High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The Birkeland-Eyde process was developed by Norwegian industrialist and scientist Kristian Birkeland along with his business partner Sam Eyde in 1903, based on a method used by Henry Cavendish in 1784. This process was used to fix atmospheric nitrogen which was in turn used to produce nitric acid, used for production of synthetic fertilizer. A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and Notodden in Norway, combined with the building of large hydroelectric power facilities. The process is inefficient in terms of energy usage, and is today replaced by the Ostwald process, that produces nitrous acid from ammonia (usually from the Haber process) instead of air.