Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement / Edition 3

Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement / Edition 3

by David A. Winter
     
 

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ISBN-10: 047144989X

ISBN-13: 9780471449898

Pub. Date: 09/28/2004

Publisher: Wiley

A thorough update of the classic book on human movement in biomechanics

Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Third Edition is the thoroughly updated and retitled version of the widely used Biomechanics of Human Movement. Integrating a common set of data and analyses with reliable material on biomechanical techniques, this up-to-date edition examines

Overview

A thorough update of the classic book on human movement in biomechanics

Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Third Edition is the thoroughly updated and retitled version of the widely used Biomechanics of Human Movement. Integrating a common set of data and analyses with reliable material on biomechanical techniques, this up-to-date edition examines techniques used to measure and analyze all body movements as mechanical systems, including such everyday movements as walking.

This highly informative and accessible Third Edition treats each limb of the body as a separate segment connected at hinge joints. Actuators replace muscles, and torque motors replace the net effect of all muscles. Descriptions of movements are given as well as examinations of the cause of the movement at kinetic and electromyographic levels.

Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Third Edition features:

  • New material on 3D kinematics and kinetics emphasizing motor control
  • Expanded coverage on image measurement systems
  • New information on 3D center-of-mass estimates
  • Models of the kinetics of balance control
  • The latest research findings on fundamental relationships
  • New biophysical models of EMG detection, as well as standards for recording and reporting

Complete with basic physics principles presented in capsule form for quick reference, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Third Edition is an essential resource for students and researchers.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780471449898
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
09/28/2004
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
344
Product dimensions:
6.44(w) x 9.39(h) x 0.92(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition xiii

1 Biomechanics as an Interdiscipline 1

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Measurement, Description, Analysis, and Assessment 2

1.1.1 Measurement, Description, and Monitoring 3

1.1.2 Analysis 5

1.1.3 Assessment and Interpretation 6

1.2 Biomechanics and its Relationship with Physiology and Anatomy 7

1.3 Scope of the Textbook 9

1.3.1 Signal Processing 9

1.3.2 Kinematics 10

1.3.3 Kinetics 10

1.3.4 Anthropometry 11

1.3.5 Muscle and Joint Biomechanics 11

1.3.6 Electromyography 11

1.3.7 Synthesis of Human Movement 12

1.3.8 Biomechanical Motor Synergies 12

1.4 References 12

2 Signal Processing 14

2.0 Introduction 14

2.1 Auto-and Cross-Correlation Analyses 14

2.1.1 Similarity to the Pearson Correlation 15

2.1.2 Formulae for Auto- and Cross-Correlation Coefficients 16

2.1.3 Four Properties of the Autocorrelation Function 17

2.1.4 Three Properties of the Cross-Correlation Function 20

2.1.5 Importance in Removing the Mean Bias from the Signal 21

2.1.6 Digital Implementation of Auto- and Cross-Correlation Functions 22

2.1.7 Application of Autocorrelations 23

2.1.8 Applications of Cross-Correlations 23

2.2 Frequency Analysis 26

2.2.1 Introduction-Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain 26

2.2.2 Discrete Fourier (Harmonic) Analysis 27

2.2.3 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 30

2.2.4 Applications of Spectrum Analyses 30

2.3 Ensemble Averaging of Repetitive Waveforms 41

2.3.1 Examples of Ensemble-Averaged Profiles 41

2.3.2 Normalization of Time Bases to 100% 42

2.3.3 Measure of Average Variability about the Mean Waveform 43

2.4 References 43

3 Kinematics 45

3.0 Historical Development and Complexity of Problem45

3.1 Kinematic Conventions 46

3.1.1 Absolute Spatial Reference System 46

3.1.2 Total Description of a Body Segment in Space 47

3.2 Direct Measurement Techniques 48

3.2.1 Goniometers 48

3.2.2 Special Joint Angle Measuring Systems 50

3.2.3 Accelerometers 50

3.3 Imaging Measurement Techniques 53

3.3.1 Review of Basic Lens Optics 54

3.3.2 f-Stop Setting and Field of Focus 54

3.3.3 Cinematography 55

3.3.4 Television 58

3.3.5 Optoelectric Techniques 61

3.3.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Optical Systems 63

3.3.7 Summary of Various Kinematic Systems 64

3.4 Processing of Raw Kinematic Data 64

3.4.1 Nature of Unprocessed Image Data 64

3.4.2 Signal versus Noise in Kinematic Data 65

3.4.3 Problems of Calculating Velocities and Accelerations 66

3.4.4 Smoothing and Curve Fitting of Data 67

3.4.5 Comparison of Some Smoothing Techniques 74

3.5 Calculation of Other Kinematic Variables 75

3.5.1 Limb-Segment Angles 75

3.5.2 Joint Angles 77

3.5.3 Velocities-Linear and Angular 77

3.5.4 Accelerations-Linear and Angular 78

3.6 Problems Based on Kinematic Data 79

3.7 References 80

4 Anthropometry 82

4.0 Scope of Anthropometry in Movement Biomechanics 82

4.0.1 Segment Dimensions 82

4.1 DensityMassand Inertial Properties 83

4.1.1 Whole-Body Density 83

4.1.2 Segment Densities 84

4.1.3 Segment Mass and Center of Mass 85

4.1.4 Center of Mass of a Multisegment System 88

4.1.5 Mass Moment of Inertia and Radius of Gyration 89

4.1.6 Parallel-Axis Theorem 90

4.1.7 Use of Anthropometric Tables and Kinematic Data 91

4.2 Direct Experimental Measures 96

4.2.1 Location of the Anatomical Center of Mass of the Body 96

4.2.2 Calculation of the Mass of a Distal Segment 96

4.2.3 Moment of Inertia of a Distal Segment 97

4.2.4 Joint Axes of Rotation 98

4.3 Muscle Anthropometry 100

4.3.1 Cross-Sectional Area of Muscles 100

4.3.2 Change in Muscle Length during Movement 102

4.3.3 Force per Unit Cross-Sectional Area (Stress) 102

4.3.4 Mechanical Advantage of Muscle 102

4.3.5 Multijoint Muscles 102

4.4 Problems Based on Anthropometric Data 104

4.5 References 106

5 Kinetics: Forces and Moments of Force 107

5.0 Biomechanical Models 107

5.0.1 Link-Segment Model Development 108

5.0.2 Forces Acting on the Link-Segment Model 109

5.0.3 Joint Reaction Forces and Bone-on-Bone Forces 110

5.1 Basic Link-Segment Equations-the Free-Body Diagram 112

5.2 Force Transducers and Force Plates 117

5.2.1 Multidirectional Force Transducers117

5.2.2 Force Plates 117

5.2.3 Special Pressure-Measuring Sensory Systems 121

5.2.4 Synchronization of Force Plate and Kinematic Data 122

5.2.5 Combined Force Plate and Kinematic Data 123

5.2.6 Interpretation of Moment-of-Force Curves 124

5.2.7 A Note about the Wrong Way to Analyze Moments of Force 126

5.2.8 Differences between Center of Mass and Center of Pressure 127

5.2.9 Kinematics and Kinetics of the Inverted Pendulum Mode 130

5.3 Bone-on-Bone Forces During Dynamic Conditions 131

5.3.1 Indeterminacy in Muscle Force Estimates 131

5.3.2 Example Problem (Scott and Winter1990) 132

5.4 Problems Based on Kinetic and Kinematic Data 136

5.5 References 137

6 Mechanical Work, Energy, and Power 139

6.0 Introduction 139

6.0.1 Mechanical Energy and Work 139

6.0.2 Law of Conservation of Energy 140

6.0.3 Internal versus External Work 141

6.0.4 Positive Work of Muscles 143

6.0.5 Negative Work of Muscles 144

6.0.6 Muscle Mechanical Power 144

6.0.7 Mechanical Work of Muscles 145

6.0.8 Mechanical Work Done on an External Load 146

6.0.9 Mechanical Energy Transfer between Segments 148

6.1 Efficiency 149

6.1.1 Causes of Inefficient Movement 151

6.1.2 Summary of Energy Flows 154

6.2 Forms of Energy Storage 155

6.2.1 Energy of a Body Segment and Exchanges of Energy Within the Segment 157

6.2.2 Total Energy of a Multisegment System 160

6.3 Calculation of Internal and External Work 162

6.3.1 Internal Work Calculation 162

6.3.2 External Work Calculation 167

6.4 Power Balances at Joints and Within Segments 167

6.4.1 Energy Transfer via Muscles 167

6.4.2 Power Balance Within Segments 168

6.5 Problems Based on Kinetic and Kinematic Data 173

6.6 References 174

7 Three-Dimensional Kinematics and Kinetics 176

7.0 Introduction 176

7.1 Axes Systems 176

7.1.1 Global Reference System 177

7.1.2 Local Reference Systems and Rotation of Axes 177

7.1.3 Other Possible Rotation Sequences 179

7.1.4 Dot and Cross Products 179

7.2 Marker and Anatomical Axes Systems 180

7.2.1 Example of a Kinematic Data Set 183

7.3 Determination of Segment Angular Velocities and Accelerations 187

7.4 Kinetic Analysis of Reaction Forces and Moments 188

7.4.1 Newtonian Three-Dimensional Equations of Motion for a Segment 189

7.4.2 Eider's Three-Dimensional Equations of Motion for a Segment 189

7.4.3 Example of a Kinetic Data Set 191

7.4.4 Joint Mechanical Powers 194

7.4.5 Sample Moment and Power Curves 195

7.5 Suggested Further Reading 198

7.6 References 198

8 Synthesis of Human Movement-Forward Solutions 200

8.0 Introduction 200

8.0.1 Assumptions and Constraints of Forward Solution Models 201

8.0.2 Potential of Forward Solution Simulations 201

8.1 Review of Forward Solution Models 202

8.2 Mathematical Formulation 203

8.2.1 Lagrange's Equations of Motion 205

8.2.2 The Generalized Coordinates and Degrees of Freedom 205

8.2.3 The Lagrangian Function L 207

8.2.4 Generalized Forces [Q] 207

8.2.5 Lagrange's Equations 208

8.2.6 Points and Reference Systems 208

8.2.7 Displacement and Velocity Vectors 210

8.3 System Energy 214

8.3.1 Segment Energy 215

8.3.2 Spring Potential Energy and Dissipative Energy 216

8.4 External Forces and Torques 216

5.5 Designation of Joints 217

8.6 Illustrative Example 217

8.7 Conclusions 222

8.8 References 222

9 Muscle Mechanics 224

9.0 Introduction 224

9.0.1 The Motor Unit 224

9.0.2 Recruitment of Motor Units 225

9.0.3 Size Principle 226

9.0.4 Types of Motor Units-Fast- and Slow-Twitch Classification 228

9.0.5 The Muscle Twitch 228

9.0.6 Shape of Graded Contractions 230

9.1 Force-Length Characteristics of Muscles 231

9.1.1 Force-Length Curve of the Contractile Element 231

9.1.2 Influence of Parallel Connective Tissue 232

9.1.3 Series Elastic Tissue 233

9.1.4 In Vivo Force-Length Measures 235

9.2 Force-Velocity Characteristics 236

9.2.1 Concentric Contractions 236

9.2.2 Eccentric Contractions 238

9.2.3 Combination of Length and Velocity versus Force 239

9.2.4 Combining Muscle Characteristics with Load Characteristics: Equilibrium 240

9.3 Muscle Modeling 243

9.3.1 Example of a Model-EMG Driven 244

9.4 References 247

10 Kinesiological Electromyography 250

10.0 Introduction 250

10.1 Electrophysiology of Muscle Contraction 250

10.1.1 Motor End Plate 251

10.1.2 Sequence of Chemical Events Leading to a Twitch 251

10.1.3 Generation of a Muscle Action Potential 251

10.1.4 Duration of the Motor Unit Action Potential 256

10.1.5 Detection of Motor Unit Action Potentials from Electromyogram during Graded Contractions 256

10.2 Recording of the Electromyogram 257

10.2.1 Amplifier Gain 258

10.2.2 Input Impedance 258

10.2.3 Frequency Response 260

10.2.4 Common-Mode Rejection 261

10.2.5 Cross-Talk in Surface Electromyograms 265

10.2.6 Recommendations for Surface Electromyogram Reporting and Electrode Placement Procedures 268

10.3 Processing of the Electromyogram 269

10.3.1 Full-Wave Rectification 270

10.3.2 Linear Envelope 271

10.3.3 True Mathematical Integrators 272

10.4 Relationship between Electromyogram and Biomechanical Variables 273

10.4.1 Electromyogram versus Isometric Tension 273

10.4.2 Electromyogram during Muscle Shortening and Lengthening 275

10.4.3 Electromyogram Changes during Fatigue 276

10.5 References 277

11 Biomechanical Movement Synergies 281

11.0 Introduction 281

11.1 The Support Moment Synergy 282

11.1.1 Relationship between Ms and the Vertical Ground Reaction Force 285

11.2 Medial/Lateral and Anterior/Posterior Balance in Standing 286

11.2.1 Quiet Standing 286

11.2.2 Medial Lateral Balance Control during Workplace Tasks 288

11.3 Dynamic Balance during Walking 289

11.3.1 The Human Inverted Pendulum in Steady State Walking 289

11.3.2 Initiation of Gait 290

11.3.3 Gait Termination 293

11.4 References 295

Appendices

A KinematicKineticand Energy Data 296

Figure A.l Walking Trial-Marker Locations and Mass and Frame Rate Information 296

Table A.l Raw Coordinate Data (cm) 297

Table A.2(a) Filtered Marker Kinematics-Rib Cage and Greater Trochanter (Hip) 301

Table A.2(b) Filtered Marker Kinematics-Femoral Lateral Epicondyle (Knee) and Head of Fibula 306

Table A.2(c) Filtered Marker Kinematics-Lateral Malleolus (Ankle) and Heel 311

Table A.2(d) Filtered Marker Kinematics-Fifth Metatarsal and Toe 316

Table A.3(a) Linear and Angular Kinematics-Foot 321

Table A.3(b) Linear and Angular Kinematics-Leg 326

Table A.3(c) Linear and Angular Kinematics-Thigh 331

Table A.3(d) Linear and Angular Kinematics-1/2 HAT 336

Table A.4 Relative Joint Angular Kinematics-Ankle, Knee, and Hip 341

Table A.5(a) Reaction Forces and Moments of Force-Ankle and Knee 346

Table A.5(b) Reaction Forces and Moments of Force-Hip 350

Table A.6 Segment Potential, Kinetic, and Total Energies-Foot, Leg, Thigh, and 1/2 HAT 353

Table A.7 Power Generation/Absorption and Transfer-Ankle, Knee, and Hip 358

B Units and Definitions Related to Biomechanical and Electromyographical Measurements 361

Table B.l Base SI Units 361

Table B.2 Derived SI Units 361

Index 367

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