Combining both a trained naturalist's observations and a natural storyteller's talents, Sy Montgomery's Birdology takes you inside the world of the winged aliens that most of us think about when they cluster around our bird feeders. As the subtitle suggests, this book is much more than a dry taxonomy; Montgomery views our fine feathered friends as fellow evolving inhabitants of our wondrous world. (Hand-selling tip: The sections on pigeon intelligence and falcon hunting are worth the price of the book.)
Birdology: Adventures with a Pack of Hens, a Peck of Pigeons, Cantankerous Crows, Fierce Falcons, Hip Hop Parrots, Baby Hummingbirds, and One Murderously Big Living Dinosaur (t)by Sy Montgomery
Meet the ladies: a flock of smart, affectionate, highly individualistic chickens who visit their favorite neighbors, devise different ways to hide from foxes, and mob the author like she’s a rock star. In these pages you’ll also meet Maya and Zuni, two orphaned baby hummingbirds who hatched from eggs the size of navy beans, and who are little more than air bubbles fringed with feathers. Their lives hang precariously in the balance—but with human help, they may one day conquer the sky.
Snowball is a cockatoo whose dance video went viral on YouTube and who’s now teaching schoolchildren how to dance. You’ll meet Harris’s hawks named Fire and Smoke. And you’ll come to know and love a host of other avian characters who will change your mind forever about who birds really are.
Each of these birds shows a different and utterly surprising aspect of what makes a bird a bird—and these are the lessons of Birdology: that birds are far stranger, more wondrous, and at the same time more like us than we might have dared to imagine. In Birdology, beloved author of The Good Good Pig Sy Montgomery explores the essence of the otherworldly creatures we see every day. By way of her adventures with seven birds—wild, tame, exotic, and common—she weaves new scientific insights and narrative to reveal seven kernels of bird wisdom.
The first lesson of Birdology is that, no matter how common they are, Birds Are Individuals, as each of Montgomery’s distinctive Ladies clearly shows. In the leech-infested rain forest of Queensland, you’ll come face to face with a cassowary—a 150-pound, man-tall, flightless bird with a helmet of bone on its head and a slashing razor-like toenail with which it (occasionally) eviscerates people—proof that Birds Are Dinosaurs. You’ll learn from hawks that Birds Are Fierce; from pigeons, how Birds Find Their Way Home; from parrots, what it means that Birds Can Talk; and from 50,000 crows who moved into a small city’s downtown, that Birds Are Everywhere. They are the winged aliens who surround us.
Birdology explains just how very "other" birds are: Their hearts look like those of crocodiles. They are covered with modified scales, which are called feathers. Their bones are hollow. Their bodies are permeated with extensive air sacs. They have no hands. They give birth to eggs. Yet despite birds’ and humans’ disparate evolutionary paths, we share emotional and intellectual abilities that allow us to communicate and even form deep bonds. When we begin to comprehend who birds really are, we deepen our capacity to approach, understand, and love these otherworldly creatures. And this, ultimately, is the priceless lesson of Birdology: it communicates a heartfelt fascination and awe for birds and restores our connection to these complex, mysterious fellow creatures.
The Washington Post
Stacey O'Brien, author of Wesley the Owl
"Spell-binding, absolutely compelling, and so beautifully expressed, Birdology tells stories that everyone should know. Nobody has ever gone so far into the minds of birds as Montgomery has. She completely conveys the life, the obsession, the fascination with birds in an intimate, personal, and engaging style. A magnificent achievement."
Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, author of When Elephants Weep and Dogs Never Lie about Love
"Sy Montgomery may be the best interpreter of animals of all time. With impeccable science and profound respect, Birdology describes the miracle of these apparently familiar beings. We take them for granted and that is our mistake. In fact, they are dinosaurs, still living on earth after two hundred and thirty five million years, with minds and abilities that often far surpass our own. One seldom finds a real page-turner as a source of important information, yet Birdology is all of that and more."
Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, author of The Hidden Life of Dogs and The Social Life of Dogs
"From the first greeting of her charming hens to her celebration of crows in all their smarts and wit, Sy Montgomery has me hooked. One cannot read this book without imagining birds as special people, with emotions and personalities and sometimes an intellect not all that different from our own."
Dr. Don Kroodsma, author of The Singing Life of Birds
"Sy Montgomery has once again taken animal writing to another level of consciousness, compassion and understanding. Birdology is a brilliant, strikingly original, and beautifully written look into the fragile, rich story of birds, whose lives as more varied, endangered, individualistic, and powerful than dogs and cats. I've never read anything like this about birds. These stories will haunt and enrich you, and they remind us how important birds are to our history and ecosystem. And how much they need our attention."
Jon Katz, author of A Dog Year and Katz on Dogs
"Sy Montgomery has the mind of a scientist and the fierceness of a raptor as she dives beneath the skin and deep into the bones of the avian world in Birdology. Brimming with insights about hidden bird abilities and the secrets of their behavior, the book is at its heart about the emotional bond between birds and people. Whether describing the gentle art of keeping hens or the bloodcurdling perils of falconry, Sy's writing dazzles like hummingbird feathers drenched in blazing sunshine."
Bob Tarte, author of Enslaved by Ducks and Fowl Weather
"One of America's pre-eminent writers on animals, the immensely talented Sy Montgomery leads us on a compelling journey of exploration into the very depths of what makes a bird a bird. With wit, compassion, and a cornucopia of fascinating facts, she delves into the lives and sensibilities of seven types of birds, tracing our relationship to them throughout evolution and human history. From hawks to hummingbirds and crows to cassowaries, Sy highlights bird language, individuality, homing and hunting abilities, and relationship to dinosaurs in a manner that not only reveals her deep love for birds, but also her inner quest to understand all living things. With this book, birders, animal-lovers, or anyone with a with a mild curiosity about birds, will gain a new-found respect and appreciation for the essence of these avian marvels."
Don and Lillian Stokes, authors of Stokes Field Guide to Birds
"There could be no better guide to the wonder of birds than Sy Montgomery. Her empathy with wild things is as real as it is rare; yet she seems to like the people who study, care for, and work with birds just as much. This is a book about intense connections between people and birds. Montgomery unlocks some of the secret of how and what birds may be thinking. Read it, and you will never look at a parrot, chicken, hawk or pigeon in quite the same way again."
Julie Zickefoose, NPR commentator; author of Letters from Eden
"Montgomery weaves a delightful, insightful story of the unusual lives of familiar birds to show us that they are personable, fun, annoying, lovable, and awesome and do indeed, strike into our very souls. Her tales are an astonishing, wide-ranging blend of science, art, humor, understanding, and love, and a must read for all animal lovers. Montgomery captures not only the incredible and astonishing variety of bird behavior and intelligence, but the essence of the very soul of birds."
Joanna Burger, Distinguished Professor of Biology, and author of The Parrot Who Owns Me
"This is my favorite kind of book: charming, witty, and wise, idiosyncratic and inspiring. And Birdology is Sy Montgomery at her very best. Not a catalog, list, or inventory, Birdology is more like a novel, a confession, or an engaging memoir of life lived with soul and wings. I love this book."
Dale Peterson, author of Jane Goodall: The Woman Who Redefined Man and Elephant Reflections
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Read an Excerpt
I have waited a long time to write this book.
Ever since I was privileged to live among and study wild emus in South Australia in 1984, I have wanted to write a book about birds. Though I have written elsewhere about those emus, I never got around to a whole book about birds, mostly because mammals kept jumping the line: chimps, gorillas, and orangutans. Man-eating tigers. Amazon River dolphins. Snow leopards. Tree kangaroos. Our wonderful pig, Christopher Hogwood. Putting off this book was not intentional, but perhaps fortunate. It is easier to understand our fellow mammals; birds are more distant and enigmatic. It has taken me all this time even to begin to learn how to probe their mysteries.
Birds have been trying to educate me since I was a child. I have always loved watching and reading about and learning from them. But even more importantly, birds always come into my life at critical moments to enrich my spirit and enlarge my heart.
The first male ever to court me—I was only a child but I loved him deeply—was a bird. I was seven. His name was Jerry. He was a green parakeet who came home with me from a dime store. And although I was delighted when he first agreed to perch on my hand and thrilled when he would finally fly to me, I was most honored when he threw up on my finger. Even though I had never seen any other creature do this in quite the same way, I understood what was happening: he was feeding me. This was a mark of deep trust and affection, and he would do this only with me. He had taken me as his mate.
I was entranced and honored by everything Jerry did. I loved the way he used his curved beak to hull his round millet seeds. He’d pierce the husk with his lower mandible and peel the outer husk away by forcing the seed against his ridged palate and twirling it with his strong, muscular tongue. Jerry was thrillingly different from everyone else I had known. Even his digestive system was a radical departure from those of mammals, as I could clearly see from his droppings, which appeared from a single opening and incorporated both waste products in one neat little two-colored package. And of course I loved that Jerry could fly. I let him do so often, to my mother’s dismay. He liked to perch on the crystal chandelier over her prized mahogany dining room table, with predictable consequences.
People used to ask me if I wanted to teach Jerry to talk. I did not. I already had friends who talked. I wanted him to teach me what he knew, for I realized that he was the master and I the student. Among the many things he showed me was that birds stir our souls in ways that change our lives.
The ancients knew this well. Images of birds adorn the walls of the caves of Lascaux, accompanying prehistoric humans on the hunt. It’s easy to imagine why people carved pictures of birds on tombs as early as 2600 B.C. Birds fly through the air, the element of our breath; they symbolize the soul. From Sufi poetry to native American myths, from Egyptian tombs to Christian tapestries, birds beguile us. With their beauty, their songs, their flight, and their very strangeness, birds stir our deepest psychic strivings. Even the commonest of birds (remember Jonathan Livingston Seagull?) wield the power to thrill and inspire.
No wonder bird-watching is the fastest-growing of all outdoor activities in the United States and one of the most popular hobbies the world around. Happily, there are many hundreds of excellent books in print on bird-watching and classification. This book is not among them. Instead, these pages address a dilemma about which British author Tim Dee writes in his book A Year on the Wing. “We seek the truth of birds through collection and classification,” he writes. But the truth of birds eludes us. Of a woodcock he recorded at age thirteen, he writes, “I was sure of our identification … but it offered so little of itself that I felt I had been simultaneously shown the bird and excluded from it.” He calls this “the defining condition of bird-watching.” We can know a bird’s name; we can identify it and by its sighting add it to our “life list”; but still, the essence of the bird flies away.
Even though birds are all around us, most of them are strangers. We don’t know them as individuals. We know very little of what it might be like to be a bird. If we did, we would be awestruck. That is the purpose of this book: to restore both our awe and our connection to these winged aliens who live among us.
Birds are the only wild animals most people see every day. No matter where we live, birds live with us. Too many of us take them for granted. We don’t appreciate how very strange they are, how different. We don’t realize what otherworldly creatures birds are.
Their hearts look like those of crocodiles. Birds are covered with modified scales—we call them feathers. Their bones are hollow, permeated with extensive air sacs. They have no hands. They give birth to eggs.
No other scientific classification of living creature we commonly see is so different from us as is the class Aves. We don’t even think of birds as “animals” (although they are—as are humans, of course). We consider “animals” to be our fellow mammals, with whom our kinship is obvious. It’s easy to see a kindred soul when you look into the eyes of a chimp, for instance. They share more than 98 percent of our DNA. You can get a blood transfusion from a chimp. We shared a common ancestor with chimps as recently as 5 million years ago. But actually, all mammals now living (except for the pouched marsupials like kangaroos and the egg-laying platypus and echidna) share at least 90 percent of their genetic material with humans. We shared a common ancestor with even the most distant of our fellow placental mammals as recently as 100 million years ago. The last ancestor we shared with the birds, however, traces back 325 to 350 million years ago.
A bird is as distant from us as a dinosaur. But unlike the extinct monsters of the Jurassic and Cretaceous, birds today are everywhere among us—on our sidewalks, at our bird feeders, on our dinner plates. Yet despite our disparate evolutionary paths, scientists are now beginning to reveal the extent to which birds’ emotional and intellectual abilities are remarkably like ours.
To understand birds is to appreciate at once their fundamental strangeness and sameness. What makes a bird a bird? To explore this question, in these pages I share my adventures with seven different bird species. Each chapter explores a different aspect of avian essence. Here are seven essential truths about birds.
In my opinion, the first thing you need to know about birds is that Birds Are Individuals. That’s why I begin this book with the Ladies, my flock of emotional, intelligent, and highly individualistic hens, who come when called, love to visit the neighbors, and befriend and feud with fellow chickens. Although a flock of hens is all about community, each chicken is quite distinctive, and the personality of each individual is extremely important to the flock dynamic. People who don’t know chickens are always astonished to learn this, but when you are in the company of birds, you must be prepared to be surprised.
A second fundamental truth of birds is that Birds Are Dinosaurs. That may be difficult to see when you’re watching a fluffy chickadee at the feeder, but it is abundantly clear when you are crashing through the rain forest of Queensland, Australia, pursuing a 150-pound cassowary, a bird as tall as a man, crowned with a helmet of bone on its head and a killer claw on each foot. Following these birds’ tyrannosaur-like footprints, I traveled back in time, to an era of wondrous transformation.
The dinosaurian lineage that became the birds left the earth for the skies. And in doing this, they utterly reshaped their bodies inside and out. We mammals are made mainly of heavy fluids, but as I point out in another chapter, Birds Are Made of Air. Their bones are hollow; their feathers weigh more than the skeleton. Their bodies are full of air sacs; their feathers, also hollow shafted, are sculpted to capture and move air. Birds are essentially feather-fringed bubbles—a fact frustratingly poignant to bird rehabilitators, whose Herculean task it is to nurse back to health, or raise to adulthood, beings whose essential fragility gives them the power to conquer the sky. It was my great luck to apprentice myself to a woman whose job was yet more difficult than that of most bird rehabilitators. Brenda Sherburn’s specialty is raising orphaned baby hummingbirds, who hatch from eggs the size of navy beans and are born the size of bumblebees. They are air wrapped in light—the lightest birds in the sky.
What else must we know before we begin to understand what makes a bird a bird? Birds’ wildness, for one. Even a pet parakeet, even a barnyard chicken is wild in a way that most mammals are not. To explore this, I embarked on a study of falconry, for the hawks and falcons exhibit a genius for instinct that showcases the brilliance of all birds’ wildness.
Birds are able to apprehend the world in ways that we cannot. They can see polarized and ultraviolet light. They experience colors we can never know. They sense the earth’s magnetic field, navigate using subtle changes in odor and barometric pressure. They imbibe realities of this world that we cannot fathom and use them to circumnavigate the globe. We are only now starting to understand how birds accomplish these extraordinary feats, by way of one of our most ordinary and unappreciated birds, the pigeon—the hero of yet another chapter.
Though gifted with instincts and senses that we lack, birds’ intellectual capacities are shockingly similar to our own. Some birds appreciate human art to the extent that they can learn to tell the difference between the paintings of Monet and those of Manet. Some birds love to dance—and in the course of researching this book, I got to dance with one of them. Birds’ capacity for song is of course so legendary that many cultures tell us the birds taught music to humans. There are birds who can even speak to us meaningfully in our own language—something that, many scientists believe, even our close hominid cousins, the Neanderthals, probably could not do. But Birds Can Talk. In these pages, I relate some of what they tell us.
And finally, to apprehend the truth of birds, we need to appreciate birds’ ubiquity: Birds Are Everywhere. The final chapter takes us to a winter crow roost of tens of thousands of birds, a congregation that had been traditionally based in the countryside but, like the majority of the world’s population of humans, has moved into the city. How do the city’s people react to their new urban neighbors? And what does this say about the future of humans and birds living together on this sweet, green earth?
Just as I was beginning to research this book, my friend Gretchen Vogel called me with an unusual suggestion: that we should go to church together. I was raised Methodist, she was raised Catholic, but the church she had in mind was the First Universalist Church in West Chesterfield, New Hampshire, about an hour’s drive from my house and twenty minutes from hers. She had read a notice in our local paper about that week’s sermon. The title was “Birdology.” How could I resist?
The small church, built in 1830, had no cross in the front, and the ceiling inside was painted a light blue, like the sky. Gretchen and I joined six other people in the congregation that Sunday. Presiding was a visiting pastor, Rev. Elaine Bomford.
A smiling, articulate woman in her fifties, the pastor greeted us with the confession that “birdology” was a word she had made up. She invented “birdologist” to describe the person who—unlike the ornithologist, with his fancy university degree—hasn’t completed a formal course of avian study. To be a birdologist, she said, “you just have to appreciate birds and be intentional about appreciating birds in some way.” We could all be birdologists, she said—and we should be. For watching birds, she told us, “strengthens our souls.”
A birdologist, she explained, “experiences the divinity of creation revealed in the birds.”
That pretty much describes what I have always felt when I see a bird—any bird. The ancients believed that birds could bring us messages from the gods: whether a battle would be won or lost, or if plenty or famine would befall the city. Birds do bring us messages from the divine, but not necessarily those the ancients sought. Because of birds’ very different lineage; because they are made of different stuff than we; because of the powers that birds possess that we do not; and because, despite our deep differences, we can share much of a bird’s mental and emotional experience, birds bring us news far more important than our own personal, human lives. They bring us news about the larger and more wondrous life, about a world that we, with our merely human senses, have barely begun to perceive.
Birds teach us reverence—a virtue that, writes classicist and philosopher Paul Woodruff, “begins in a deep understanding of human limitations.” No beings show us our limitations better than do the birds. When we see a bird in flight or let our hearts soar on the notes of its song, the mystery of the world wells up before us—a mystery we long to embrace rather than conquer.
That day in the church, Rev. Bomford asked us to speak words with her from Terry Tempest Williams’s book Refuge.
“I pray to the birds,” we read, “because I believe they will carry the messages of my heart upward …”
Oh, yes, I thought. It was then the time of the fall migration, and with every overhead “V” I utter a prayer for the birds’ safe passage.
“I pray to the birds,” we continued, “because they remind me of what I love rather than what I fear …”
I thought back to my time with the emus. At first sight, I had fallen wildly, passionately, soul splittingly in love. I had been working alone, collecting plant samples on a wombat preserve in the outback, when I looked up and saw them: three birds standing tall as a man, approaching me on their long, balletic, backward-bending legs—legs so strong they were capable of ending my life with a single kick. Instantly, I was smitten by both their strangeness and familiarity. There was no room for fear. My heart was filled with awe.
Reading Terry Tempest Williams’s words, I gave thanks for all the many birds I have loved in my life: my parakeet Jerry; a cockatiel named Kokopelli who liked to sit on my head and whistle the National Geographic theme song when I was on the phone; my beloved Ladies. I did not know then, of course, that this book would bring me many more individual birds to love: the dancing cockatoo Snowball; Harris’s hawks named Jazz and Fire and Smoke; a talking African grey parrot named Griffin; two orphaned baby hummingbirds who, God willing, could be raising babies of their own somewhere in California as I write these words right now.
“ … And at the end of my prayers,” the few of us gathered in the church that morning read, birds “teach me how to listen.”
This was my prayer as I began working on this book. It’s my hope that the birds you will meet in these pages will teach you, too.
May 19, 2009
© 2010 Sy Montgomery
Meet the Author
Sy Montgomery is a naturalist, documentary scriptwriter, and author of twenty acclaimed books of nonfiction for adults and children, including the memoir The Good Good Pig, a New York Times bestseller. The recipient of numerous honors, including lifetime achievement awards from the Humane Society and the New England Booksellers Association, she lives in New Hampshire with her husband, border collie, and flock of chickens.
- Hancock, New Hampshire
- Date of Birth:
- February 7, 1958
- Place of Birth:
- Frankfurt, Germany
- Syracuse University: B.A., Newhouse School of Public Communications, 1979; B.A., College of Arts and Sciences, 1979
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I am a bird lover amd I can tell you that this is a really great book. It is informative and enjoyable at the same time. The author has ome of the same problems as I do, like people who just think birds are flying rats, so I could relate. Once I started reading this, I never want to stop!
This book is fast paced, each page is full of interesting facts and written in the most engaging conversational style. Seeing birds through Ms Montgomery's eyes is inspiring and fascinating. Now I look forward to her other books. This book won't disappoint.
I am soul surfer!