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Biorefineries: For Biomass Upgrading Facilities / Edition 1

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Industrial biorefineries have been identified as the most promising routes to the creation of a bio-based economy. Partial biorefineries already exist in some energy crop, forest-based, and lignocellulosic product facilities. Biorefineries: For Biomass Upgrading Facilities examines the variety of different technologies which integrated bio-based industries use to produce chemicals, biofuels; food and feed ingredients; biomaterials; and power from biomass raw materials. These systems can be improved through better utilization of agricultural residues and solid wastes, and through the optimization of total value-added products.

Conversion technologies are also covered, since biomass can be converted into useful biofuels and biochemicals via biomass upgrading and biorefinery technologies. Upgrading processes discussed in this book include fractionation, liquefaction, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, fermentation, and gasification.

Biorefineries: For Biomass Upgrading Facilities will prove a practical resource for chemical engineers, and fuel and environmental engineers. It will also be invaluable in academic fields, providing useful information for both researchers and students.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
From the reviews:

“This book attempts to address the needs of energy researchers, chemical engineers, energy resources specialists, agriculturists, crop cultivators, and others interested in bioenergy. … for non-engineering readers and students, this book may be adequate for a comprehensive overview of the field. It may also be useful … for engineering students. … Summing Up: Recommended. Lower- and upper-division undergraduates, two-year technical program students, general readers.” (A. C. Sheth, Choice, Vol. 47 (8), April, 2010)

“Describes the main biorefinery concepts for the production of fuels based on biomass and their technical opportunities. … In the more technical parts he shows the biomass fractionation and valorisation, the different thermochemical and biochemical processes and an overview to economical, political and environmental impacts of biorefineries. Overall this book is a good reference for biofuel production in biorefineries.” (Bio-based News, Issue 8, February/March, 2011)

“The book clearly aims towards both general and advanced level readers. … The main focus of the book is however on various thermo chemical and biochemical processes that take place in the biorefinery. … the author particularly discusses the technological, economical and policy barriers which need to be overcome for full fledged deployment of a biorefinery based economy. … To gain a comprehensive outlook on this concept is thus highly desired and this is deservedly fulfilled by the book.” (Vishal Toro, Green Energy, Vol. 6 (5), September-October, 2010)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781447125167
  • Publisher: Springer London
  • Publication date: 2/25/2012
  • Series: Green Energy and Technology Series
  • Edition description: 2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.53 (d)

Meet the Author

Ayhan Demirbas is a full professor at Sila Science and Energy, Turkey. He was a professor in Energy Technologies Science at Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey, between 1991 and 2001, and at Selcuk University, Turkey, from 2003 to 2007. His research is mainly concerned with renewable and sustainable energy.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Short Supply of Petroleum 3

1.2.1 Petroleum and Heavy Oil Refining 6

1.2.2 Classification of Oils 7

1.2.3 Petroleum-Based Transportation Fuels 9

1.3 Coal, Coal Liquefaction, and Refining 11

1.4 Natural Gas 16

1.5 Oil Shale and Tar Sands 20

1.6 Natural Bitumen and Extra-Heavy Oil 22

1.7 Introduction to Renewable and Biorenewable Sources 24

1.7.1 Non-Combustible Renewable Energy Sources 24

1.7.2 Combustible Renewable Energy Sources 29

References 31

2 Fuels from Biomass 33

2.1 Introduction 33

2.1.1 Biomass Feedstocks 35

2.1.2 Modern Biomass, Bioenergy, and Green Energy 40

2.2 The Chemistry of Biomass 42

2.2.1 Biomass Fuel Analyses 45

2.3 Biomass Conversion Processes 47

2.4 Chemicals from Biomass 50

2.4.1 Char from Biomass 52

2.4.2 Adhesives from Biomass 54

2.4.3 Valorization of Wood 57

2.5 Biofuels from Biomass 58

2.5.1 Introduction 58

2.5.2 Bioethanol 59

2.5.3 Biodiesel 61

2.5.4 Bio-Oil 62

2.5.5 Biogas 63

2.5.6 Fischer-Tropsch Liquids 64

2.5.7 Biohydrogen 66

2.5.8 Sugar from Biomass 68

2.6 Barriers to the Development of Biofuels 70

References 71

3 Biorefinery 75

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Definitions of Biorefinery 78

3.2.1 Main Technical and Non-Technical Gaps and Barriers to Biorefineries 80

3.3 The History of Biorefinery 81

3.4 Petroleum Refinery and Biorefinery 85

References 91

4 Transportation Fuels 93

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Gasoline or Petrol 94

4.3 Diesel Fuel 99

4.4 Liquefied Petroleum Gas 102

4.5 Compressed Natural Gas 103

4.6 Hydrogen 104

4.7 Biorenewable Liquid Fuels 105

4.8 Biorenewable Gaseous Fuels 109

References 112

5 BiomassFractionation and Valorization 115

5.1 Introduction 115

5.2 Biomass Fractionation and Valorization Facilities 117

5.3 Physical Valorization Facilities of Biomass 121

5.3.1 Briquetting of Particulate Wood Waste 123

5.4 Chemical Valorization Facilities of Biomass 125

5.5 Reuse of Wood Wastes for Energy Generation 127

5.6 Biochemical Valorization Facilities of Biomass 130

References 132

6 Thermochemical Processes 135

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Combustion of Biomass 138

6.3 Liquefaction Process 139

6.3.1 Direct Liquefaction 140

6.3.2 Indirect Liquefaction Processes 142

6.3.3 Hydrothermal Conversion Processes 143

6.3.4 Supercritical Liquefaction 147

6.4 Pyrolysis Process 151

6.4.1 Pyrolysis Facilities 154

6.4.2 Reaction Mechanism of Pyrolysis 156

6.4.3 Char Production 158

6.4.4 Bio-Oil Production 160

6.4.5 Chemicals and Fuels Production 165

6.4.6 Upgrading of Pyrolysis Products 170

6.4.7 Refining of Pyrolysis Products 173

6.4.8 Refining Opportunities for Bio-Oil 175

6.5 Gasification Process 175

6.5.1 Gasification Facilities 177

6.5.2 Integrated Gasification-Fischer-Tropsch (BIG-FT) Process 182

6.5.3 Upgrading of Gasification Products 186

6.5.4 Refining of Upgrading Gasification Products 188

References 189

7 Biochemical Processes 193

7.1 Introduction 193

7.2 Biochemical Conversion Facilities 194

7.3 Production of Fuels 194

7.4 Production of Chemicals 198

7.4.1 Fungal Enzymes to Convert Biomass to Bioethanol 200

7.5 Upgrading of Biochemical Conversion Products 202

7.6 Refining of Biochemical Conversion Products 204

References 208

8 Biorefining Economy 211

8.1 Introduction 211

8.1.1 Costs, Prices, and Economic Impacts of Biofuels 215

References 219

9 Political Impacts of Biorefinery 221

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Political Impacts 222

References 226

10 Environmental Impacts of Biorefineries 227

10.1 Introduction 227

10.2 Environmental Impacts 228

References 234

Index 237

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