Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine / Edition 2

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Overview

Biomaterials Science introduces a subject that has profound impact on human health as well as considerable economic importance. The topics addressed include the biology, medical applications, markets, regulation, and ethical issues involved in biomaterials science. This spectrum of issues reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Those new to the field of biomaterials will appreciate the book's coverage of basic principles, while readers experienced in the area will benefit from the discussions of specific application areas.

Audience: Biomaterials Engineers, Materials Scientists and Engineers, Clinical Enginners.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
Praise for the previous edition
"...this outstanding text deserves nothing but praise...There is no topic related to biomaterials that is not covered somewhere in this book..."--POLYMER NEWS

"It can be unequivocally stated that this Second Edition will further establish itself as one of the fundamental textbooks in the field,..."
- C. James Kirkpatrick MD PhD DSc FRCPath FBSE, biomat.net

"This book will undoubtedly fill a huge gap in the provision of authoritative texts in medical engineering...it is the only text that currently covers this area comprehensively." - David F. Williams, MATERIALS TODAY

Jeremy L. Gilbert
This is a basic introductory text for pedagogical use in biomaterials education. It attempts to cover a wide array of concepts and applications related to biomaterials science. "It was intended to provide a basic introduction to biomaterials science, the complexity and basic science principles necessary to understand the interaction of materials with living tissues. A text along these lines has been extremely important for this field for some time. This text falls short in bringing basic science principles to the student, although it does provide some important information. "It was written for use as an introduction to biomaterials primarily for students interested in learning the basic concepts in this field. "The figures and tables are of high quality and appropriate quantity, and the references are thorough and relatively current. The index is extensive and well done. Overall, the appearance of the book is excellent. "This text is a good first effort to bring a usable text for biomaterials science to the community. Although many chapters are excellent and thorough, others are less well done. There are some redundancies in the text and some omissions of important areas. Compared with other texts in the field, it is the best at this point. However, there are definite areas for improvement. In particular, this text does not bring enough basic science or fundamental knowledge to the student. The physics and structure-property relationships for materials and surfaces are lacking, and more emphasis is placed on biology (cell and molecular). Overall, this is the best text in the field, and I would recommend it as such.
From The Critics
Reviewer:Jeremy L. Gilbert, PhD (Syracuse University)
Description:This is a basic introductory text for pedagogical use in biomaterials education. It attempts to cover a wide array of concepts and applications related to biomaterials science.
Purpose:It was intended to provide a basic introduction to biomaterials science, the complexity and basic science principles necessary to understand the interaction of materials with living tissues. A text along these lines has been extremely important for this field for some time. This text falls short in bringing basic science principles to the student, although it does provide some important information.
Audience:It was written for use as an introduction to biomaterials primarily for students interested in learning the basic concepts in this field.
Features:The figures and tables are of high quality and appropriate quantity, and the references are thorough and relatively current. The index is extensive and well done. Overall, the appearance of the book is excellent.
Assessment:This text is a good first effort to bring a usable text for biomaterials science to the community. Although many chapters are excellent and thorough, others are less well done. There are some redundancies in the text and some omissions of important areas. Compared with other texts in the field, it is the best at this point. However, there are definite areas for improvement. In particular, this text does not bring enough basic science or fundamental knowledge to the student. The physics and structure-property relationships for materials and surfaces are lacking, and more emphasis is placedon biology (cell and molecular) . Overall, this is the best text in the field, and I would recommend it as such.
Booknews
The application of materials to problems in biology and medicine involves a complexity of medical needs, basic research, advanced technological development, ethical considerations, industrial involvement, and federal regulation. In this presentation, which aims for a balanced introduction to the field, chapters on properties of materials and classes of materials used in medicine are followed by discussion of concepts of biology, biochemistry, and medicine, and practical aspects--host reactions to biomaterials and their evaluation, degradation of materials in the biological environment, artificial organs, implants and devices, and new products and standards. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780125824637
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 7/29/2004
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 864
  • Product dimensions: 8.28 (w) x 11.46 (h) x 1.57 (d)

Meet the Author

Buddy D. Ratner, Michael L. and Myrna Darland Endowed Chair in Bioengineering and Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Washington, received his Ph.D. (1972) in polymer chemistry from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. From 1985-1996 he directed the NIH-funded National ESCA and Surface Analysis Center for Biomedical Problems (NESAC/BIO), and in 1996 he assumed the directorship of University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB), an NSF Engineering Research Center. He is the editor of the Journal of Undergraduate Research in Bioengineering, a past president of the Society for Biomaterials and author of 400 scholarly works. Ratner is a fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE), the American Vacuum Society and a Fellow, Biomaterials Science and Engineering (FBSE). He served as president of AIMBE, 2002-2003. He is vice president of the Tissue Engineering Society International (TESI) 2003-2005. In 2002 Ratner was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering, USA, and in 2004 he won the Founder’s Award for the Society For Biomaterials. His research interests include biomaterials, tissue engineering, polymers, biocompatibility, surface analysis of organic materials, self-assembly, nanobiotechnology and RF-plasma thin film deposition. Summary of Buddy Ratner’s awards and honors: 1989 Clemson Award for Contributions to the Biomaterials Literature 1990 Burlington Resources Foundation Faculty Achievement Award for Outstanding Research 1991 Perkin-Elmer Physical Electronics Award for Excellence in Surface Science 1991-1992 President, Society For Biomaterials 1993 Founding Fellow, American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) 1993 Fellow, American Vacuum Society; Vice President, AIMBE 1993 Fellow, Society For Biomaterials; Van Ness Lecturer, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1998 C.M.A. Stine Award in Materials Science (AIChE); American Vacuu

Professor Hoffman studied at M.I.T., where he received B.S., M.S., and Sc.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering between 1953 and 1957. He taught on the faculty of M.I.T. Chemical Engineering Department for a total of ten years. He also spent four years in industry. Since 1970 he has been Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington. Professor Hoffman has over 330 publications, several books and chapters, 21 patents and several other patents pending. He is on the Editorial Boards of seven scientific journals. Summary of professional activities and awards include: •President, Society for Biomaterials, 1983-1984 •Clemson Award in Biomaterials, 1984 •Board of Governors, Controlled Release Society, 1991-1994 •Biomaterials Science Prize, Japanese Biomaterials Society, 1990 •Founders’ Award of the Society for Biomaterials, 2000 •Election to the National Academy of Engineering, 2005 In December, 1992, Hoffman's colleagues organized a symposium in Maui, Hawaii in honor of his 60th birthday. In December, 2002 his 70th birthday was celebrated at another special symposium, once again in Maui, Hawaii. Papers from the first symposium were published in the Journal of Biomaterials Science (Polymer Edition), along with a Festschrift book, and similar publications are in press at this time from the second symposium.

Frederick J. Schoen is Professor of Pathology and Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School; Director of Cardiac Pathology and Executive Vice-Chairman in the Department of Pathology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) in Boston. Schoen received a B.S.E. (Materials and Metallurgical Engineering) from the University of Michigan (1966), a Ph.D. in Materials Science from Cornell University (1970) and an M.D. from the University of Miami School of Medicine (1974). Following a Surgery internship followed by residency in Anatomic Pathology and fellowship in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Pathology at the University of Florida, he joined BWH in 1980. Schoen has focused his research career on tissue-biomaterial interactions, structure-function-pathology correlations in the native heart valves, heart valve substitutes and other cardiovascular prostheses, calcification of bioprosthetic tissues, heart transplantation, and cardiovascular applications of tissue engineering. Schoen has leadership responsibilities in academic programs in the Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School and the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology (HST); he currently chairs the HST Faculty Appointments Committee and the Graduate (Curriculum) Committee, and is an active teacher of courses in pathology, cardiovascular pathology, and biomaterials and tissue engineering. He chairs the BWH Education Committee. Schoen is author or co-author of approximately 375 manuscripts in journals and books. He authored Interventional and Surgical Cardiovascular Pathology: Clinical Correlations and Basic Principles (1989); and was Co-Editor of Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine (1st Edition 1996, 2nd Edition 2004), and Silver’s Cardiovascular Pathology, 3rd Edition (2001). He is Past-President of the Society For Biomaterials (SFB) and the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology, and was Founding Fellow of the American In

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Table of Contents

Contributors
Preface
Biomaterials Science: An Interdisciplinary Endeavor 1
Ch. 1 Properties of Materials
1.1 Introduction 11
1.2 Bulk Properties of Materials 11
1.3 Surface Properties of Materials 21
Ch. 2 Classes of Materials Used in Medicine
2.1 Introduction 37
2.2 Metals 37
2.3 Polymers 50
2.4 Hydrogels 60
2.5 Bioresorbable and Bioerodible Materials 64
2.6 Ceramics, Glasses, and Glass-Ceramics 73
2.7 Natural Materials 84
2.8 Composites 94
2.9 Thin Films, Grafts, and Coatings 105
2.10 Fabrics 118
2.11 Biologically Functional Materials 124
Ch. 3 Some Background Concepts
3.1 Introduction 133
3.2 Proteins: Structure, Properties, and Adsorption to Surfaces 133
3.3 Cells: Their Surfaces and Interactions with Materials 141
3.4 Tissues 147
Ch. 4 Host Reactions to Biomaterials and Their Evaluation
4.1 Introduction 165
4.2 Inflammation, Wound Healing, and the Foreign Body Response 165
4.3 Immunology and the Complement System 173
4.4 Systemic Toxicity and Hypersensitivity 188
4.5 Blood Coagulation and Blood-Materials Interactions 193
4.6 Tumorigenesis and Biomaterials 200
4.7 Implant-Associated Infection 205
Ch. 5 Testing Biomaterials
5.1 Introduction 215
5.2 In Vitro Assessment of Tissue Compatibility 215
5.3 In Vivo Assessment of Tissue Compatibility 220
5.4 Testing of Blood-Materials Interactions 228
5.5 Animal Models 238
Ch. 6 Degradation of Materials in the Biological Environment
6.1 Introduction 243
6.2 Chemical and Biochemical Degradation of Polymers 243
6.3 Degradative Effects of the Biological Environment on Metals and Ceramics 260
6.4 Mechanical Breakdown in the Biological Environment 267
6.5 Pathologic Calcification of Biomaterials 272
Ch. 7 Application of Materials in Medicine and Dentistry
7.1 Introduction 283
7.2 Cardiovascular Applications 283
7.3 Nonthrombogenic Treatments and Strategies 297
7.4 Dental Implants 308
7.5 Adhesives and Sealants 319
7.6 Ophthalmologic Applications 328
7.7 Orthopedic Applications 335
7.8 Drug Delivery Systems 346
7.9 Sutures 356
7.10 Burn Dressings 360
7.11 Bioelectrodes 371
7.12 Biomedical Sensors and Biosensors 375
Ch. 8 Artificial Organs
8.1 Introduction 389
8.2 Implantable Pneumatic Artificial Hearts 389
8.3 Extracorporeal Artificial Organs 400
Ch. 9 Implants and Devices
9.1 Introduction 415
9.2 Sterilization of Implants 415
9.3 Cardiovascular Implantation 420
9.4 Dental Implantation 426
9.5 Ophthalmic Implantation 435
9.6 Implant and Device Failure 443
9.7 Correlations of Material Surface Properties with Biological Responses 445
9.8 Implant Retrieval and Evaluation 451
Ch. 10 New Products and Standards
10.1 Introduction 457
10.2 Voluntary Consensus Standards 457
10.3 Product Development and Regulation 461
Ch. 11 Perspectives and Possibilities in Biomaterials Science 465
Appendix Properties of Biological Fluids 469
Index 473
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