Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering in Urology

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Overview

Urology is the branch of medicine dealing with disorders or diseases of the male genitor-urinary tract and the female urinary tract. This important book summarises the wealth of recent research on the use of biomaterials and tissue engineering to treat urological disorders.

Part one reviews the fundamentals with chapters on such topics as biofilms and encrustation formation. Part two then discusses recent advances in biomaterials and design of urological devices such as metal ureteral stents, self-lubricating catheter materials and penile implants. Chapters in Part three address urological tissue engineering with coverage of themes such as artificial and natural biomaterials, nano-technology and placental stem cells for tissue engineering the regeneration of urological tissue and organs.

With its eminent editors and international team of contributors, Biomaterials and tissue engineering in urology is an invaluable resource to researchers of urological biomaterials, devices and regenerative medicine in both industry and academia, as well as an important reference for medical practitioners.

  • Provides a comprehensive review of biomaterials and tissue engineering in urology
  • Explores the fundamentals of urology, focusing on biofilms and encrustation and formation
  • Discusses recent advances in biomaterials and the design of urological devices, catheters and stents
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Dr John Denstedt is Professor of Urology at The University of Western Ontario, Canada and is highly regarded for his research in endourology and biomaterials in the urinary tract.

Dr Anthony Atala is Professor and Chair of Urology, and the Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine at Wake Forest University, USA and is recognised for his eminent research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details xv

Preface xxiii

Part I Fundamentals 1

1 Introduction to biofilms in urology P. Cadieux G. Wignall R. Carriveau 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 What is a biofilm and why do they form? 4

1.3 Biofilm formation and structure 5

1.4 Biofilms in general medicine 12

1.5 Biofilms in urology 14

1.6 Biofilm shedding and migration: infection spread and recurrence 22

1.7 Resistance to host factors and antibiotics 23

1.8 Current and future biofilm prevention and treatment strategies 25

1.9 Future trends 30

1.10 Conclusions 31

1.11 Sources of further information and advice 31

1.12 References 32

2 In vivo models for ureteral stents M. K. Louie A. J. Gamboa R. V. Clayman 42

2.1 Introduction 42

2.2 Commonly used animal models 45

2.3 Conclusion and future trends 54

2.4 References 55

3 Models for the assessment of biofilm and encrustation formation on urological materials B. F. Gilmore D. S. Jones S. P. Gorman H. Ceri 59

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Development of urinary encrustation 62

3.3 Assessment of biomaterial encrustation - in vitro models 65

3.4 Dynamic flow-through models 66

3.5 Batch flow or 'static' models 71

3.6 Dynamic continuous flow models 73

3.7 The MBEC-BESTâ„¢ assay 76

3.8 Conclusions 77

3.9 References 78

Part II Materials and design of urological devices 83

4 Ureteral stents: design and materials D. Lange B. H. Chew 85

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Current stent biomaterials 88

4.3 Stent coatings 93

4.4 Stent design 95

4.5 Drug-eluting stents 97

4.6 Conclusions and future trends 98

4.7 References 99

5 Metal stents in the upper urinary tract E. Liatsikos D. Karnabatidis P. Kallidonis D.Siablis 104

5.1 Introduction 104

5.2 Types of metal stents in the upper urinary tract 105

5.3 Applications of metal stents 109

5.4 Insertion techniques 118

5.5 Complications and problems 121

5.6 Virtual endoscopy and metal stents 123

5.7 Extra-urinary drainage of the upper urinary tract 125

5.8 Future trends 126

5.9 References 129

6 Coated ureteral stents F. Cauda V. Cauda C. Fiori 134

6.1 Introduction 134

6.2 Methods 137

6.3 Results 139

6.4 Discussion 151

6.5 Conclusions 154

6.6 Acknowledgement 154

6.7 References 155

7 Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation and catheter design D. J. Stickler 157

7.1 Introduction 157

7.2 Virulence factors 158

7.3 Epidemiology of Proteus mirabilis infections 162

7.4 The process of crystalline biofilm formation on catheters 163

7.5 Antimicrobials in the prevention of catheter encrustation 170

7.6 Factors that modulate the rate of Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation on catheters 175

7.7 Urease inhibitors 178

7.8 Catheter design 179

7.9 Future trends 183

7.10 Conclusions 184

7.11 Sources of further information and advice 185

7.12 References 185

8 Self-lubricating catheter materials A. D. Woolfson R. K. Malcolm S. P. Gorman S. D. McCullagh 191

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Silicone chemistry 192

8.3 Self-lubricating silicone biomaterials 197

8.4 Performance characteristics of self-lubricating silicone biomaterials 199

8.5 Bioactive lubricious silicones 201

8.6 Biomimetic lubricious silicones 203

8.7 Toxicity and regulatory issues 203

8.8 Conclusions 205

8.9 References 206

9 Temporary urethral stents T. Tammela 208

9.1 Introduction 208

9.2 Indications for the use of stents 209

9.3 Non-degradable temporary urethral stents 211

9.4 Biodegradable urethral stents 214

9.5 Future trends 221

9.6 References 222

10 Penile implants G. Brock 226

10.1 Introduction 226

10.2 Historical aspects of penile prosthesis development 227

10.3 Biomaterials in current use 230

10.4 Device infection 232

10.5 Erosion resistance 234

10.6 Summary 235

10.7 Future trends 236

10.8 References 237

Part III Urological tissue engineering 241

11 Artificial biomaterials for urological tissue engineering W. A. Farhat P. J. Geutjes 243

11.1 Introduction 243

11.2 History of synthetic biomaterials used in urology 244

11.3 Synthetic scaffolds 245

11.4 Smart biomaterials 247

11.5 Future trends 251

11.6 References 252

12 Natural biomaterials for urological tissue engineering C. C. Roth B.P. Kropp E. Y. Cheng 255

12.1 Introduction 255

12.2 Historical application of natural biomaterials 256

12.3 Fundamental biomaterials 257

12.4 Collagen-based extracellular matrices 261

12.5 Future trends 274

12.6 Sources of further information and advice 275

12.7 References 275

13 Nanotechnology and urological tissue engineering B. S. Harrison C. L. Ward 281

13.1 Introduction 281

13.2 Rationale for nanomaterials in engineering tissue 282

13.3 Use of nanomaterials as biomaterials 283

13.4 Use of nanomaterials for aiding cell tracking 287

13.5 Use of nanomaterials to improve drug delivery 290

13.6 Conclusions 292

13.7 Future trends 292

13.8 Source of further information and advice 294

13.9 References 294

14 Assessing the performance of tissue-engineered urological implants G. J. Christ D. Burmeister S. Vishwajit Y. Jarajapu K.-E. Andersson 299

14.1 Introduction 299

14.2 The bladder 301

14.3 Evaluation of engineered or regenerating tissues in vitro 304

14.4 Bladder tissue engineering and regeneration 310

14.5 Conclusions and future trends 314

14.6 References 315

15 Regenerative pharmacology and bladder regeneration K.-E. Andersson G. J. Christ 322

15.1 Introduction 322

15.2 Endogenous bladder regeneration 324

15.3 Construction of a tissue or organ 327

15.4 Development of an engineered bladder 328

15.5 Implantation of the bladder construct in preclinical studies 330

15.6 Preliminary clinical experience with neobladders 331

15.7 Conclusions 332

15.8 Acknowledgement 332

15.9 References 332

16 Autologous cell sources for urological applications Y. Zhang 334

16.1 Introduction 334

16.2 Fully differentiated cells for urological reconstruction 337

16.3 Stem/progenitor cells for urological reconstruction 342

16.4 Cell tracking technology 348

16.5 Conclusions 351

16.6 Acknowledgements 351

16.7 References 351

17 Embryonic stem cells, nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis-derived stem cells for urological reconstruction R. Dorin J. Yamzon C. J. Koh 357

17.1 Introduction 357

17.2 Principles of tissue engineering 358

17.3 Stem cells: overview 360

17.4 Embryonic stem cells 361

17.5 Nuclear transfer 363

17.6 Parthenogenesis 367

17.7 Induced pluripotent stem cells 369

17.8 Conclusions and future trends 370

17.9 References 371

18 Amniotic fluid and placental stem cells as a source for urological regenerative medicine P. De Coppi G. Bartsch A. Atala 378

18.1 Introduction 378

18.2 Amniocentesis 378

18.3 Differentiated cells from amniotic fluid 379

18.4 Mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic fluid 379

18.5 Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells 382

18.6 Conclusions 390

18.7 References 390

19 The use of adipose progenitor cells in urology D. S. Dave L. V. Rodriguez 395

19.1 Introduction 395

19.2 Nomenclature and origin of adipose progenitor cells 397

19.3 Isolation procedures 397

19.4 Molecular characterization 399

19.5 Differentiation capacity of adipose-derived-stem cells 402

19.6 Applications in the field of urology 404

19.7 Future trends 411

19.8 References 412

20 Regenerative medicine of the urinary sphincter via an endoscopic approach M. C. Smaldone M. B. Chancellor 422

20.1 Introduction 422

20.2 Neurophysiology of stress urinary incontinence 424

20.3 Stem cell source for the injection therapy of stress urinary incontinence 427

20.4 Role of muscle-derived stem cells in the delivery of neurotrophic factors 433

20.5 Injection technique 434

20.6 Current results of clinical studies 436

20.7 Conclusions 438

20.8 Acknowledgements 438

20.9 References 439

21 Regenerative medicine of the urinary sphincter via direct injection R. Yiou 445

21.1 Introduction 445

21.2 Challenges with muscle precursor cell transfer 446

21.3 The direct myofiber implantation procedure 447

21.4 Direct injection of muscle precursor cells using minced muscle 450

21.5 Conclusions and future trends 451

21.6 References 451

22 Regenerative medicine for the urethra T. Aboushwareb A. Atala A. Elkassaby 454

22.1 Introduction 454

22.2 Synthetic scaffolds 455

22.3 Biological (natural) polymers 456

22.4 Conclusions 464

22.5 Acknowledgement 465

22.6 References 465

23 Penile reconstruction H.-J. Wang J. J. Yoo 470

23.1 Introduction 470

23.2 Basic principles of penile tissue engineering 471

23.3 Engineering of functional corporal tissue 473

23.4 Engineered penile prosthesis 476

23.5 Reconstruction of the tunica albuginea 478

23.6 Summary and future trends 478

23.7 Acknowledgement 479

23.8 References 479

24 Tissue engineering in reproductive medicine A. Sophonsritsuk C. E. Bishop 482

24.1 Tissue engineering of the vagina 482

24.2 Methods of vaginal tissue reconstitution 483

24.3 Tissue engineering of the uterus 486

24.4 Methods of uterine tissue reconstitution 487

24.5 Tissue engineering of the ovarian tissue 491

24.6 Method for culturing follicles 495

24.7 Conclusions 496

24.8 Acknowledgements 497

24.9 References 497

25 Regenerative medicine of the kidney N. Guimaraes-Souza R. Soler J. J. Yoo 502

25.1 Introduction 502

25.2 Basic components of renal tissue engineering 503

25.3 Approaches for the regeneration of renal tissue 505

25.4 Cell-based therapy for kidney disease 511

25.5 Summary 512

25.6 Acknowledgement 513

25.7 References 513

26 Stem cells and kidney regeneration S. Sedrakyan L. Perin R. E. De Filippo 518

26.1 Introduction 518

26.2 Endogenous stem cells 519

26.3 Exogenous stem cells 521

26.4 Conclusions 526

26.5 References 527

27 Techniques for engineering bladder tissue A. Atala 532

27.1 Introduction 532

27.2 Cells used in tissue engineering 534

27.3 Biomaterials used in tissue engineering 539

27.4 Bladder repair and replacement: current and future technologies 541

27.5 Summary and conclusions 545

27.6 References 545

Index 550

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