The Biology of Sensory Systems / Edition 1

The Biology of Sensory Systems / Edition 1

by C. U. M. Smith, C.U.M. Smith
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0471890901

ISBN-13: 9780471890904

Pub. Date: 04/06/2000

Publisher: Wiley

Since publication of the first edition, huge developments have taken place in sensory biology research and new insights have been provided in particular by molecular biology. These show the similarities in the molecular architecture and in the physiology of sensory cells across species and across sensory modality and often indicate a common ancestry dating back over

Overview

Since publication of the first edition, huge developments have taken place in sensory biology research and new insights have been provided in particular by molecular biology. These show the similarities in the molecular architecture and in the physiology of sensory cells across species and across sensory modality and often indicate a common ancestry dating back over half a billion years.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780471890904
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
04/06/2000
Pages:
456
Product dimensions:
7.50(w) x 9.82(h) x 1.17(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to Second Edition xi

Preface to First Edition xiii

Part I Preliminaries 1

Chapter 1 Elements 3

1.1 Allosteric Effectors 4

1.2 Membranes 5

1.2.1 Lipids 5

1.2.2 Proteins 6

1.2.3 Mobility of Proteins 8

1.3 Membrane Signalling Systems 8

1.3.1 Receptor Molecules 9

1.3.2 G-proteins 10

1.3.3 Effectors and Second Messengers 12

1.4 Channels and Gates 14

1.4.1 TRP Channels 14

1.4.2 Ligand-Gated Ion Channels (LGICs) 16

1.4.3 Voltage-Gated Ion Channels (VGICs) 16

1.5 Concluding Remarks 18

Chapter 2 Membranes, Action Potentials, Synapses 19

2.1 The Measurement of Resting Potentials 20

2.2 The Ionic Bases of Resting Potentials 21

2.3 Electrotonic Potentials and Cable Conduction 23

2.4 Receptor and Generator Potentials 24

2.5 Sensory Adaptation 25

2.6 Action Potentials 26

2.7 Synapses and Synaptic Transmission 28

2.8 Concluding Remarks 30

Chapter 3 General Features of Sensory Systems 31

3.1 Classification of the Senses 33

3.2 Modality 34

3.3 Intensity 34

3.4 Adaptation 36

3.5 Receptive Fields 36

3.6 Maps of Sensory Surfaces 37

3.7 Hierarchical and Parallel Design 38

3.8 Feature Extraction and Trigger Stimuli 38

3.9 Concluding Remarks 39

Box 3.1 Hermann von Helmholtz 32

Chapter 4 Classification and Phylogeny 41

4.1 Systematics 41

4.2 Classification into Six Kingdoms 42

4.3 Unicellularity 42

4.4 Multicellularity 42

4.5 Protostomes and Deuterostomes 43

4.6 Classification of the Metazoa 44

4.7 Evolution of Nervous Systems 49

4.7.1 Cnidaria 50

4.7.2 Platyhelminthes 50

4.7.3 Nematoda 50

4.7.4 Annelida 51

4.7.5 Arthropoda 52

4.7.6 Mollusca 53

4.7.7 Echinodermata 55

4.7.8 Chordata 55

4.8Concluding Remarks 55

Chapter 5 Genes, Genomics and Neurosensory Systems 57

5.1 Introduction 57

5.2 Comparative Genomics 60

5.3 Genomes and Neurosensory Systems 62

5.4 Concluding Remarks 64

Box 5.1 Nomenclature of Genes and Proteins 59

Part I Self Assessment 65

Part I Notes, References and Bibliography 69

Part II Mechanosensitivity 73

Chapter 6 Mechanosensitivity of Cell Membranes 75

6.1 Mechanosensitive Channels in E. coli 76

6.2 Detection of Osmotic Swelling by Hypothalamic Cells in Mammals 80

6.3 Concluding Remarks 83

Chapter 7 Kinaesthesia 85

7.1 Kinaesthetic Mechanisms in Arthropods 85

7.1.1 Stretch Receptors in Crustacean Muscle 86

7.1.2 Insect Sensilla 87

7.1.3 Maintenance of Equilibrium in Flight 90

7.2 Kinaesthetic Mechanisms in Mammals 91

7.2.1 Intrafusal Spindle Endings 91

7.2.2 Golgi Tendon Organs 94

7.2.3 Joint Receptors 96

7.3 Concluding Remarks 97

Chapter 8 Touch 99

8.1 Mechanoreception in Caenorhabditis Elegans 99

8.2 Spiders 103

8.2.1 Tactile Hairs 103

8.2.2 Trichobothria 103

8.2.3 Slit Sensilla and Lyriform Organs 104

8.3 Insects 106

8.3.1 Acoustic Sensilla and Tympanic Organs 109

8.4 Tactile Receptors in Mammalian Skin 112

8.4.1 Fast Adapting Receptors 112

8.4.2 Slow Adapting Receptors 114

8.5 Cerebral Analysis of Touch 114

8.6 Plasticity of the Somaesthetic Cortex 118

8.7 Concluding Remarks 120

Chapter 9 Equilibrium and Hearing: The Uses of Hair Cells 123

9.1 Anatomy and Physiology of Hair Cells 123

9.2 Lateral Line Canals 128

9.3 Evolution of the Vertebrate Ear 129

9.3.1 Equilibrium 129

9.3.2 Phonoreception 132

9.3.3 Bat Sonar 145

9.4 Concluding Remarks 145

Box 9.1 Biophysics of Outer Hair Cells 141

Box 9.2 Genetics and Deafness 143

Chapter 10 Cerebral Analysis 147

10.1 The Mammalian Vestibular Pathway and Reflexes 148

10.2 The Mammalian Auditory Pathway 150

10.2.1 Cochlear Fibres 151

10.2.2 Cochlear Nucleus 152

10.2.3 Superior Olivary Nuclei 153

10.2.4 Inferior Colliculus 153

10.2.5 Medial Geniculate Nucleus 153

10.3 The Avian Auditory Pathway and the Mapping of Auditory Space by the Barn Owl 153

10.4 The Mammalian Auditory Cortex 157

10.5 The Bat Auditory System and Echolocation 158

10.6 The Human Auditory Cortex and Language 162

10.7 Lateralization and the Neuroanatomy of Language 167

10.8 Language and the FOXP2 Gene 169

10.9 Callosectomy and After 170

10.10 Concluding Remarks 172

Box 10.1 Broca and Wernicke 166

Part II Self Assessment 173

Part II Notes, References and Bibliography 179

Part III Chemosensitivity 187

Chapter 11 Chemosensitivity in Prokaryocytes 189

11.1 Chemosentivity in E. coli 189

11.1.1 Molecular Genetics 192

11.2 Concluding Remarks 194

Chapter 12 Mammalian Chemo-Enteroreceptors 195

12.1 Location of Mammalian Chemoreceptors for PaO2 and PaCO2 196

12.2 Structure 197

12.3 Physiology 197

12.4 Biochemistry 200

12.5 Concluding Remarks 201

Chapter 13 Gustation 203

13.1 Gustation in Insects 204

13.1.1 Tachinid Flies 204

13.1.2 Drosophila 206

13.2 Gustation in Mammals 208

13.2.1 Taste Buds 208

13.2.2 Central Projections 216

13.2.3 Labelled Lines or Population Profile? 217

13.3 Concluding Remarks 217

Chapter 14 Olfaction 219

14.1 Insect Olfactory Systems 220

14.1.1 Hygroreceptors 220

14.1.2 Olfactory Sensilla 221

14.1.3 Central Processing in Drosophila Antennal Lobes 224

14.2 Mammalian Olfactory Systems 225

14.2.1 Olfactory Epithelium of the Nasal Cavity 225

14.2.2 Olfactory Neurosensory Cells 226

14.2.3 Molecular Biology 227

14.2.4 Central Processing 230

14.3 The Vertebrate Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) and Pheromones 232

14.4 Concluding Remarks 235

Part III Self Assessment 237

Part III Notes, References and Bibliography 240

Part IV Photosensitivity 245

Box 14.1 Bacteriorhodopsin 249

Chapter 15 Invertebrate Vision 253

15.1 Designs of Invertebrate Eyes 253

15.1.1 Evolution of the Vesicular Eye 257

15.1.2 Evolution of the Compound Eye 258

15.1.3 Scanning Eyes 261

15.2 Examples of Invertebrate Eyes 262

15.2.1 Eyespots of the Protista 264

15.2.2 The Pinhole Eye of Nautilus Pompilius 266

15.2.3 The Mirror Eye of Pecten, the Scallop 267

15.2.4 The Vesicular Eye of Octopus 267

15.2.5 Lateral Eyes of Limulus, the King or Horseshoe 'Crab' 271

15.2.6 The Advanced Ocellar Eyes of Jumping Spiders (Salticidae) 275

15.2.7 The Advanced Compound Eyes of Flies (Diptera) 277

15.3 Concluding Remarks 279

Box 15.1 The Evolution of Opsins 254

Box 15.2 Early Genetics of Eyes 263

Chapter 16 The Human Eye 281

16.1 Anatomy 282

16.1.1 Eyeball 282

16.1.2 Adnexa 283

16.2 Embryology 287

16.3 Detailed Anatomy and Physiology 293

16.3.1 Cornea 293

16.3.2 Sclera 297

16.3.3 Lens 297

16.3.4 Uveal Tract 303

16.3.5 Iris 309

16.3.6 Vitreous Humour 312

16.4 Movements of the Eyeball 313

16.5 Concluding Remarks 314

Box 16.1 Genetics of Cataract 302

Chapter 17 The Retina 315

17.1 Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) 316

17.2 Retina 317

17.2.1 Photoreceptor Cells 319

17.2.2 Horizontal Cells 319

17.2.3 Bipolar Cells 337

17.2.4 Müet;ller Cells 340

17.2.5 Interplexiform Cells 341

17.2.6 Amacrine Cells 341

17.2.7 Ganglion Cells 341

17.2.8 Wiring Diagrams 345

17.2.9 Colour 348

17.3 Concluding Remarks 350

Box 17.1 Retinitis Pigmentosa 330

Box 17.2 Macular Degeneration 342

Chapter 18 Visual Pathways and Cortices 358

18.1 Visual Pathways into the Brain 354

18.1.1 The Retino-Tectal Pathway 354

18.1.2 The Retino-Geniculo-Striate (RGS) Pathway 355

18.2 Primary Visual Cortex 358

18.2.1 Structure 358

18.2.2 Functioning 360

18.2.3 Plasticity 369

18.3 Extrastriate Cortices 372

18.4 Face Recognition 372

18.5 Prosopagnosia 376

18.6 Concluding Remarks 378

Box 18.1 The Reality of Cortical Columns 367

Box 18.2 Blindsight 374

Chapter 19 Other Vertebrate Visual Systems 379

19.1 Visual Pigments 380

19.2 Photoreceptors 380

19.3 Tapeta 383

19.4 Retinae 385

19.4.1 Deep Sea Fish 385

19.4.2 Frog 385

19.4.3 Areae Centrales of Mammals and Birds 386

19.5 Dioptric Apparatus 388

19.6 Median Eyes 391

19.7 Visual Pathways 393

19.8 Visual Centres in the Brain 394

19.8.1 Amphibia 394

19.8.2 Reptiles 394

19.8.3 Birds 395

19.9 Concluding Remarks 396

Part IV Self Assessment 397

Part IV Notes, References and Bibliography 403

Part V Other Senses 413

Chapter 20 Thermosensitivity 415

20.1 Molecular Biology 416

20.1.1 Caenorhabditis Elegans 416

20.1.2 Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) 416

20.1.3 Mouse Thermosensory Neurons 417

20.2 Poikilotherms 417

20.3 Homeotherms 418

20.3.1 Thermoreceptors in The Skin 419

20.3.2 Deep Thermoreceptors 419

20.3.3 Hypothalamic Thermoreceptors 420

20.4 Concluding Remarks 421

Chapter 21 Minority Senses 423

21.1 Infrared Radiation 424

21.2 Polarized Light 425

21.3 Electric Fields 428

21.3.1 Fish 428

21.3.2 Monotremata 432

21.4 Magnetic Fields 434

21.5 Concluding Remarks 436

Chapter 22 Pain 437

22.1 The Biological Significance of Pain 438

22.2 Neurophysiology of Pain 440

22.2.1 Nociceptor Fibres 440

22.2.2 Nociceptor Ion Channels 443

22.2.3 Molecular Biology 444

22.2.4 Central Pathways 446

22.3 Neuropharmacology of Pain Pathways 449

22.4 Referred Pain 450

22.5 Gate Theory 451

22.6 Concluding Remarks 452

Part V Self Assessment 455

Part V Notes, References and Bibliography 458

Part VI Coda 463

Chapter 23 Summing Up 465

23.1 Molecular Themes 466

23.2 Cellular Themes 468

23.3 Sense Organs 469

23.4 Central Analysers 470

23.5 Homeostasis 472

23.6 Different Sensory Worlds 473

23.7 From Abiotic to Biotic: Communication 474

23.8 From Biotic to Social Communication: Mirror Neurons 475

23.9 Concluding Remarks 477

Chapter 24 Philosophical Postscript 479

24.1 Descartes 479

24.2 Qualia 480

24.3 Tabula Rasa? 481

24.4 Epigenetic Epistemology 482

24.5 Evolutionary Epistemology 485

24.6 Beyond Descartes 487

24.7 Concluding Remarks 490

Box 24.1 Sensory Substitution 484

Part VI Self Assessment 491

Part VI Notes, References and Bibliography 493

Appendix Some Techniques 497

Acronyms and Abbreviations 501

Glossary 505

Index 511

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