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Biomechanics of the Musculo-Skeletal System / Edition 3

Biomechanics of the Musculo-Skeletal System / Edition 3

by Benno M. Nigg, Walter Herzog

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ISBN-10: 0470017678

ISBN-13: 9780470017678

Pub. Date: 02/09/2007

Publisher: Wiley

The latest edition of this classic in the field presents a unique and comprehensive account of the mechanics of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Written for students and researchers of biomechanics, the book covers key areas including the properties of biomaterials, common measuring techniques and modeling.

As with the previous edition there are numerous


The latest edition of this classic in the field presents a unique and comprehensive account of the mechanics of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Written for students and researchers of biomechanics, the book covers key areas including the properties of biomaterials, common measuring techniques and modeling.

As with the previous edition there are numerous applications and extensive questions and answers at the end of sections. Specific changes for this edition include:

  • Major revision of the section on biological materials including bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, muscle and joints and new discussion of failure and healing
  • Extensive updating of material covering force, pressure distribution, optical methods and simulation
  • An increase in the number and type of applications across a broad range of disciplines

Biomechanics of the Musculo-skeletal System, Third Edition will prove invaluable for undergraduate students in mechanics and physics; medical students and graduate students in engineering, exercise and sport science and kinesiology; and for all those with an interest in the biomechanical aspects of the human or animal body.

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Table of Contents

Contributors     ix
Preface     xi
Introduction     1
Definition of Biomechanics   Nigg, B.M.     2
Selected Historical Highlights   Nigg, B.M.     3
The Scientific Legacy of Antiquity     3
The Middle Ages     9
The Italian Renaissance     9
The Scientific Revolution     14
The Enlightenment     22
The Gait Century     25
The Twentieth Century     30
Final Comments     33
Mechanics   Nigg, B.M.     36
Definitions and Comments     36
Selected Historical Highlights     37
Newton's Laws of Motion     37
Equations of Motion for a Rigid Body     39
General Comments     45
References     46
Biological Materials     49
Definitions and Comments     50
Anatomy     50
Mechanics     55
Selected Historical Highlights     58
Bone     58
Articular Cartilage     60
Ligament     61
Tendon     62
Muscle     63
Bone   Boyd, S.K.   Nigg, B.M     65
Morphology and Histology     65
Physical Properties     73
Bone Mechanics as Related to Function     80
Failure of Bone     91
Articular Cartilage   Herzog, W.   Federico, S.     95
Introduction     95
Structure     95
Composition     97
Mechanical Properties     102
Biomechanics     104
Osteoarthritis     107
Theoretical and Numerical Models     109
Ligament   Thornton, G.M.   Frank, C.B.   Shrive, N.G.     123
Morphology and Histology     123
Function     29
Physical Properties and Mechanics     135
Biology and Function     142
Failure and Healing     144
Tendon/Aponeurosis   Herzog, W.     146
Morphology and Histology     146
Physical Properties     151
Physiological Properties and Adaptive Function     158
Tendon-Muscle-Aponeurosis Interactions     162
Muscle   Herzog, W.     169
Introduction     169
Morphology      169
Muscular Contraction     177
The Cross-Bridge Theory     182
Physical Properties     197
Applications     217
Adaptation of Biological Materials to Exercise, Disuse, and Aging   Zernicke, R.F.   Judex, S.   Lorincz, C.     226
Introduction     226
Bone     226
Articular Cartilage     235
Ligament     237
Tendon     239
Skeletal Muscle     240
Joints   Nigg, B.M.   Herzog, W.     244
Classification of Joints     244
Function     245
Degrees of Freedom of Joints     245
The Human Ankle Joint Complex     247
Joint Adaptation     252
Additional Examples     260
References     266
Measuring Techniques     293
Definitions and Comments     294
Selected Historical Highlights     304
Force   Nigg, B.M.     311
Measuring Possibilities     311
Applications     320
Pressure Distribution   Nigg, B.M.     334
Measuring Possibilities      334
Applications     339
Acceleration   Nigg, B.M.   Boyer, K.A.     343
Measuring Possibilities     343
Applications     354
Optical Methods   Nigg, B.M.   Cole, G.K.   Wright, I.C.     362
Cameras and Markers     362
Determining Marker Positions     366
Determining Rigid Body Kinematics     373
Strain Measurement   Shrive, N.     392
Measuring Possibilities     392
Applications     406
EMG   von Tscharner, V.   Herzog, W.     409
Introduction     409
EMG Signal     409
EMG Signal Recording     415
EMG Signal Processing     418
EMG-Force Relation     430
Examples of Wavelet EMG Analysis     448
Inertial Properties of the Human or Animal Body   Nigg, B.M.     453
Inertial Properties     453
Additional Examples     476
References     484
Modelling     501
Definitions and Comments     502
Selected Historical Highlights     508
A Nearly Possible Story   Nigg, B.M.     512
General Comments About Modelling   Nigg, B.M.     513
General Considerations     513
Information Used to Construct a Model     513
Simplification     514
The Purpose of a Model     515
The Validation of a Model     516
Types of Models     518
Descriptive, Experimental, and/or Analytical Research and Modelling     519
General Procedures in Modelling     521
Force System Analysis   Nigg, B.M.     523
Introduction     523
The Mechanical System of Interest     523
Assumptions     524
Free Body Diagram     525
Equations of Motion     531
Mathematical Solution     534
Mathematically Determinate Systems   Nigg, B.M.     535
Introduction     535
Mechanical Models Using Particles     536
Mechanical Models Using Rigid Bodies     574
Comments for Section 4.6     608
Mathematically Indeterminate Systems   Herzog, W.     609
Introduction     609
Basic Concepts     610
Joint Equipollence Equations     611
Solving Mathematically Underdetermined Systems Using Optimization Theory     612
Simulation   van den Bogert, A.J.   Nigg, B.M.     622
Introduction     622
Differential Equations     623
Numerical Solution Methods     624
Equations of Motion for Mechanical Systems     628
Muscle Models     631
Simulation Using Musculo-Skeletal Models     634
Modelling of External Forces     637
Optimization Studies     639
Simulation as a Scientific Tool     643
Applications     644
Additional Examples     645
References     658
Index     663

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