Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces [NOOK Book]

Overview

The first book on the innovative study of biointerfaces using biophysical chemistry

The biophysical phenomena that occur on biointerfaces, or biological surfaces, hold a prominent place in the study of biology and medicine, and are crucial for research relating to implants, biosensors, drug delivery, proteomics, and many other important areas. Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces takes the unique approach of studying biological systems in terms of the principles and methods of...

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Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces

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Overview

The first book on the innovative study of biointerfaces using biophysical chemistry

The biophysical phenomena that occur on biointerfaces, or biological surfaces, hold a prominent place in the study of biology and medicine, and are crucial for research relating to implants, biosensors, drug delivery, proteomics, and many other important areas. Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces takes the unique approach of studying biological systems in terms of the principles and methods of physics and chemistry, drawing its knowledge and experimental techniques from a wide variety of disciplines to offer new tools to better understand the intricate interactions of biointerfaces. Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces:

  • Provides a detailed description of the thermodynamics and electrostatics of soft particles

  • Fully describes the biophysical chemistry of soft interfaces and surfaces (polymer-coated interfaces and surfaces) as a model for biointerfaces

  • Delivers many approximate analytic formulas which can be used to describe various interfacial phenomena and analyze experimental data

  • Offers detailed descriptions of cutting-edge topics such as the biophysical and interfacial chemistries of lipid membranes and gel surfaces, which serves as good model for biointerfaces in microbiology, hematology, and biotechnology

Biophysical Chemistry of Biointerfaces pairs sound methodology with fresh insight on an emerging science to serve as an information-rich reference for professional chemists as well as a source of inspiration for graduate and postdoctoral students looking to distinguish themselves in this challenging field.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Ohshima (pharmaceutical science, Tokyo U. of Science) sets out a set of tools for discussing various phenomena at biological interfaces - such as cell surfaces - in terms of biophysical chemistry." (SciTech Book News, December 2010)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118057858
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/11/2011
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 547
  • File size: 10 MB

Meet the Author

HIROYUKI OHSHIMA is Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the Tokyo University of Science, Japan. He is the author or co-author of seven books and over 300 book chapters and journal publications reflecting his research interests in the colloid and interfacial sciences as well as biophysical chemistry. He is a member of the New York Academy of Sciences, American Chemical Society, the Physical Society of Japan, the Chemical Society of Japan, and the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. Dr. Ohshima received the BS, MS, and PhD degrees in physics from the University of Tokyo, Japan. He currently edits two journals, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces and Colloid and Polymer Science.

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Table of Contents

Preface

List of Symbols

PART I POTENTIAL AND CHARGE AT INTERFACES 1

1 Potential and Charge of a Hard Particle 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 The Poisson-Boltzmann Equation 3

1.3 Plate 6

1.3.1 Low Potential 8

1.3.2 Arbitrary Potential: Symmetrical Electrolyte 8

1.3.3 Arbitrary Potential: Asymmetrical Electrolyte 13

1.3.4 Arbitrary Potential: General Electrolyte 14

1.4 Sphere 16

1.4.1 Low Potential 17

1.4.2 Surface Charge Density-Surface Potential Relationship: Symmetrical Electrolyte 18

1.4.3 Surface Charge Density-Surface Potential Relationship: Asymmetrical Electrolyte 21

1.4.4 Surface Charge Density-Surface Potential Relationship: General Electrolyte 22

1.4.5 Potential Distribution Around a Sphere with Arbitrary Potential 25

1.5 Cylinder 31

1.5.1 Low Potential 32

1.5.2 Arbitrary Potential: Symmetrical Electrolyte 33

1.5.3 Arbitrary Potential: General Electrolytes 34

1.6 Asymptotic Behavior of Potential and Effective Surface Potential 37

1.6.1 Plate 38

1.6.2 Sphere 41

1.6.3 Cylinder 42

1.7 Nearly Spherical Particle 43

References 45

2 Potential Distribution Around a Nonuniformly Charged Surface and Discrete Charge Effects 47

2.1 Introduction 47

2.2 The Poisson-Boltzmann Equation for a Surface with an Arbitrary Fixed Surface Charge Distribution 47

2.3 Discrete Charge Effect 56

References 62

3 Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Equation 63

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Electrolyte Solution Containing Rod-like Divalent Cations 63

3.3 Electroylyte Solution Containing Rod-like Zwitterions 70

3.4 Self-atmosphere Potential of Ions 77

References 82

4 Potential and Charge of a Soft Particle 83

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Planar Soft Surface 83

4.2.1 Poisson-Boltzmann Equation 83

4.2.2 Potential Distribution Across a Surface Charge Layer 87

4.2.3 Thick Surface Charge Layer and Donnan Potential 90

4.2.4 Transition Between Donnan Potential and Surface Potential 91

4.2.5 Donnan Potential in a General Electrolyte 92

4.3 Spherical Soft Particle 93

4.3.1 Low Charge Density Case 93

4.3.2 Surface Potential-Donnan Potential Relationship 95

4.4 Cylindrical Soft Particle 100

4.4.1 Low Charge Density Case 101

4.5 Asymptotic Behavior of Potential and Effective Surface Potential of a Soft Particle 102

4.5.1 Plate 103

4.5.2 Sphere 103

4.5.3 Cylinder 104

4.6 Nonuniformly Charged Surface Layer: Isoelectric Point 104

References 110

5 Free Energy of a Charged Surface 111

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Helmholtz Free Energy and Tension of a Hard Surface 111

5.2.1 Charged Surface with Ion Adsorption 111

5.2.2 Charged Surface with Dissociable Groups 116

5.3 Calculation of the Free Energy of the Electrical Double Layer 118

5.3.1 Plate 119

5.3.2 Sphere 120

5.3.3 Cylinder 121

5.4 Alternative Expression for Fe1 122

5.5 Free Energy of a Soft Surface 123

5.5.1 General Expression 123

5.5.2 Expressions for the Double-Layer Free Energy for a Planar Soft Surface 127

5.5.3 Soft Surface with Dissociable Groups 128

References 130

6 Potential Distribution Around a Charged Particle in a Salt-Free Medium 132

6.1 Introduction 132

6.2 Spherical Particle 133

6.3 Cylindrical Particle 143

6.4 Effects of a Small Amount of Added Salts 146

6.5 Spherical Soft Particle 152

References 162

PART II INTERACTION BETWEEN SURFACES 163

7 Electrostatic Interaction of Point Charges in an Inhomogeneous Medium 165

7.1 Introduction 165

7.2 Planar Geometry 166

7.3 Cylindrical Geometry 180

References 185

8 Force and Potential Energy of the Double-Layer Interaction Between Two Charged Colloidal Particles 186

8.1 Introduction 186

8.2 Osmotic Pressure and Maxwell Stress 186

8.3 Direct Calculation of Interaction Force 188

8.4 Free Energy of Double-Layer Interaction 198

8.4.1 Interaction at Constant Surface Charge Density 199

8.4.2 Interaction at Constants Surface Potential 200

8.5 Alternative Expression for the Electric Part of the Free Energy of Double-Layer Interaction 201

8.6 Charge Regulation Model 201

References 202

9 Double-Layer Interaction Between Two Parallel Similar Plates 203

9.1 Introduction 203

9.2 Interaction Between Two Parallel Similar Plates 203

9.3 Low Potential Case 207

9.3.1 Interaction at Constant Surface Charge Density 208

9.3.2 Interaction at Constant Surface Potential 211

9.4 Arbitrary Potential Case 214

9.4.1 Interaction at Constant Surface Charge Density 214

9.4.2 Interaction at Constant Surface Potential 224

9.5 Comparison Between the Theory of Derjaguin and Landau and the Theory of Verwey and Overbeek 226

9.6 Approximate Analytic Expressions for Moderate Potentials 227

9.7 Alternative Method of Linearization of the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation 231

9.7.1 Interaction at Constant Surface Potential 231

9.7.2 Interaction at Constant Surface Charge Density 234

References 240

10 Electrostatic Interaction Between Two Parallel Dissimilar Plates 241

10.1 Introduction 241

10.2 Interaction Between Two Parallel Dissimilar Plates 241

10.3 Low Potential Case 244

10.3.1 Interaction at Constant Surface Charge Density 244

10.3.2 Interaction at Constant Surface Potential 251

10.3.3 Mixed Case 252

10.4 Arbitrary Potential: Interaction at Constant Surface Charge Density 252

10.4.1 Isodynamic Curves 252

10.4.2 Interaction Energy 258

10.5 Approximate Analytic Expressions for Moderate Potentials 262

References 263

11 Linear Superposition Approximation for the Double-Layer Interaction of Particles at Large Separations 265

11.1 Introduction 265

11.2 Two Parallel Plates 265

11.2.1 Similar Plates 265

11.2.2 Dissimilar Plates 270

11.2.3 Hypothetical Charge 276

11.3 Two Spheres 278

11.4 Two Cylinders 279

References 281

12 Derjaguin's Approximation at Small Separations 283

12.1 Introduction 283

12.2 Two Spheres 283

12.2.1 Low Potentials 285

12.2.2 Moderate Potentials 286

12.2.3 Arbitrary Potentials: Derjaguin's Approximation Combined with the Linear Superposition Approximation 288

12.2.4 Curvature Correction to Derjaguin' Approximation 290

12.3 Two Parallel Cylinders 292

12.4 Two Crossed Cylinders 294

References 297

13 Donnan Potential-Regulated Interaction Between Porous Particles 298

13.1 Introduction 298

13.2 Two Parallel Semi-infinite Ion-penetrable Membranes (Porous Plates) 298

13.3 Two Porous Spheres 306

13.4 Two Parallel Porous Cylinders 310

13.5 Two Parallel Membranes with Arbitrary Potentials 311

13.5.1 Interaction Force and Isodynamic Curves 311

13.5.2 Interaction Energy 317

13.6 pH Dependence of Electrostatic Interaction Between Ion-penetrable Membranes 320

References 322

14 Series Expansion Representations for the Double-Layer Interaction Between Two Particles 323

14.1 Introduction 323

14.2 Schwartz's Method 323

14.3 Two Spheres 327

14.4 Plate and Sphere 342

14.5 Two Parallel Cylinders 348

14.6 Plate and Cylinder 353

References 356

15 Electrostatic Interaction Between Soft Particles 357

15.1 Introduction 357

15.2 Interaction Between Two Parallel Dissimilar Soft Plates 357

15.3 Interaction Between Two Dissimilar Soft Spheres 363

15.4 Interaction Between Two Dissimilar Soft Cylinders 369

References 374

16 Electrostatic Interaction Between Nonuniformly Charged Membranes 375

16.1 Introduction 375

16.2 Basic Equations 375

16.3 Interaction Force 376

16.4 Isoelectric Points with Respect To Electrolyte Concentration 378

References 380

17 Electrostatic Repulsion Between Two Parallel Soft Plates After Their Contact 381

17.1 Introduction 381

17.2 Repulsion Between Intact Brushes 381

17.3 Repulsion Between Compressed Brushes 382

References 387

18 Electrostatic Interaction Between Ion-Penetrable Membranes In a Salt-free Medium 388

18.1 Introduction 388

18.2 Two Parallel Hard Plates 388

18.3 Two Parallel Ion-Penetrable Membranes 391

References 398

19 Van der Waals Interaction Between Two Particles 399

19.1 Introduction 399

19.2 Two Molecules 399

19.3 A Molecule and a Plate 401

19.4 Two Parallel Plates 402

19.5 A Molecule and a Sphere 404

19.6 Two Spheres 405

19.7 A Molecule and a Rod 407

19.8 Two Parallel Rods 408

19.9 A Molecule and a Cylinder 408

19.10 Two Parallel Cylinders 410

19.11 Two Crossed Cylinders 412

19.12 Two Parallel Rings 412

19.13 Two Parallel Torus-Shaped Particles 413

19.14 Two Particles Immersed In a Medium 417

19.15 Two Parallel Plates Covered with Surface Layers 418

References 419

20 DLVO Theory of Colloid Stability 420

20.1 Introduction 420

20.2 Interaction Between Lipid Bilayers 420

20.3 Interaction Between Soft Spheres 425

References 429

PART III ELECTROKINETIC PHENOMENA AT INTERFACES 431

21 Electrophoretic Mobility of Soft Particles 433

21.1 Introduction 433

21.2 Brief Summary of Electrophoresis of Hard Particles 433

21.3 General Theory of Electrophoretic Mobility of Soft Particles 435

21.4 Analytic Approximations for the Electrophoretic Mobility of Spherical Soft Particles 440

21.4.1 Large Spherical Soft Particles 440

21.4.2 Weakly Charged Spherical Soft Particles 444

21.4.3 Cylindrical Soft Particles 447

21.5 Electrokinetic Flow Between Two Parallel Soft Plates 449

21.6 Soft Particle Analysis of the Electrophoretic Mobility of Biological Cells and Their Model Particles 454

21.6.1 RAW117 Lymphosarcoma Cells and Their Variant Cells 454

21.6.2 Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogel-Coated Latex 455

21.7 Electrophoresis of Nonuniformly Charged Soft Particles 457

21.8 Other Topics of Electrophoresis of Soft Particles 463

References 464

22 Electrophoretic Mobility of Concentrated Soft Particles 468

22.1 Introduction 468

22.2 Electrophoretic Mobility of Concentrated Soft Particles 468

22.3 Electroomotic Velocity in an Array of Soft Cylinders 475

References 479

23 Electrical Conductivity of a Suspension of Soft Particles 480

23.1 Introduction 480

23.2 Basic Equations 480

23.3 Electrical Conductivity 481

References 484

24 Sedimentation Potential and Velocity in a Suspension of Soft Particles 485

24.1 Introduction 485

24.2 Basic Equations 485

24.3 Sedimentation Velocity of a Soft Particle 490

24.4 Average Electric Current and Potential 490

24.5 Sedimentation Potential 491

24.6 Onsager's Reciprocal Relation 494

24.7 Diffusion Coefficient of a Soft Particle 495

References 495

25 Dynamic Electrophoretic Mobility of a Soft Particle 497

25.1 Introduction 497

25.2 Basic Equations 497

25.3 Linearized Equations 499

25.4 Equation of Motion of a Soft Particle 501

25.5 General Mobility Expression 501

25.6 Approximate Mobility Formula 503

References 506

26 Colloid Vibration Potential in a Suspension of Soft Particles 508

26.1 Introduction 508

26.2 Colloid Vibration Potential and Ion Vibration Potential 508

References 513

27 Effective Viscosity of a Suspension of Soft Particles 515

27.1 Introduction 515

27.2 Basic Equations 516

27.3 Linearized Equations 518

27.4 Electroviscous Coefficient 520

27.5 Approximation for Low Fixed-Charge Densities 523

27.6 Effective Viscosity of a Concentrated Suspension of Uncharged Porous Spheres 527

Appendix 27A 530

References 531

PART IV OTHER TOPICS 533

28 Membrane Potential and Donnan Potential 535

28.1 Introduction 535

28.2 Membrane Potential and Donnan Potential 535

References 541

Index 543

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