BN.com Gift Guide

Birth Day: A Pediatrician Explores the Science, the History, and the Wonder of Childbirth

Overview

I delivered twenty babies in the summer of 1977. I was hardly more than a baby myself, just turned twenty-four and starting my third year of medical school."-from Birth Day

So began Mark Sloan's three-decades-long exploration of the wonders and oddities of human childbirth. Pediatrician, husband, and father, the author has attended nearly three thousand births since that long-ago summer, encountering everything from routine deliveries to tense labor-room dramas. In Birth Day, ...

See more details below
Available through our Marketplace sellers.
Other sellers (Audiobook)
  • All (6) from $20.00   
  • Used (6) from $20.00   
Close
Sort by
Page 1 of 1
Showing 1 – 5 of 6
Note: Marketplace items are not eligible for any BN.com coupons and promotions
$20.00
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(476)

Condition:

New — never opened or used in original packaging.

Like New — packaging may have been opened. A "Like New" item is suitable to give as a gift.

Very Good — may have minor signs of wear on packaging but item works perfectly and has no damage.

Good — item is in good condition but packaging may have signs of shelf wear/aging or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Acceptable — item is in working order but may show signs of wear such as scratches or torn packaging. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Used — An item that has been opened and may show signs of wear. All specific defects should be noted in the Comments section associated with each item.

Refurbished — A used item that has been renewed or updated and verified to be in proper working condition. Not necessarily completed by the original manufacturer.

Good
159859494X Satisfaction Guaranteed. Please contact us with any inquiries. We ship daily.

Ships from: Nicholasville, KY

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Express, 48 States
$59.50
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(320)

Condition: Like New
As new.

Ships from: Chatham, NJ

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$59.50
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(320)

Condition: Good
Possible retired library copy, some have markings or writing. May or may not include accessories such as CD or access codes.

Ships from: Chatham, NJ

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$59.50
Seller since 2014

Feedback rating:

(320)

Condition: Very Good
Very good.

Ships from: Chatham, NJ

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
$169.16
Seller since 2010

Feedback rating:

(192)

Condition: Good
2009 Audio CD Good AUDIO CD! LIBRARY COPY! We pack all items in a protected and padded bubble mailer! Your item deserves more than just some plastic bag!

Ships from: Cocoa, FL

Usually ships in 1-2 business days

  • Canadian
  • International
  • Standard, 48 States
  • Standard (AK, HI)
  • Express, 48 States
  • Express (AK, HI)
Page 1 of 1
Showing 1 – 5 of 6
Close
Sort by
Sending request ...

Overview

I delivered twenty babies in the summer of 1977. I was hardly more than a baby myself, just turned twenty-four and starting my third year of medical school."-from Birth Day

So began Mark Sloan's three-decades-long exploration of the wonders and oddities of human childbirth. Pediatrician, husband, and father, the author has attended nearly three thousand births since that long-ago summer, encountering everything from routine deliveries to tense labor-room dramas. In Birth Day, Sloan draws on his personal and professional experience to weave the strands of memoir, history, science, and culture into a fascinating-and often funny-tapestry of this fundamental human passage.

Birth Day takes the reader on a remarkable journey, from the dawn of human history to the quiet efficiency of a modern operating room; from Aristotle and Julius Caesar to a trailblazing, cross-dressing British army surgeon; from a recent past filled with the horrors of childbirth gone wrong to a present day, in which every pregnancy is expected to end happily. Some of Birth Day's many topics include

• The evolution of human childbirth-or, why do gorillas have it so easy?
• The first five minutes of life-scuba divers, astronauts, and the amazing adaptations that transform a fetus into an air-breathing, out-in-the-world baby
• Cesarean section-a look at its origins, its future, and how it came to be the most frequently performed operation in American hospitals
• Pain and politics-the age-old quest for painless childbirth, starring Adam and Eve, Queen Victoria, a nineteenth-century medical brawl, and the rise of today's "epidural monoculture"
• Daddies-raging paternal hormones, hidden anxieties, and the emotional evolution of men (including the author, his father, and grandfather) as they approach fatherhood
• The five senses at birth-does light enter the womb? how loud is it in there? what is a newborn baby searching for with those first anxious glances?
• A tour of the newborn body-springy skulls, hairy ears, innies and outies, the advantages (and disadvantages) of looking like your father, and why the United States is one of the world's most circumcised nations

Delightfully instructive and entertaining, Birth Day offers a fresh, sometimes irreverent take on a universally familiar topic. Warm, reassuring, and packed with stories from the author's work and life, this unique book is one pediatrician's meditation on the hiding-in-plain-sight marvels of human birth.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Nora Krug
Sloan…is a graceful writer, and his narrative, like the works of Jerome Groopman, flows easily between memoir, anecdotal reporting and hard science…anyone interested in the complex and, yes, miraculous way we all make it into this world will find lots to wonder over and ponder here
—The Washington Post
Publishers Weekly

California pediatrician Sloan has helped deliver more than 3,000 babies, and he marvelously captures the precarious nature of childbirth-both its joys and its anxieties-while treating readers to an informal and captivating history of the medical practices surrounding birth in America. Sloan shares his first bumbled attempts at delivering babies as an intern, which leads him into reflect on why doctors persist in having women lie down to give birth when standing or squatting are better physical postures for it. Sloan ranges surely and splendidly over epidurals, cesarean births, premature birth and neonatal nurseries, as well as the state of an infant's five senses at birth. For example, he points out that the fetus not only smells the foods its mother eats, it remembers them after birth and tends to like what it remembers. Sloan counsels that women cannot prepare for labor, because events change rapidly during the process. He advises women to surround themselves with the people they love: "unlike other labor pain relievers she may choose, their benefits will last the rest of her life." (Apr.)

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
From the Publisher
“With science, history, and his own personal experience as a father and a doctor, Mark Sloan has given us a truly enlightening look at childbirth. Birth Day is an absolutely fascinating read about the most important journey any of us ever makes.”—Sara Ellington, co-author of The Must-Have Mom Manual

“In Birth Day, Sloan skillfully blends personal anecdote, hard science, and bizarre historical detail to deliver a fertile and amusing account of the womb-to-world journey that every one of us has made. Without a doubt, this book will educate, entertain, and prompt you to call your mother in gratitude.”—Katrina Firlik, M.D., author of Another Day in the Frontal Lobe

“No one has described the intricate timing and sequence of a baby’s miracle transition from inside its mother to breathing on its own more clearly or beautifully than Dr. Mark Sloan. Sloan covers the various approaches to pain management during labor and their effects on both mother and child, and he supports adding nitrous oxide–safe and widely used for labor in so many other countries–to the very limited alternatives now available to women in America.” —Judith Pence Rooks, CNM, MPH, author of Midwifery and Childbirth in America

“I have given birth twice but until this book never grasped the true wonder of what happens to mother and child during childbirth. An amazing, tender, funny book about our bigheaded species.” —Adair Lara, author of Hold Me Close, Let Me Go

Birth Day is a wonderful book. Dr. Sloan has accomplished the impossible, combining the history, biology, sociology, and medicine of childbirth into an informative, yet amusing story. Expectant parents will find this book useful and reassuring. So will physicians..”—Donald Caton, M.D., Emeritus Professor of Anesthesia, University of Florida, and author of What a Blessing She Had Chloroform

"In Birth Day, Dr. Mark Sloan delivers a rare and compelling blend of humor, compassion, insight, and scholarship- all swaddled in a remarkably engaging literary style. As illiuminating as it is fun, this book shines a gentle light into all the nooks and crannies of what must be the most universally familiar of all great mysteries: the act of being born. I heartily recommend the book to everyone who has ever played a role in that act, birthers and brithees alike! You'll learn a lot- I did- and it won't hurt a bit."—David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP Director, Prevention Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine

“Over three thousand births later, Dr. Mark Sloan has lived to tell—and tell beautifully. At once decoding the mystery of childbirth while preserving its wonder, Birth Day is saturated with scholarship, humor, and heart.”—Linda Phillips, author of Sweet Remedy

"What boosts Sloan’s book above other pediatrician memoirs is his Captain Kangaroo–like humor and compassion. After attending roughly 3,000 births, and tending the medical needs of countless other children and their moms, he seems outstandingly suited to his specialty. The topics he discusses were born, if you will, out of his own experience, professional and personal, so in talking about them, he combines anecdotes and overviews of the various aspects of fetal development and birthing. With its crisp and upbeat tone, Sloan’s book is good company for parents experienced and prospective alike."—Booklist

"[Sloan] marvelously captures the precarious nature of childbirth—both its joys and its anxieties—while treating readers to an informal and captivating history of the medical practices surrounding birth in America… [He] ranges surely and splendidly.” —Publishers Weekly, starred review

"Sloan, who practices in Northern California, is a graceful writer, and his narrative, like the works of Jerome Groopman, flows easily between memoir, anecdotal reporting and hard science… Given the subject, "Birth Day" has a natural audience in curious, new and expectant parents. But anyone interested in the complex and, yes, miraculous way we all make it into this world will find lots to wonder over and ponder here, too." –Washington Post

The Barnes & Noble Review
Pediatrician Mark Sloan has attended nearly 3,000 births, giving him a wealth of experience to draw on for this exploration of childbirth and newborn life. But Sloan brings more than experience to his first book: He is an intelligent, warm, and funny writer, and nearly every page of Birth Day informs, fascinates, and delights. Shifting between history, science, and memoir, Sloan covers everything from the rise of cesarean sections and epidurals to the functioning of the five senses at birth to the debate over circumcision. He includes self-deprecating anecdotes from his days as a medical student on his obstetrics rotation ("You know, if you can't tell a baby's head from its ass, maybe you're in the wrong business," his resident remarks after bailing him out during a breech birth), vivid recollections of his own children's arrivals, and stories of memorable patients. One of the most entertaining of these is the aggressive new father who tries to get Sloan to change his son's Apgar score -- which measures things like a newborn's heart rate and coloring -- from a nine to a ten, which Sloan likens to "arguing over the baby's birth weight." But the good doctor even treats the bully he dubs "Apgar Guy" with compassion, noting that "being rational about your own baby isn't part of most new parents' emotional toolboxes." Since he's called to the delivery room when the fetus's health is in question, one can only assume Sloan has witnessed his share of unhappy outcomes. But he keeps the focus positive here, making this an edifying, reassuring read for parents-to-be. --Barbara Spindel
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781598594942
  • Publisher: Oasis Audio
  • Publication date: 2/28/2009
  • Format: CD
  • Edition description: Abridged
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 5.50 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Mark Sloan, M.D., has been a pediatrician and a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics for more than twenty-five years. He is one of the highest-rated pediatricians (by patients and peers) in Kaiser Permanente’s Northern California region. His writing has appeared in the Chicago Tribune and San Francisco Chronicle, among other publications. He lives in Santa Rosa, California, with his wife and two teenage children, who continue to provide him with a wealth of practical pediatric experience.

Read More Show Less

Read an Excerpt

Chapter One

Twenty Babies: An Unexpectedly Quick Introduction to Vaginal Birth

I delivered twenty babies in the summer of 1977. I was hardly more than a baby myself, just turned twenty-four and starting my third year of medical school. At that point I was toying with the idea of becoming a family practitioner or a general surgeon. Babies didn’t much figure into my future.

This is how my obstetrics rotation was supposed to work: a medical student was typically paired with an intern, who in turn was under the direct supervision of a senior resident. The senior resident did the complicated cases—forceps deliveries, cesarean sections, and such—while the intern handled the routine vaginal births. My role as a medical student was more or less like Cinderella’s in her pre-princess days: do the dirty work, like IV starts and blood draws, and stay in the shadows to avoid the wrath of the overworked intern and resident. A “good” student—one with the sense to do his work quietly while openly admiring the skills of his elders—could expect the chance to deliver an uncomplicated baby or two as his reward.

Two things conspired to make this particular rotation different. The first was that it was early July, a traditionally scary time to have a baby in a large teaching hospital, since the interns are only a week out of medical school and generally have less experience delivering babies than the women whose babies they’re delivering. The second thing was that, for reasons I can’t recall, the OB resident staff was a few bodies short of a full complement. This meant that the interns and residents had to cover many more patients than usual, which didn’t leave them much time for supervising green medical students embarking on their first hospital rotation.

And so one sweltering Chicago morning I stood in my crinkly white coat before Mitch, a stocky, gruff senior resident with a startled head of jet-black hair and a permanent dusting of cigarette ash down the front of his scrubs. We were in the hallway outside the maternity ward. Gurneys with moaning women aboard rattled by like Model Ts on an assembly line, pushed by a corps of tough-looking nurses. Mitch had paused between a C-section and a vaginal birth to give me my orders: I was to join Ben, a brand-new intern from a tony private medical school, on what Mitch called the “firing line”—a row of wheeled labor beds separated by unadorned canvas curtains.

Mitch clamped his hand on my upper arm like a bailiff leading a felon into court and marched me through the labor room’s swinging doors to Bed 4, where a tiny nurse with Popeyesque forearms was helping a hugely pregnant woman out of a wheelchair.

“Okay, you had some OB training in your physical assessment class, right?” Mitch asked. No, I told him, I hadn’t. My physical assessment class had been at the veterans’ hospital down the street. There, I had watched men with terminal lung cancer chain-smoke cigarettes through their tracheostomy tubes, had seen others who had lost limbs to diabetes or D-Day land mines, and had personally examined what a senior resident described as the case of the year—a cabdriver who got scurvy (scurvy!) from a decades-long diet of plain White Castle hamburgers and Coke, period. Not only had I not seen a baby born at the VA, I told Mitch, I hadn’t seen a single female patient. The woman climbing onto the bed in front of us would be the first woman I had ever touched with medical intent.

Mitch scratched the stubble on his cheek. “Well, you’ve read about childbirth, haven’t you?” I said that I had. Just the night before, in fact: half a chapter, with diagrams. Took me twenty minutes.

“No problem, then.” He slapped me on the back. “Just sit there”—he motioned me to a rolling stool between the woman’s now propped-up legs—”and call me when you see a head.” Then he left.

I sat there for two hours. I killed time by rearranging the contents of my pockets, cleaning my stethoscope, and, once I had overcome my shyness, talking to the woman who was to produce the head I had been ordered to be on the lookout for.

Her name was Tonya. She was two months younger than I was, and in between contractions I learned that for the last five years she’d been a secretary at an insurance company downtown. This was her third child—her oldest, a girl, was just two and a half—and she absolutely hated childbirth. She compared the pain of having a baby to the pain of being stabbed, which she had been, twice—both times being cases of mistaken identity, she assured me. But childbirth was worse, she said, because “it’s like they won’t take the knife out.” Childbirth and knifing: two experiences I had never had. I took Tonya’s word for it.

Our conversation gave way to long stretches of silence as Tonya’s labor intensified. She panted as her contractions came, her hands gripping the metal siderails of the bed with such force that I thought she’d bend them. Between contractions she stroked her belly with her hands, her eyes closed.

Ben, the intern, came and went in a sweaty blur, muttering to himself as he lurched up and down the row of beds. He shook my hand on one pass. “Everything okay here?” he asked in a strangled voice. “Good,” he said absently, not waiting for an answer. He patted my shoulder and scuttled out the labor room door. I went back to my pockets, moving my reflex hammer, tuning fork, pens, and alcohol wipes from one side to the other and back again while I waited for something to happen.

A sudden eruption of curses drew my attention. Startled, I looked down between Tonya’s legs and saw the top of a tiny head peeking out from her vagina. I shouted for Mitch and then Ben, but neither responded. The nurse who’d been working the firing line was gone, too—off helping them, I supposed.

A pale student nurse appeared behind her clipboard at the foot of Tonya’s bed. “I think they’re doing an operation,” she said. Her eyes widened at the sight of Tonya’s baby’s head. “Maybe I should go look for them?” She dropped her clipboard in my lap and took off at a half-trot. The double doors swung shut behind her. Now it was just me, the swearing Tonya, and the top third of a birthing baby’s head.

I remembered a picture in my night-before’s reading where the obstetrician has his hand placed confidently on the emerging newborn’s head. So I did that. I put my gloved right hand on Tonya’s baby’s head. It was warm and wet, and squishier than I had imagined it would be. Contact made, I exhaled for the first time in what seemed like an eternity.

My relief was short-lived. I had mastered the art of placing my hand on a birthing baby’s head, but what came next? Would the baby just kind of fall out of Tonya on its own, I wondered, or was I supposed to grab on to that puckered patch of scalp and pull? I silently cursed myself for not finishing the chapter. Caught between pulling and not pulling, I chose a middle, temporizing route. Like the Dutch boy at the dike, I put my hand on the baby’s head and pushed back, hoping to persuade it to pause just long enough for Mitch or Ben to come and save me.

Tonya’s curses were getting personal now. She had finished damning her absent husband for putting her through this agony not once, not twice, but three times, and now she turned her attention to me. “Get that damn baby out of me!” she shrieked, glaring at me over the top of her belly. “Get it out now or I’ll cut you!”

Dutch boy be damned. I was losing the battle. There was now an entire head under my hand, face and all. Amniotic fluid bubbled from its nose. Its mouth opened and closed in some horrible parody of breathing. Caught between threats of mayhem and my feeble attempt to hold back eons of childbirthing evolution, I closed my eyes and surrendered myself to whatever came next.

Suddenly a pair of hands pushed me aside. Mitch reached in, grabbed the baby’s head and yanked with so much force that I was afraid he was going to tear it off. He pulled the head sharply downward—the right shoulder appeared at the top of the birth canal—then up, and the left shoulder popped out from below. The rest of the body followed, like a rabbit pulled from a magician’s hat. Mitch plopped the baby in my lap—a big, squalling, slippery boy—and then clamped the cord with a pair of long hemostats and cut it in two. A minute later he tugged on the remnant of the umbilical cord and out came the placenta.

A nurse wrapped the baby in a white receiving blanket and handed him to Tonya, who cried and smiled and cootchie-cooed her thirdborn, seeming to have forgotten for the moment about killing me. His name was Robert, she said, because he had his grandfather’s cleft chin.

“That wasn’t so hard now, was it?” said Mitch, as he jotted a note on Tonya’s chart. I didn’t answer him—couldn’t, really. I just sat on the stool with my mouth hanging open, dumbstruck. My scrub shirt was soaked in sweat. There was blood on my socks and shoes. Mitch stripped off his gloves and tossed them in a trash can at the foot of Tonya’s bed. He yanked me into the hall, where two more mothers-to-be in wheelchairs waited. “Okay, then,” he announced. “Time for the next one.”

Had I been a little more observant—and less panicked—I would have noticed that Robert’s head had rotated one way as I held it, and then back again as his body emerged. I would have pondered the pushing, pulling, and pain of having a baby, and the torpedoish shape of the baby’s head as he lay in my lap. I would have marveled at Tonya’s rapid transition from swearing attempted murderess to doting new mother, and at her ability to ignore the gaping wound in her vagina, the one that Mitch came back to sew up after he’d moved me on down the line to watch for another head. What I had witnessed, had I had the time to process what I had seen, was a highly compressed history of the last several million years of human evolution.

••• One would think, given eons of evolutionary tinkering, that Homo sapiens could have come up with an easier way to birth its babies. What’s the point of putting mother and child through such a painful, risky ordeal? Why aren’t we more like other species, most of whom get the business of reproduction over with quickly and easily? Why can’t we just spawn like salmon, lay eggs like chickens, or bud like yeast? More to the point, why can’t we give birth the way gorillas do?

The female gorilla is a study in childbirthing efficiency. When labor begins, she simply ambles off to the edge of her group and has her baby in a half hour or so, with few visible signs of discomfort. She does this without help; the other members of her group usually ignore her. Compared to a human birth, which lasts an average of eighteen painful hours the first time around and almost always requires assistance from those nearby, gorillas have it easy. If Tonya had been born a gorilla, I think she would have preferred childbirth to getting stabbed.

Gorilla birth is made relatively easy by a fact of obstetrical anatomy: mom is big, fetus is small. Because the female pelvis is so roomy compared to the fetus that must pass through it, birth is a straightforward process. The gorilla fetus starts and finishes labor in the same position—head down and facing forward, toward its mother’s abdominal wall. No twists or turns, no shifting orientation as it negotiates its exit. Just down, down and out.

Human childbirth, though, is more like an Olympic bobsled run. There are two participants with well-defined roles: a mother who does the pushing and a fetus who steers the course. There’s a well-marked start and finish, and in between there are banked turns and the real possibility of disaster. Down at the finish line there’s a throng of cheering supporters, some of them ready to assist when things get tricky, others simply milling around with cameras and champagne.

Childbirth isn’t exactly like a bobsled run, of course. There are no helmets or spandex racing suits, for one thing, and it’s usually not snowing on the participants. Childbirth is also a bit slower. A bobsled in midrace can reach 70 miles per hour. A fetus at its zippiest hits a top speed of roughly .00000025 mph. Of course, that’s only in a woman’s first labor; things can go twice as fast in subsequent deliveries.

Obstetricians divide childbirth into three stages. In the first stage, the cervix, which, along with the vagina, makes up the soft tissues of the birth canal, thins and dilates. The second stage, officially known as the expulsion of the fetus, is the birth itself. The delivery of the placenta constitutes the third and final stage. The second stage is the most prolonged and painful, and the course the fetus travels is, compared to the straightforward path taken by its gorilla cousin, an oddly curvy one.

The human female pelvis is an anatomical puzzle. The birth canal of the gorilla is more or less a compressed cylinder, like a cardboard toilet paper roll with its sides gently squeezed. From top to bottom, the roll is uniformly widest in the front-to-back dimension. The modern human birth canal, though, puts a twist on this ancient design. The upper third of the birth canal in humans is widest in the side-to-side dimension, while the lower two-thirds is widest from front to back, like the gorilla’s. It’s as if our ancestors took the gorilla’s gently squeezed toilet paper roll and, over much time, pinched the upper third sideways, so that the top and bottom of the birth canal are now perpendicular to one another. This is the winding road the human fetus must navigate to get out—a tricky route that leads to a world of childbirthing woes.

Like the gorilla, a typical human fetus spends its third trimester in a head-down position, chin tucked on chest, arms and legs crossed, waiting for the signal to start its run to daylight. But here the differences begin: unlike the gorilla fetus, which faces forward, toward its mother’s abdomen, the human fetus faces backward, toward its mother’s spine. When labor begins, instead of simply dropping into the soft tissues of the birth canal as the gorilla does, the human fetus turns its head sharply to the side, as though making an over-the-shoulder check of the competition. The sideways-facing head then enters the pelvic inlet—the opening of the bony pelvis, the framework of bones that surrounds the cervix and vagina—and, spurred on by uterine contractions, begins its descent. On its way to being born, the fetus flexes, extends, and rotates its body, executing a complex series of maneuvers not seen in any other primate.

Why is human birth so filled with twists and turns? Every other large primate, from baboons to chimpanzees and bonobos, has its babies like the gorilla: a straight shot from womb to world. If human birth is a torturously slow bobsled run, the rest of our large-primate cousins are on a rope-straight downhill ski race. Why are we so different?

Until the mid-twentieth century, the only attempts to explain human birth’s difficulty were framed in theological terms: the commonly held (and, as we’ll see in a later chapter, scripturally questionable) view that childbirth pain was visited upon millennia of women in divine retribution for Eve’s temptation of Adam. But as archaeologists discovered more and more fossilized human ancestors, they learned that the path to painful childbirth was not so much a divine curse as it was a complex compromise between what we once were and what we’ve since become.

Millions of years ago, all large primates gave birth pretty much the way gorillas do today. The maternal pelvis was big enough to allow a small-brained fetus to pass through with relatively little difficulty. But as the ancestors of modern humans split away from the rest of the primate kingdom, childbirth started to get complicated.

The split came about when our distant ancestors came down from the trees and moved out onto the grassy central African savannah. It was a smart move—the savannah offered vast new opportunities for food and water, far from the competing bands of treebound primates who would become today’s monkeys and apes. But it also brought new dangers. The grasses were tall; the tree-swinging, knuckle-walking style of locomotion that worked so well in the jungle now limited visibility, leaving our forerunners vulnerable to the big-toothed predators that patrolled the savannah.

So they stood up. Bipedal (two-legged) locomotion offered the distinct advantage of allowing prehumans to see over the grass, making it easier to spot distant food sources and approaching dangers. Over much time, natural selection for upright walking changed the shape of the skeleton, particularly the pelvis. “Lucy,” the famous Australopithecus skeleton found in Kenya’s Olduvai Gorge in 1974, shows that by three million years ago those changes were well under way. Her pelvis was wider than an ape’s, and her pelvic inlet had already taken on the oval, sideways-oriented shape characteristic of a modern human female.

But Lucy wasn’t completely modern. Much of her pelvis was still apelike, and with Australopithecus being a small-brained species it’s likely that the fetus passed through the birth canal much the way today’s gorilla fetus does: head down and body facing its mother’s abdomen from start to finish. There was one major difference, though. Because of the wider, oval-shaped inlet, the fetus would have had to turn its head to the side when it entered the birth canal—just as modern human fetuses do.

So, the first major change in human childbirth came about as a response to upright walking. As Lucy and her descendants mastered that task, they began to use their freed-up hands to make tools for cutting and scraping, and, eventually, weapons. Evolution soon favored those with the nimblest tool-making minds. Brains became bigger, and once again the female pelvis had to adapt.

Given the fact that the Australopithecus pelvis was still relatively roomy, it took thousands of generations before the fetal head got large enough to become an obstetrical problem. That crisis point was reached about 1.5 million years ago. As the fetal head enlarged, the maternal pelvis could grow only so wide in its attempt to accommodate; beyond a certain point, an awkward, wide-based gait would make it difficult for females to flee predators. Faced with a problem that could kill either or both of them and end the human race before it started, mother and fetus displayed that most human of traits: they compromised.

Here’s the problem in a nutshell: newborn babies, then and now, have heads that are just a bit too big to fit down the birth canal in the round fetal state. Take a look at a newborn’s head—his ears reach out nearly to his shoulders. If that head-to-shoulder ratio never changed, an average adult would have about a size 20 head, and there isn’t enough polyester in all of China to make a world full of baseball caps that big.

Getting that big fancy tool-maker’s noggin out of the womb with minimal damage to mother and fetus became one of the great engineering challenges of human evolution. It was more or less the same challenge faced by a man who gets carried away building a boat in his garage.

Imagine that the man starts out with a simple boat in mind, maybe a kayak or a canoe, something he can paddle around the park lagoon on a Sunday morning. As the project unfolds, though, his imagination catches fire. Why just a simple little tub, he thinks? Why not a sailboat, or a ketch, or a schooner? So he adds bulwarks and gunwales and a crow’s nest. Soon he’s upgraded his little canoe to an oceangoing yacht capable of winning the America’s Cup.

One problem, though. His boat is now way too big to fit out the garage door. The man is left with two options: make the boat smaller, or the opening bigger. In the end he does a little of both—he lowers the crow’s nest and widens the doorway—and one morning, to much fanfare, the SS Show Off squeezes ever so carefully out the door and into the big lagoon of life.

That, minus the crow’s nest, is the story of the coevolution of the human head and the female pelvis.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)