Biomass to Biofuels: Strategies for Global Industries / Edition 1

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Focusing on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision, this book integrates technological development and business development rationales to highlight the key technological.developments that are necessary to industrialize biofuels on a global scale. Technological issues addressed in this work include fermentation and downstream processing technologies, as compared to current industrial practice and process economics. Business issues that provide the lens through which the technological review is performed span the entire biofuel value chain, from financial mechanisms to fund biotechnology start-ups in the biofuel arena up to large green field manufacturing projects, to raw material farming, collection and transport to the bioconversion plant, manufacturing, product recovery, storage, and transport to the point of sale. Emphasis has been placed throughout the book on providing a global view that takes into account the intrinsic characteristics of various biofuels markets from Brazil, the EU, the US, or Japan, to emerging economies as agricultural development and biofuel development appear undissociably linked.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The Physical quality of Wiley's books is never in doubt, and this volume is no different. It proclaims itself as ‘a valuable handbook for scientists and policy makers working in the biofuels industry,' a fairly true assertion." (Enagri eMagazine, July 2010)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470513125
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 3/15/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 584
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Table of Contents





1 Characteristics of Biofuels and Renewable FuelStandards (Alan C. Hansen, Dimitrios C. Kyritsis, and Chiafon F. Lee).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Molecular Structure.

1.3 Physical Properties.

1.4 Chemical Properties.

1.5 Biofuel Standards.

1.6 Perspective.


2 The Global Demand for Biofuels: Technologies, Markets andPolicies (Jürgen Scheffran).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Motivation and Potential of Renewable Fuels.

2.3 Renewable Fuels in the Transportation Sector.

2.4 Status and Potential of Major Biofuels.

2.5 Biofuel Policies and Markets in Selected Countries.

2.6 Perspective.


3 Biofuel Demand Realization (Stephen R. Hughes andNasib Qureshi).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Availability of Renewable Resources to Realize BiofuelDemand.

3.3 Technology Improvements to Enhance Biofuel ProductionEconomics.

3.4 US Regulatory Requirements for Organisms Engineered to MeetBiofuel Demand.

3.5 Perspective.



4 Advanced Biorefineries for the Production of FuelEthanol (Stephen R. Hughes, William Gibbons, and ScottKohl).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Ethanol Production Plants Using Sugar Feedstocks.

4.3 Dedicated Dry-Grind and Dry-Mill Starch Ethanol ProductionPlants.

4.4 Dedicated Wet-Mill Starch Ethanol Production Plants.

4.5 Dedicated Cellulosic Ethanol Production Plants.

4.6 Advanced Combined Biorefineries.

4.7 Perspective.




5 Biomass Liquefaction and Gasification (NicolausDahmen, Edmund Henrich, Andrea Kruse, and Klaus Raffelt).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Direct Liquefaction.

5.3 Biosynfuels from Biosyngas.

5.4 Perspective.


6 Diesel from Syngas (Yong-Wang Li, Jian Xu, and YongYang).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Overview of Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis.

6.3 Historical Development of the Fischer–TropschSynthesis Process.

6.4 Modern Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis Processes.

6.5 Economics.

6.6 Perspective.



7 Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils (Jon VanGerpen).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Use of Vegetable Oils as Diesel Fuels.

7.3 Renewable Diesel.

7.4 Properties.

7.5 Biodiesel Production.

7.6 Transesteritication.

7.7 Biodiesel Purification.

7.8 Perspective.


8 Biofuels from Microalgae and Seaweeds (MichaelHuesemann, G. Roesjadi, John Benemann, and F. BlaineMetting).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Biofuels from Microalgae: Products, Processes, andLimitations.

8.3 Biofuels from Seaweeds: Products, Processes, andLimitations.

8.4 Perspective.



9 Improvements in Corn to Ethanol Production Technology UsingSaccharomyces cerevisiae (Vijay Singh, David B.Johnston, Kent D. Rausch, and M.E. Tumbleson).

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Current Industrial Ethanol Production Technology.

9.3 Granular Starch Hydrolysis.

9.4 Corn Fractionation.

9.5 Simultaneous SSF and Distillation.

9.6 Dynamic Control of SSF Processes.

9.7 Cost of Ethanol.

9.8 Perspective.


10 Advanced Technologies for Biomass Hydrolysis andSaccharification Using Novel Enzymes (Margret E. BergMiller, Jennifer M. Brulc, Edward A. Bayer, Raphael Lamed, Harry J.Flint, and Bryan A. White).

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 The Substrate.

10.3 Glycosyl Hydrolases.

10.4 The Cellulosome Concept.

10.5 New Approaches for the Identification of Novel GlycosideHydrolases.

10.6 Perspective.


11 Mass Balances and Analytical Methods for BiomassPretreatment Experiments (Bruce S. Dien).

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Analysis of Feedstocks for Composition and PotentialEthanol Yield.

11.3 Pretreatment.

11.4 Enzymatic Extraction of Sugars.

11.5 Fermentation of Pretreated Hydrolysates to Ethanol.

11.6 Feedstock and Process Integration.

11.7 Perspective.



12 Biomass Conversion Inhibitors and In SituDetoxification (Z. Lewis Liu and Hans P. Blaschek).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Inhibitory Compounds Derived from Biomass Pretreatment.

12.3 Inhibitory Effects.

12.4 Removal of Inhibitors.

12.5 Inhibitor-Tolerant Strain Development.

12.6 Inhibitor Conversion Pathways.

12.7 Molecular Mechanisms of In Situ Detoxification.

12.8 Perspective.



13 Fuel Ethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Raw MaterialsUsing Recombinant Yeasts (Grant Stanley and BarbelHahn-Hägerdal).

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Consolidated Bioprocessing and Ethanol Production.

13.3 Pentose-Fermenting S. cerevisiae Strains.

13.4 Lignocellulose Fermentation and Ethanol Inhibition.

13.5 Perspective.



14 Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol by Other Organisms(Siqing Liu).

14.1 Introduction.

14.2 Desired Biocatalysts for Biomass to Bioethanol.

14.3 Gram-Negative Bacteria.

14.4 Gram-Positive Bacteria.

14.5 Perspective.



15 Advanced Fermentation Technologies (Masayuki Inui,Alain A. Vertès and Hideaki Yukawa).

15.1 Introduction.

15.2 Batch Processes.

15.3 Fed-Batch Processes.

15.4 Continuous Processes.

15.5 Immobilized Cell Systems.

15.6 Growth-Arrested Process.

15.7 Integrated Bioprocesses.

15.8 Consolidated Bioprocessing (CBP).

15.9 Perspective.


16 Advanced Product Recovery Technologies (Thaddeus CEzeji and Yebo Li).

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Membrane Separation.

16.3 Advanced Technologies for Biofuel Recovery: IndustriallyRelevant Processes.

16.4 Perspective.



17 Clostridia and Process Engineering for EnergyGeneration (Nasib Qureshi and Hans P. Blaschek).

17.1 Introduction.

17.2 Substrates, Cultures, and Traditional Technologies.

17.3 Agricultural Residues as Substrates for the Future.

17.4 Butanol-Producing Microbial Cultures.

17.5 Regulation of Butanol Production and MicrobialGenetics.

17.6 Novel Fermentation Technologies.

17.7 Novel Product Recovery Technologies.

17.8 Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Substrates in IntegratedSystems.

17.9 Integrated or Consolidated Processes.

17.10 Perspective.




18 Hydrogen Generation by Microbial Cultures (AnjaHemschemeier, Katrin Müllner, Thilo Rühle, and ThomasHappe).

18.1. Introduction: Why Biological Hydrogen Production?

18.2. Biological Hydrogen Production.

18.3. Metabolic Basics for Hydrogen Production: Fermentation andPhotosynthesis.

18.4. H2 Production in Application:Cases in Point.

18.5. Perspective.


19 Engineering Photosynthesis forH2 Production fromH2O: Cyanobacteria as DesignOrganisms (Nadine Waschewski, Gábor Bernát, andMatthias Rögner).

19.1 The Basic Idea: Why Hydrogen from Water?

19.2 Realization: Three Mutually Supporting Strategies.

19.3 The Biological Strategy: How to Design a Hydrogen-Producing(Cyano-) Bacterial Cell.

19.4 Engineering the Environment of the Cells: ReactorDesign.

19.5 How Much Can We Expect? The Limit of Natural Systems.

19.6 Perspective.



20 Production and Utilization of Methane Biogas as RenewableFuel (Zhongtang Yu, Mark Morrison, and Floyd L.Schanbacher).

20.1 Introduction.

20.2 The Microbes and Metabolisms UnderpinningBiomethanation.

20.3 Potential Feedstocks Used for Methane BiogasProduction.

20.4 Biomethanation Technologies for Production of MethaneBiogas.

20.5 Utilization of Methane Biogas as a Fuel.

20.6 Perspective.

20.7 Concluding Remarks.

20.8 Disclaimer.


21 Methanol Production and Utilization (Gregory A.Dolan).

21.1 Introduction.

21.2 Biomass Gasification: Mature and Immature.

21.3 Feedstocks: Diverse and Plentiful.

21.4 Biomethanol: ICEs, FFVs, and FCVs.

21.5 Case Study: Waste Wood Biorefinery.

21.6 Case Study: Two-Step Thermochemical Conversion Process.

21.7 Case Study: Mobile Methanol Machine.

21.8 Case Study: Scandinavia Leading the Way with Black LiquorMethanol Production.

21.9 Case Study: Methanol Fermentation through AnaerobicDigestion.



22 Enhancing Primary Raw Materials for Biofuels(Takahisa Hayashi, Rumi Kaida, Nobutaka Mitsuda, MasaruOhme-Takagi, Nobuyuki Nishikuba, Shin-ichiro Kidou, and KoukiYoshida).

22.1 Introduction.

22.2 In-Fibril Modification.

22.3 In-Wall Modifications.

22.4 In-Planta Modifications.

22.5 In-CRES-T Modification.

22.6 A Catalogue of Gene Families for Glycan Synthases andHydrolases.

22.7 Perspective.



23 Axes of Development in Chemical and Process Engineeringfor Converting Biomass to Energy (Alain A.Vertés).

23.1 Global Outlook.

23.2 Enhancement of Raw Material Biomass.

23.3 Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals.

23.4 Chemical Engineering Development.

23.5 Perspective.


24 Financing Strategies for Industrial-Scale BiofuelProduction and Technology Development Start-Ups (Alain A.Vertés and Sarit Soccary Ben Yochanan).

24.1 Background: The Financial Environment.

24.2 Biofuels Project: Steps in Value Creation and RequiredFunding at Each Stage.

24.3 Governmental Incentives to Support the Nascent Biofuel andBiomaterial Industry.

24.4 Perspective: What is the Best Funding Source for Each Stepin a Company’s Development?



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