Biology of the Arthropod Cuticle

Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1975)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642809125
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/15/2011
  • Series: Zoophysiology Series
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1975
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 450
  • Product dimensions: 6.69 (w) x 9.61 (h) x 0.95 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- A. Treatment of Subject.- B. General Functions and Significance of Cuticle.- C. Previous Reviews.- 2 General Structure of Integument.- A. Basic Plan of Cuticle.- B. Epicuticle.- I. Cement Layer.- II. Wax Layer.- III. Outer Epicuticle.- IV. Inner Epicuticle.- C. Procuticle.- I. Lateral Divisions.- II. Horizontal Divisions.- III. Vertical Structures.- D. Cellular Aspects.- E. Cuticle and Respiration.- F. Related Structures.- 3 The Structural Macromolecules.- A. Chitin.- I. Composition.- II. Biosynthesis and Enzymic Degradation of Chitin.- III. Chitin Conformation—Earlier Studies.- IV. Chitin Polymorphism.- V. The—-Chitin Unit Cell.- VI. Chitin Density.- VII. Critique of Preparation Methods for Infrared and X-ray Diffraction Studies.- VIII. Chitin Orientation in Eutropidacris Tendon.- IX. Infrared Spectroscopy of Entropidacris Tendon.- X. X-ray Crystallography of Eutropidacris Tendon.- XI Refinement of Chitin Molecular Model.- XII. Indexing Chitin X-ray Diffraction Diagrams.- B. Lipids.- I. Long-chain Alcohols.- II. Fatty Acids.- III. Esters.- IV. Aliphatic Aldehydes.- V. Diols.- VI. Ceroplastol and Ceroplasteric Acid.- VII. Phospholipids.- VIII. Branched Hydrocarbons.- IX. Sterols.- X. Cuticulin.- XI Shellac.- XII. Biosynthesis.- XIII. Functions of Cuticular Lipids.- C. Proteins.- I. Cuticle Structural Proteins.- II. Oothecal Proteins.- III. Enzymes Involved in Cuticle Functions.- IV. Egg Shell Proteins.- V. Silk Proteins.- VI. Are Cuticle Proteins Synthesized in Locations Other than Epidermis?.- D. Pterines.- E. Melanin.- F. Chemical Interactions in Cuticle.- 4 Molecular Cross-Linking.- A. Introduction.- B. Oothecal Protein Cross-Linking.- C. Tanning of Exocuticle.- I. The Para-Quinone Hypothesis.- II. Tanning with N-Aeetyldopamine.- III. Metabolic Aspects.- IV. Biphenyls and Peroxidase.- V. Protein Groups Available for Tanning.- VI. Location of Phenoloxidase.- VII. Phenolic Reservoirs.- VIII. Function of—-Alanine in Cuticle.- IX. Sulfur Cross-Links.- D. Cross-Links in Endocuticle.- E. Autotanning.- F. Epicuticle Tanning.- G. Chitin-Protein Cross-Links.- H. Cross-Linking of Resilin.- I. Thermodynamic Analysis of Rubberlike Elasticity.- II. Chemical Studies on Resilin Cross-Links.- III. Biosynthesis of Resilin.- IV. Studies on Number of Cross-Links and Chain Flexibility.- V. Influence of Resilin Primary Structure on Secondary and Tertiary Structure.- VI. Some Factors Affecting Resilin Tertiary Structure.- I. Silk Tanning.- J. Stabilization of Egg Shells.- 5 Supermolecular Architecture.- A. The Microfibril in Cuticle.- I. Microfibril Composition.- II. Microfibril Diameter.- III. The Chitin Crystallite Lattice.- IV. The Microfibril/Matrix System.- V. Origin of Microfibrils.- VI. Microfibril Beading.- VII. Macrofibrils.- B. Helicoidal Architecture.- I. Two-system Model of Cuticle Architecture.- II. Effect of Microfibril Orientation on Pore Canals.- III. Helicoids in Other Living Systems.- IV. Analogy with Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.- V. Form Optical Activity in Cuticle.- C. Symmetry and Asymmetry of Microfibrillar Architecture.- D. Polymer Single Crystals.- E. Self-Assembly.- F. Is Cuticle Self-Assembled?.- G. Sense of Rotation of Helicoid.- H. Helicoidal Optics.- I. Crystallographic Faults in Cuticle.- J. Primary Versus Secondary Microfibril Orientation.- 6 Physiological Aspects.- A. Daily Growth Layers in Cuticle.- I. Rubberlike Cuticle.- II. Crustacean Gastroliths.- III. Insect Apodemes.- IV. Insect Solid Endocuticle.- V. Age Determination.- VI. Involvement of a Circadian Clock.- VII. Uncoupling Chitin Orientation from the Clock.- VIII. Exceptions.- IX. Epidermal Light Sense.- X. Metamorphosis and Cuticle Ultrastructure.- B. Hormones and Cuticle.- I. Juvenile Hormone and Analogues.- II. Ecdysone.- III. Bursicon.- IV. Hormones Involved in the Control of Tanning Metabolism.- V. Some Controversial Points.- VI. Chromosome Puffing and Cuticle Secretion.- VII. Event Timing.- VIII. Hormones and Wax Secretion.- IX. Hormones and Oothecal Glands.- C. Wound Repair.- D. Contractile Filaments in Epidermis.- E. Nervous Control.- I. Tanning.- II. Cuticle Plasticization.- F. The Integument and Water Relations.- I. Water Uptake.- II. Resistance to Water Loss.- G. Control of Chitin Orientation.- I. Epidermal Polarity and Gradients Related to Chitin Orientation.- II. Secondary Reorientation of Chitin.- III. Quantitative Measurements of Chitin Orientation in Beetles.- IV. Control of Chitin Microfibril Orientation—a Physiological Summary.- 7 Calcification.- A. Cuticle Ultrastructure in Crustacea.- B. Calcification in Crustacea.- C. Calcium Storage in Crustacea.- D. Calcification in Insects.- 8 Physical Properties.- A. Optical Properties.- I. Transparency.- II. Absorption.- III. Physical Colors.- IV. Reflection of UV Wavelengths.- V. Reflection of IR Wavelengths.- VI. Fluorescence.- VII. Cuticle Birefringence.- B. Cuticle and Sense Organs.- I. Eye Cuticle.- II. Infra-Red Sense Organs.- III. Mechanoreceptors.- IV. Chemoreceptor Cuticle.- C. Electrical Properties of Cuticle.- I. Isolated Cuticle Compared with Integument.- II. Location of Electrolyte Barrier.- III. Paths of Ions through Cuticle.- IV. Potential Difference across Cuticle.- V. An Electret in Cuticle.- VI. Electrical Models of Cuticle.- VII. Egg Cuticle.- VIII. Electrical Properties and Age ,.- IX. Active Membrane Response in Integument.- X. Piezoelectricity.- XI Cuticle as a Semi-Conductor Related to Calcification.- D. Mechanical Properties.- I. Cuticle as a Composite Material.- II. The Range of Cuticle Mechanical Properties.- III. Solid Cuticle.- IV. Resilin and Rubberlike Cuticle.- V. Female Locust Intersegmental Membrane.- VI. Cuticle Hardness.- VII. Silk Tensile Strength.- E. Aspects of Cuticle Penetration.- I. Permeability of Locust Tergal Cuticle.- II. Permeability of Locust Rectal Cuticle.- III. Cuticular Canals as Permeability Routes.- IV. Cockroach Grease as an Ion Sieve.- V. Outer Epicuticle as a Selective Filter.- VI. Permeability of Mayfly Larval Gills.- VII. Permeability of Egg Shells.- VIII. Cuticle and Pathogen Entry.- IX. Insecticide Penetration.- 9 Phylogenetical Aspects.- A. Ecdysis.- B. Resilin.- C. Cuticle Architecture.- D. Fossil Cuticle.- E. Cuticle Studies on Arthropod Groups.- I. Phylum Onychophora.- II. Class Chilopoda.- III. Class Diplopoda.- IV. Class Collembola.- V. Classes Symphyla and Diplura.- VI. Class Branchiopoda.- VII. Class Ostracoda.- VIII. Class Copepoda.- IX. Class Cirripedia.- X. Class Malacostraca.- XI Class Xiphosura.- XII. Class Arachnida.- 10 Outstanding Problems.- A. Tricks and Techniques.- B. Tissue Culture.- C. Immunology.- D. Some Physical Methods.- E. Ultrastructural and Functional Problems.- F. Developmental Problems.- G. Chemical Problems.- H. Mechanical Problems.- I. Ecological Problems.- References.- Species Index.
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