Black Gold: The Story of Oil in Our Lives

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Overview

Oil is not pretty, but it is a resource that drives the modern world.  It has made fortunes for the lucky few and provided jobs for millions of ordinary folks.

Thick and slippery, crude oil has an evil smell. Yet without it, life as we live it today would be impossible. Oil fuels our engines, heats our homes, and powers the machines that make the everyday things we take for granted, from shopping bags to computers to medical equipment. Nations throughout the last century ...

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Black Gold: The Story of Oil in Our Lives

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Overview

Oil is not pretty, but it is a resource that drives the modern world.  It has made fortunes for the lucky few and provided jobs for millions of ordinary folks.

Thick and slippery, crude oil has an evil smell. Yet without it, life as we live it today would be impossible. Oil fuels our engines, heats our homes, and powers the machines that make the everyday things we take for granted, from shopping bags to computers to medical equipment. Nations throughout the last century have gone to war over it.  Indeed, oil influences every aspect of modern life. It helps shape the history, society, politics, and economy of every nation on earth.

This riveting new book explores what oil is and the role this precious resource has played in America and the world.

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Editorial Reviews

Kirkus Reviews
Opinionated, cogent perspectives on the role of fossil fuels in human history. Following a doubtless accurate claim that controlling the supply of oil and finding substitutes for the stuff "will shape much of the social, political, and military history of the twenty-first century," Marrin opens with a petro-centric tale of wars. These range from an Egyptian conflict in the 4th century BCE to the War on Terror ("really the war for oil in disguise," he suggests) and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. He also reviews the course of the Industrial Revolution (noting that automobiles were initially welcomed as being "cleaner, healthier, and safer" than horses), then goes on to analyze the hazards of our oil dependence, recap major oil spills and consider both the benefits and dangers of alternative energy sources. Well-surveyed territory this all may be, but the author's beneficent portrait of John D. Rockefeller, his references to British "terrorism" in the Middle East and other heterodox views give it distinctive angles. Moreover, the urgency of his message that something has to change comes through clearly. Required reading on a topic that can only grow in importance to readers who will be living that "social, political, and military history." (endnotes, index, black-and-white photos) (Nonfiction. 11-14)
School Library Journal
Gr 8 Up—Marrin weaves chemical, historical, industrial, and military information together to create a cohesive explanation of something that has changed our world, for good or ill. The summary of oil's importance in modern military efforts from World War I onward is particularly enlightening. The detail regarding the chaotic and complex history of the modern Middle East is comprehensive but not overwhelming. The negative environmental impacts of oil extraction, transportation, and consumption are summarized and current, e.g., the 2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion/spill is included. Energy dependence in the developed world is outlined, as is the search for alternative fuels and renewable energy. The author strikes a hopeful tone when discussing renewable technologies but is realistic in relating the many obstacles to weaning our modern world from its insatiable thirst for more oil. Black-and-white charts, graphs, and reproductions bring immediacy to the text. Meticulously researched and noted, this volume will serve to introduce readers to the ticking time bomb of the depletion of fossil fuels. Marrin's dedication is "For today's young people, who will be confronted by the problem of black gold tomorrow." May his target audience read and heed his words. An extremely readable guide to a very important subject.—Lisa Crandall, formerly at Capital Area District Library, Holt, MI
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780375866739
  • Publisher: Random House Children's Books
  • Publication date: 1/10/2012
  • Pages: 192
  • Age range: 12 years
  • Lexile: 1070L (what's this?)
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

ALBERT MARRIN is the author of numerous highly regarded nonfiction books for young readers, including Flesh and Blood So Cheap: The Triangle Fire and Its Legacy, Years of Dust, and Sitting Bull and His World. His many honors include the Washington Children's Book Guild and Washington Post Non-Fiction Award for an "outstanding lifetime contribution that has enriched the field of children's literature," the James Madison Book Award for lifetime achievement, and the National Endowment for Humanities Medal awarded to him by President George W. Bush.

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Read an Excerpt

1

A FREAK OF GEOLOGY

The stuff we pump into our gas tanks is a freak of geology, the product of a series of lucky breaks over millions of years. —Tim Appenzeller

Of Earth and Living Beings

Oil is not pretty. When it is taken from beneath the earth's surface, it is called crude oil, or crude for short. Although crude can be green, red, straw-colored, or chocolate brown, it is usually black. Because it is so valuable, in the late 1800s people in the industry nicknamed it "black gold." Since then, it has made fortunes for the lucky few and provided jobs for millions of ordinary folks.

Thick and slippery, crude oil has an evil smell, giving off vapors that make eyes water and throats sore. Yet without it, life as we live it today would be impossible. Oil fuels the engines that move us and our goods from place to place. It heats our homes and powers the machines that make the everyday things we take for granted. Thousands of products, from drinking straws to plastic shopping bags, from plant fertilizer to computers and medical equipment, begin as crude oil. So do most school backpacks, knee guards—even the yellow "rubber" duck floating in your bathtub. Modern weapons such as tanks, aircraft, and ships are so much metallic junk without oil products to make them run.

Oil influences every aspect of modern life. It has helped shape the history, society, politics, and economy of every nation on Earth. Nations have fought wars for black gold, and sadly, probably will do so in the future. Yet few who rely on this vital substance know much about it. What, exactly, is oil? How was it formed? When? Where? 1

To understand oil, we must begin with a key rule of science: change alone is changeless. This may sound odd, but it is true. Nothing stays the same forever. Change governs everything in the universe, from distant galaxies, stars, and planets to tiny bacteria and giant whales—and us humans, too. Many changes in nature, such as the formation of mountains, happen too slowly for us to notice, unfolding over many lifetimes, even millions of years. When we do see rapid and sudden changes, they are usually bad for us. For example, the people of the Italian city of Pompeii had lived for generations in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, a dormant, or "sleeping," volcano. In the year AD 79, the sleeper awoke with an outburst of flame and fury. Within hours, it sent clouds of hot ash and gas to choke over 20,000 people, nearly all of Pompeii's residents.

Mountain ranges and volcanoes are features of the geology of the planet Earth. Geology is the science that studies the structure and history of the earth as recorded in the rocks. If you could slice deep into the earth, you would find that it is arranged in layers. Geologists—earth scientists—believe that the topmost layer of rock, or crust, is between four and forty miles thick. Earth's crust is like an eggshell broken into ten enormous slabs and numerous smaller ones. These slabs, called plates, float on a layer of partially molten rock called the mantle—that is, the layer of rock between Earth's crust and core.

Every continent and ocean floor rests atop one or more plates. Driven by heat currents from Earth's core, plates are always in motion, always changing position. Although the plates move slowly, just a few inches a year, their movements have shaped Earth's crust—and still do. Moving plates push against, slide past, and grind under one another. When two plates scrunch together, they trigger earthquakes that create volcanoes and mountain ranges such as the Rockies, Andes, and Himalayas.

Yet not even a mountain range can resist the force of flowing water. Water is invincible. Given enough time, it will erode—wear away—the hardest rocks. Rushing rivers break off bits of rock. Carried downstream, these bits bounce along a river's bottom, or bed, further shattering into coarse gravel or grains of fine sand.

Inevitably, rivers lose power as they run off from a continent and enter an ocean. In doing so, they drop the materials they carried, called sediment, into the coastal waters. Tides and currents move the sediment into deeper waters, far from shore. Settling on the ocean floor, it slowly builds up in layers that may become miles thick. As the lower, older sediment layers get buried deeper, the weight of the upper, younger layers compresses and hardens them, turning them to stone. These are the layers we see along the walls of deep cuts in Earth's surface, such as the walls of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. The mighty Colorado carved its canyon over millions of years, as it still does today.

Life began in the oceans, thanks to the sun. Nearly ninety-three million miles from Earth, the sun, like other stars, is a glowing ball of hot gases. Most of the sun's energy, in the form of light, is lost in deep space. However, a tiny fraction reaches Earth, where it drives the weather by heating the atmosphere and oceans, fueling life.

Ancient peoples worshipped the sun. For them, sunlight symbolized life, while darkness symbolized death—eternal night. Although the ancients could not explain why, modern science has shown how sunlight sustains life on Earth. From about 3.8 to 2.5 billion years ago, the first plants and animals developed in the oceans. Over millions of years, some of these changed, or evolved, in ways that allowed them to move onto the land. Every land plant and animal alive today has ancestors that once emerged from the oceans.

Like their modern kin, the earliest life-forms were what scientists call self-feeders. These are green plants, which trap solar energy through photosynthesis—that is, the process of turning sunlight into chemical energy. Energy is the power to do work or to act. Green plants store chemical energy and use it to live, especially to turn it into food for themselves. Thus, they are self-feeders.

Animals are other-feeders, or consumers. No animal can make its own food. To live, it must feed on plants, absorbing the chemical energy stored in them. Some animals, however, get their energy in another way. Carnivores, or flesh eaters, eat the plant eaters and other flesh eaters, too.

Most living beings vanish after they die. Microscopic bacteria nearly always consume the remains of the dead, leaving no trace. We call this decay. Yet, occasionally, some naturally preserved remains survive. These remains of ancient life-forms are fossils, from the Latin word fossilis, for "dug up." Generally, only the hard parts survive as fossils. These include bones, teeth, shells, and the woody parts of plants that became petrified, or turned to stone, by absorbing minerals from the earth. Other fossils are not the actual remains of an animal or plant at all, but imprints of them left in mud that hardened before decay set in. Studying fossils can help us understand what Earth was like in the distant past and how life-forms changed over time. But most of us have no use for such fossils in our daily lives.

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