Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts / Edition 2

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Overview

Bioprocess Engineering, Second Edition thoroughly updates the leading introductory textbook on biochemical and bioprocess engineering to reflect advances that are transforming the field -- from genomics to cellular engineering, modeling to nonconventional biological systems. It introduces techniques with wide applicability in pharmaceuticals, biologics, medicine, environmental engineering, and beyond.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

DR. MICHAEL L. SHULER is Professor in the School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University. His areas of research include structured models, heterologous protein expression systems, cell culture analogs for pharmacokinetic models, in-vitro toxicology, plant-cell tissue culture, microbial functional genomics, and bioremediation.

DR. FIKRET KARGI is Professor of Environmental Engineering at Dokuz Eylul University in Ismir, Turkey. His current research includes bioprocessing of wastes for production of commercial products, development of novel technologies for biological treatment of problematic wastewaters, nutrient removal, and novel biofilm reactor development.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface to the Second Edition

In the decade since the first edition of Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, biotechnology has undergone several revolutions. Currently, the ability to sequence the genome of whole organisms presents opportunities that could be hardly envisioned ten years ago. Many other technological advances have occurred that provide bioprocess engineers with new tools to serve society better. However, the principles of bioprocess engineering stated in the first edition remain sound.

The goals of this revision are threefold. We want to capture for students the excitement created by these advances in biology and biotechnology. We want to inform students about these tools. Most importantly, we want to demonstrate how the principles of bioprocess engineering can be applied in concert with these advances.

This edition contains a new section in the first chapter alerting students to the regulatory issues that constrain bioprocess design and modification. We believe students need to be aware of these industrially critical issues. Part 2, "An Overview of Biological Basics," has been updated throughout and expanded. Greater emphasis is given now to posttranslational processing of proteins, as this is a key issue in choice of bioprocessing strategies to make therapeutic proteins. Basic processes in animal cells are more completely described, since animal cell culture is now an established commercial bioprocess technology. Chapter 5 is made more complete by introduction of a section on noncarbohydrate metabolism. Key concepts in functional genomics have been added to prepare students to understand the impact of these emerging ideas and technologies on bioprocesses.

In Part 3, "Engineering Principles for Bioprocesses," greater attention is given to issues associated with animal cell bioreactors. The discussion of chromatographic processes is expanded. In Part 4, "Applications to Nonconventional Biological Systems," the material has been rearranged and updated and a new chapter added. These changes are evident in the chapters on animal and plant cell culture. Particularly important is the expanded discussion on choice of host-vector systems for production of proteins from recombinant DNA technology. Coverage of two areas of increasing importance to bioprocess engineers, metabolic and protein engineering, has been expanded. A new chapter on biomedical applications illustrates how approaches to bioprocess engineering are relevant to problems typically considered to be biomedical engineering. The chapter on mixed cultures has been extended to cover advanced waste-water treatment processes. An appendix providing descriptive overviews of some traditional bioprocesses is now included.

The suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter have been updated. We are unable in this book to provide in-depth treatment of many vital topics. These readings give students an easy way to begin to learn more about these topics.

Teaching a subject as broad as bioprocess engineering in the typical one-semester, three-credit class has never been easy. Although some material in the first edition has been removed or condensed, the second edition is longer than the first. For students with no formal background in biology, coverage of all of the material in this book would require a four-credit class. In a three-credit class we suggest that the instructor cover Chapters 1 to 11 (with 7 being optional) and then decide on subsequent chapters based on course goals. A course oriented toward biopharmaceuticals will want to include careful coverage of Chapters 12 and 14 and some coverage of 13 and 15. A course oriented toward utilization of bioresources would emphasize Chapter 16 and the Appendix and selected coverage of topics in Chapters 13 and 14.

Many students now enter a bioprocess engineering course with formal, college-level instruction in biology and biochemistry. For such students Chapters 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 can be given as reading assignments to refresh their memories and to insure a uniform, minimal level of biological knowledge. Lecture time can be reserved for material in other chapters or for supplementary material. For these five chapters study questions are provided for self-testing. Under these circumstances the instructor should be able to cover the rest of the material in the book.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition.

Preface to the First Edition.

I. INTRODUCTION.

1. What is a Bioprocess Engineer?

Introductory Remarks. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. Biologists and Engineers Differ in Their Approach to Research. The Story of Penicillin: How Biologists and Engineers Work Together. Bioprocesses: Regulatory Constraints. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

II. THE BASICS OF BIOLOGY: AN ENGINEER'S PERSPECTIVE.

2. An Overview of Biological Basics.

Are All Cells the Same? Cell Construction. Cell Nutrients. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

3. Enzymes.

Introduction. How Enzymes Work. Enzyme Kinetics. Immobilized Enzyme Systems. Large-scale Production of Enzymes. Medical and Industrial Utilization of Enzymes. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

4. How Cells Work.

Introduction. The Central Dogma. DNA Replication: Preserving and Propagating the Cellular Message. Transcription: Sending the Message. Translation: Message to Product. Metabolic Regulation. How the Cell Senses Its Extracellular Environment. Summary. Appendix: Examples of Regulation of Complex Pathways. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

5. Major Metabolic Pathways.

Introduction. Bioenergetics. Glucose Metabolism: Glycolysis and the TCA Cycle. Respiration. Control Sites in Aerobic Glucose Metabolism. Metabolism of Nitrogenous Compounds. Nitrogen Fixation. Metabolism of Hydrocarbons. Overview of Biosynthesis. Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism. Overview of Autotrophic Metabolism. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

6. How Cells Grow.

Introduction. Batch Growth. Quantifying Growth Kinetics. How Cells Grow in Continuous Culture. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

7. Stoichiometry of Microbial Growth and Product Formation.

Introduction. Some Other Definitions. Stoichiometric Calculations. Theoretical Predictions of Yield Coefficients. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

8. How Cellular Information is Altered.

Introduction. Evolving Desirable Biochemical Activities through Mutation and Selection. Natural Mechanisms for Gene Transfer and Rearrangement. Genetically Engineering Cells. Genomics. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

III. ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR BIOPROCESSES.

9. Operating Considerations for Bioreactors for Suspension and Immobilized Cultures.

Introduction. Choosing the Cultivation Method. Modifying Batch and Continuous Reactors. Immobolized Cell Systems. Solid-state Fermentations. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

10. Selection, Scale-Up, Operation, and Control of Bioreactors.

Introduction. Scale-up and Its Difficulties. Bioreactor Instrumentation and Control. Sterilization of Process Fluids. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

11. Recovery and Purification of Products.

Strategies to Recover and Purify Products. Separation of Insoluble Products. Cell Disruption. Separation of Soluble Products. Finishing Steps for Purification. Integration of Reaction and Separation. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

IV. APPLICATIONS TO NONCONVENTIONAL BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

12. Bioprocess Considerations in Using Animal Cell Cultures.

Structure and Biochemistry of Animal Cells. Methods Used for the Cultivation of Animal Cells. Bioreactor Considerations for Animal Cell Culture. Products of Animal Cell Cultures. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

13. Bioprocess Considerations in Using Plant Cell Cultures.

Why Plant Cell Cultures? Plant Cells in Culture Compared to Microbes. Bioreactor Considerations. Economics of Plant Cell Tissue Cultures. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

14. Utilizing Genetically Engineered Organisms.

Introduction. How the Product Influences Process Decisions. Guidelines for Choosing Host-Vector Systems. Process Constraints: Genetic Instability. Considerations in Plasmid Design to Avoid Process Problems. Predicting HostÐVector Interactions and Genetic Instability. Regulatory Constraints on Genetic Processes. Metabolic Engineering. Protein Engineering. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

15. Medical Applications of Bioprocess Engineering.

Introduction. Tissue Engineering. Gene Therapy Using Viral Vectors. Bioreactors. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

16. Mixed Cultures.

Introduction. Major Classes of Interactions in Mixed Cultures. Simple Models Describing Mixed-culture Interactions. Mixed Cultures in Nature. Industrial Utilization of Mixed Cultures. Biological Waste Treatment: An Example of the Industrial Utilization of Mixed Cultures. Summary. Suggestions for Further Reading. Problems.

17. Epilogue.

Appendix: Traditional Industrial Bioprocesses.

Anaerobic Bioprocesses. Aerobic Processes.

Suggestions for Further Reading.

Index.

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Preface

Preface to the Second Edition

In the decade since the first edition of Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, biotechnology has undergone several revolutions. Currently, the ability to sequence the genome of whole organisms presents opportunities that could be hardly envisioned ten years ago. Many other technological advances have occurred that provide bioprocess engineers with new tools to serve society better. However, the principles of bioprocess engineering stated in the first edition remain sound.

The goals of this revision are threefold. We want to capture for students the excitement created by these advances in biology and biotechnology. We want to inform students about these tools. Most importantly, we want to demonstrate how the principles of bioprocess engineering can be applied in concert with these advances.

This edition contains a new section in the first chapter alerting students to the regulatory issues that constrain bioprocess design and modification. We believe students need to be aware of these industrially critical issues. Part 2, "An Overview of Biological Basics," has been updated throughout and expanded. Greater emphasis is given now to posttranslational processing of proteins, as this is a key issue in choice of bioprocessing strategies to make therapeutic proteins. Basic processes in animal cells are more completely described, since animal cell culture is now an established commercial bioprocess technology. Chapter 5 is made more complete by introduction of a section on noncarbohydrate metabolism. Key concepts in functional genomics have been added to prepare students to understand the impact of these emerging ideas and technologies on bioprocesses.

In Part 3, "Engineering Principles for Bioprocesses," greater attention is given to issues associated with animal cell bioreactors. The discussion of chromatographic processes is expanded. In Part 4, "Applications to Nonconventional Biological Systems," the material has been rearranged and updated and a new chapter added. These changes are evident in the chapters on animal and plant cell culture. Particularly important is the expanded discussion on choice of host-vector systems for production of proteins from recombinant DNA technology. Coverage of two areas of increasing importance to bioprocess engineers, metabolic and protein engineering, has been expanded. A new chapter on biomedical applications illustrates how approaches to bioprocess engineering are relevant to problems typically considered to be biomedical engineering. The chapter on mixed cultures has been extended to cover advanced waste-water treatment processes. An appendix providing descriptive overviews of some traditional bioprocesses is now included.

The suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter have been updated. We are unable in this book to provide in-depth treatment of many vital topics. These readings give students an easy way to begin to learn more about these topics.

Teaching a subject as broad as bioprocess engineering in the typical one-semester, three-credit class has never been easy. Although some material in the first edition has been removed or condensed, the second edition is longer than the first. For students with no formal background in biology, coverage of all of the material in this book would require a four-credit class. In a three-credit class we suggest that the instructor cover Chapters 1 to 11 (with 7 being optional) and then decide on subsequent chapters based on course goals. A course oriented toward biopharmaceuticals will want to include careful coverage of Chapters 12 and 14 and some coverage of 13 and 15. A course oriented toward utilization of bioresources would emphasize Chapter 16 and the Appendix and selected coverage of topics in Chapters 13 and 14.

Many students now enter a bioprocess engineering course with formal, college-level instruction in biology and biochemistry. For such students Chapters 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 can be given as reading assignments to refresh their memories and to insure a uniform, minimal level of biological knowledge. Lecture time can be reserved for material in other chapters or for supplementary material. For these five chapters study questions are provided for self-testing. Under these circumstances the instructor should be able to cover the rest of the material in the book.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

Preface to the Second Edition

In the decade since the first edition of Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, biotechnology has undergone several revolutions. Currently, the ability to sequence the genome of whole organisms presents opportunities that could be hardly envisioned ten years ago. Many other technological advances have occurred that provide bioprocess engineers with new tools to serve society better. However, the principles of bioprocess engineering stated in the first edition remain sound.

The goals of this revision are threefold. We want to capture for students the excitement created by these advances in biology and biotechnology. We want to inform students about these tools. Most importantly, we want to demonstrate how the principles of bioprocess engineering can be applied in concert with these advances.

This edition contains a new section in the first chapter alerting students to the regulatory issues that constrain bioprocess design and modification. We believe students need to be aware of these industrially critical issues. Part 2, "An Overview of Biological Basics," has been updated throughout and expanded. Greater emphasis is given now to posttranslational processing of proteins, as this is a key issue in choice of bioprocessing strategies to make therapeutic proteins. Basic processes in animal cells are more completely described, since animal cell culture is now an established commercial bioprocess technology. Chapter 5 is made more complete by introduction of a section on noncarbohydrate metabolism. Key concepts in functional genomics have been added to prepare students to understand the impact of these emerging ideasand technologies on bioprocesses.

In Part 3, "Engineering Principles for Bioprocesses," greater attention is given to issues associated with animal cell bioreactors. The discussion of chromatographic processes is expanded. In Part 4, "Applications to Nonconventional Biological Systems," the material has been rearranged and updated and a new chapter added. These changes are evident in the chapters on animal and plant cell culture. Particularly important is the expanded discussion on choice of host-vector systems for production of proteins from recombinant DNA technology. Coverage of two areas of increasing importance to bioprocess engineers, metabolic and protein engineering, has been expanded. A new chapter on biomedical applications illustrates how approaches to bioprocess engineering are relevant to problems typically considered to be biomedical engineering. The chapter on mixed cultures has been extended to cover advanced waste-water treatment processes. An appendix providing descriptive overviews of some traditional bioprocesses is now included.

The suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter have been updated. We are unable in this book to provide in-depth treatment of many vital topics. These readings give students an easy way to begin to learn more about these topics.

Teaching a subject as broad as bioprocess engineering in the typical one-semester, three-credit class has never been easy. Although some material in the first edition has been removed or condensed, the second edition is longer than the first. For students with no formal background in biology, coverage of all of the material in this book would require a four-credit class. In a three-credit class we suggest that the instructor cover Chapters 1 to 11 (with 7 being optional) and then decide on subsequent chapters based on course goals. A course oriented toward biopharmaceuticals will want to include careful coverage of Chapters 12 and 14 and some coverage of 13 and 15. A course oriented toward utilization of bioresources would emphasize Chapter 16 and the Appendix and selected coverage of topics in Chapters 13 and 14.

Many students now enter a bioprocess engineering course with formal, college-level instruction in biology and biochemistry. For such students Chapters 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 can be given as reading assignments to refresh their memories and to insure a uniform, minimal level of biological knowledge. Lecture time can be reserved for material in other chapters or for supplementary material. For these five chapters study questions are provided for self-testing. Under these circumstances the instructor should be able to cover the rest of the material in the book.

Read More Show Less

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