seem to us to be most useful and interesting, inevitably reflecting our own fields of interest. We have, however, tried to make the bibliography sufficiently wide­ ranging for the reader to find an introduction to those topics not covered, and to be able to enjoy further forays into those that are. Fish are the most varied and abundant of vertebrates and the commercial and sport fisheries are of great economic importance. Fish stocks are not vulnerable to drought, as are so many terrestrial sources of protein, but they are highly vulnerable to pollution and overfishing. At least 80% of fish are caught by hunting and this proportion is unlikely to fall; many stocks are shared and lead to political decision-making about management.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780412001710
Publisher:
Chapman & Hall
Publication date:
01/01/1982
Series:
Tertiary Level Biology
Pages:
158

Table of Contents

1 Diversity of fishes.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Basic structural features of fishes.- 1.2.1 Body shape, scales and fins.- 1.2.2 Internal features.- 2 Fishes and their habitats.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Marine habitats.- 2.2.1 The open ocean.- 2.2.2 Shallow seas and coastal regions.- 2.3 Freshwater fishes.- 2.4 Ostariophysan success.- 2.5 The variety and origin of some freshwater fish faunas.- 3 Locomotion.- 3.1 The problem of analysis.- 3.2 The myotomal muscles.- 3.2.1 Myotomal structure.- 3.2.2 Myosepta.- 3.2.3 Myotomal muscle fibres.- 3.2.4 Development of the two systems.- 3.2.5 Overlap between the two myotomal motor systems.- 3.3 The cost of speed in water.- 3.4 Swimming speeds.- 3.4.1 Cruising speed and slow muscle.- 3.4.2 Maximum speeds of fishes.- 3.5 Warm red muscle.- 3.6 The generation of thrust.- 3.6.1 Caudal fin oscillations.- 3.6.2 Circulation, lift and thrust.- 3.6.3 Body waves and drag-based thrust generation.- 3.7 Drag.- 3.7.1 Pressure drag.- 3.7.2 Vortex, induced, or lift (thrust)-associated drag and circulation.- 3.7.3 Skin friction drag, boundary layers and Reynolds number.- 3.7.4 Mechanisms for reducing skin friction drag.- 3.8 Efficiency.- 4 Buoyancy.- 4.1 Dynamic lift.- 4.2 Static life.- 4.3 Lipid as a source of static lift.- 4.3.1 Squalene.- 4.3.2 Wax esters.- 4.3.3 Insufficient static lift for neutral buoyancy.- 4.4 Gas as a source of static lift.- 4.4.1 Swimbladder structure.- 4.4.2 Gas in the swimbladder.- 4.5 The swimbladder and vertical migration.- 4.6 The swimbladder as a dynamic organ.- 5 Gas exchange and the circulatory system.- 5.1 The origin of respiratory gills.- 5.2 Respiration of fish larvae.- 5.3 Respiration in hagfish and lampreys.- 5.3.1 Hagfish.- 5.3.2 Lampreys.- 5.4 Gnathostome fishes.- 5.4.1 Gill design.- 5.4.2 Functional gill area.- 5.4.3 Branchial pumps.- 5.4.4 Ram ventilation.- 5.4.5 Air-breathing fishes.- 5.4.6 Lungfishes.- 5.4.7 Aestivation.- 5.5 The circulatory system.- 5.5.1 The heart.- 5.5.2 Cardiac output and its control in fishes.- 5.5.3 Accessory pumps.- 5.6 Fish blood and gas transport.- 5.6.1 Fish haemoglobins and oxygen transport.- 5.6.2 CO2 transport.- 6 Osmoregulation and ion balance.- 6.1 The osmotic problem.- 6.2 Hagfishes, lampreys and the origin of the glomerular kidney.- 6.3 Teleosts.- 6.3.1 Marine teleosts.- 6.3.2 Chloride cells.- 6.3.3 Freshwater teleosts.- 6.3.4 The kidney and salt balance.- 6.3.5 Tubular structure and function.- 6.3.6 Teleosts in alkaline saline lakes.- 6.4 Osmoregulation in elasmobranchiomorphs.- 6.4.1 Urea and proteins.- 6.4.2 Extrarenal salt excretion and the rectal gland.- 6.4.3 Freshwater elasmobranchs.- 6.5 Latimeria.- 6.6 The ‘efficiency’ of urea retention.- 6.7 Plasma ion content and the evolutionary history of different groups of fishes.- 6.8 Osmoregulation in eggs and larvae.- 7 Food and feeding.- 7.1 Food of larval and young fishes.- 7.2 Adult fishes.- 7.2.1 Plankton feeders.- 7.2.2 Large Zooplankton filter-feeders.- 7.2.3 Herbivorous fishes.- 7.3 Jaw mechanisms.- 7.3.1 Protrusible jaws of elasmobranchs.- 7.3.2 Jaw mechanisms of teleost fishes.- 7.4 Feeding and digestion strategies.- 8 Reproduction and life histories.- 8.1 Types of life history.- 8.2 Fecundity and egg size.- 8.3 Maturation.- 8.4 Intersexes.- 8.5 Fertilisation to hatching (incubation).- 8.6 Parental care.- 8.6.1 Ovoviviparity.- 8.6.2 Viviparity.- 8.6.3 Nest building and brooding.- 8.7 Agnatha.- 8.8 Elasmobranchiomorpha and Latimeria.- 8.8.1 Reproduction.- 8.8.2 Ovoviviparity and viviparity.- 8.8.3 Latimeria.- 8.9 Growth.- 8.10 Teleosts.- 8.10.1 Freshwater species.- 8.10.2 Marine species.- 9 Endocrine systems.- 9.1 Origins.- 9.2 The endocrine organs of fishes.- 9.3 The uropophysis.- 9.4 The pituitary.- 9.4.1 The pituitary in hagfish and lampreys.- 9.4.2 The pituitary in elasmobranchiomorpha.- 9.4.3 The teleost pituitary.- 9.5 The thyroid.- 9.6 The ultimobranchial gland.- 9.7 The corpuscles of Stannius.- 9.8 The gastro-entero-pancreatic endocrine system.- 9.8.1 The pancreas.- 9.8.2 Gut hormones.- 9.9 Chromaffin tissue and the interrenals.- 9.9.1 Chromaffin tissue.- 9.9.2 Interrenals.- 9.9.3 Kidney hormones and the renin-angiotensin system.- 9.10 Gonadal hormones.- 9.10.1 Elasmobranchs.- 9.10.2 Teleosts.- 9.11 The pineal.- 9.12 Origin and evolution of fish hormones.- 9.12.1 Origins.- 9.12.2 Changes in function.- 10 Sensory systems and communication.- 10.1 Proprioception.- 10.2 The acoustico-lateralis system.- 10.3 Sound reception.- 10.4 Sound production.- 10.5 Electroreceptors and electric organs.- 10.5.1 Ampullary (tonic) receptors.- 10.5.2 Tuberous (phasic) receptors.- 10.5.3 Electric organs.- 10.6 Vision and photophores.- 10.6.1 Optics.- 10.6.2 Tubular eyes.- 10.6.3 Aerial vision.- 10.6.4 Reflecting tapeta.- 10.6.5 The receptors.- 10.6.6 Visual pigments.- 10.6.7 Colour vision.- 10.6.8 Sensitivity and acuity.- 10.7 The pineal body.- 10.8 Camouflage.- 10.8.1 Camouflage by reflection.- 10.8.2 Luminescence and photophores.- 10.8.3 Bacterial photophores.- 10.8.4 Photophores with intrinsic light production.- 10.8.5 Yellow lenses.- 10.8.6 Red headlight fishes.- 10.9 Olfaction, taste and pheromones.- 10.9.1 The chemoreceptors.- 10.9.2 Feeding and chemoreception.- 10.9.3 Reproduction and chemoreception.- 10.9.4 Homing and chemoreception.- 10.9.5 Alarm substance.- 11 The nervous system.- 11.1 Methods for investigating nervous system function.- 11.1.1 Neuroanatomical techniques.- 11.1.2 Physiological methods.- 11.2 The central nervous system.- 11.2.1 Thespinalcord.- 11.2.2 Spinal nerves.- 11.2.3 Spinal swimming.- 11.2.4 Cranial nerves.- 11.2.5 Thebrain.- 11.2.6 The development of the fish brain.- 11.2.7 Brain size.- 11.2.8 Brain temperature.- 11.2.9 Brain regions and their connections in elasmobranchs.- 11.2.10 Brains of other fishes.- 11.3 The autonomic nervous system.- 12 Behaviour.- 12.1 Techniques.- 12.1.1 Distribution.- 12.1.2 Behaviour patterns.- 12.1.3 Sensory capabilities.- 12.2 Instinct and learning.- 12.2.1 Primary and secondary orientation.- 12.2.2 Reflexes.- 12.2.3 Complex instinctive behaviour.- 12.2.4 Learning.- 12.3 Complex behaviour patterns.- 12.3.1 Feeding.- 12.3.2 Schooling.- 12.3.3 Vertical migration.- 12.3.4 Horizontal migration.- 12.3.5 Tidal rhythms.- 12.3.6 Symbiosis.- 12.3.7 Cannibalism.- 13 Fisheries and aquaculture.- 13.1 Productive areas and species.- 13.2 Species.- 13.3 The fisheries.- 13.4 Aquaculture.- 13.5 Ranching.- 13.6 Management.- Species index.

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