Black Canadians: History, Experience, Social Conditions / Edition 1

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Racial equality cannot be achieved, argues Mensah, as long as historical and contemporary inequalities remain obscured. Using a multidisciplinary perspective-drawn from sociology, geography, economics, political economy, cultural studies and philosophy-this book examines the history, experiences and social conditions of Black Canadians and reveals the persistence of structural racism in many spheres of life, particularly in employment housing , education, and sports. This book is an authoritative reference for teachers, students and others who wish to know more about the Black diaspora in Canada. It ventures beyond established orthodoxies and simplistic solutions and offers a pointed and provocative analysis from the standpoint of Black people.

Among other enhancements, the Second Edition of Black Canadians expands the regional coverage of Black history, updates all the statistics with the 2006 census data, and adds important material on multiculturalism and employment.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781552660904
  • Publisher: Fernwood Publishing
  • Publication date: 9/28/2004
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 280
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Joseph Mensah is the coordinator of the international development studies program at York University and the author of Globalization and the Human Factor, Neoliberalism and Globalization in Africa, and Understanding Economic Reforms in Africa. He lives in Toronto.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ix

1 The Black Presence in Canada: A Multidisciplinary Perspective 1

Objective of the Book 5

Empirical and Theoretical Considerations 6

Organization of the Book 9

Notes 11

2 Conceptual Background 13

?Race? and Related Concepts 13

?Ethnicity? and Related Concepts 19

The Concepts of ?Black? and ?Visible Minority? 22

The Origins of Racial Antagonism 25

Racial Antagonism and Capitalism: The Enduring Debate 27

Racial Doctrines 30

Racism, Slavery, Colonialism, and Christianity: The Quadruple Web 33

Canada and the Black Societies of Africa and the Caribbean 39

Conclusion 41

Notes 43

3 The History of Blacks in Canada 45

Slavery and the Early Settlement of Blacks in Canada 46

Settlement in Atlantic and Central Canada 46

Settlement in Western Canada 53

Conclusion 56

Notes 57

4 The Geography of Blacks in Canada: Immigration and Spatial Distribution 59

Theories of International Migration 61

International Refugee Movements 64

Black Immigration to Canada: Underlying Factors 67

Blacks and Canada's Immigration Policy 69

The Spatial Distribution of Blacks 78

...across Canadian Provinces and Territories 80

...across Major Canadian Cities 82

Entanglements of Race, Space, and Class 90

Conclusion 92

Notes 92

5 Profiles of Selected Black Groups in Canada 95

Blacks in Contemporary Nova Scotia 95

Black Immigrant Groups in Canada 100

Leading Sources of Caribbean Immigrants 100

Jamaican Immigrants in Canada 104

Haitian Immigrants in Canada 111

Leading Sources of African Immigrants in Canada 118

Ghanaian Immigrants in Canada 122

Somali Immigrants in Canada 129

Conclusion 136

Notes 138

6 Blacks and the Canadian Labour Market 139

The Human Capital Theory 140

The Marxist Perspective 141

Labour Market Segmentation Theories 145

The Vertical Mosaic Thesis 146

Labour Market Characteristics of Blacks in Canada 150

Black Women and the Canadian Labour Market 159

The Plight of Blacks in the Canadian Labour Market 163

Conclusion 182

Notes 183

7 Blacks in Canadian Sport: Issues, Controversies, and Paradigm Shifts 185

Blacks' Historical Involvement in Canadian Sport 185

Stacking and Other Racial Manoeuvres in Sport 191

The Canadian Athlete Assistance Program (AAP) 194

Are Blacks Naturally Superior in Sport? 196

Conclusion 207

Notes 209

8 Official Multiculturalism and Blacks 211

Multiculturalism in Canada 212

Arguments For and Against Official Multiculturalism 216

The Case for Multiculturalism from the Perspectives of Blacks 234

Notes 237

Employment Equity and Blacks in Canada 240

Origins and Provisions 240

Underlying Assumptions and Concepts 242

Claims and Counter-claims 245

Conclusion 258

Notes 262

Bibliography 263

Index 288

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