Black in Latin Americaby Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Pub. Date: 07/30/2011
Publisher: New York University Press
12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World during the Middle Passage. While just over 11.0 million survived the arduous journey, only about 450,000 of them arrived in the United States. The rest—over ten and a half/b>/b>/b>
Selected as a 2012 Outstanding Title by AAUP University Press Books for Public and Secondary School Libraries
12.5 million Africans were shipped to the New World during the Middle Passage. While just over 11.0 million survived the arduous journey, only about 450,000 of them arrived in the United States. The rest—over ten and a half million—were taken to the Caribbean and Latin America. This astonishing fact changes our entire picture of the history of slavery in the Western hemisphere, and of its lasting cultural impact. These millions of Africans created new and vibrant cultures, magnificently compelling syntheses of various African, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish influences.
Despite their great numbers, the cultural and social worlds that they created remain largely unknown to most Americans, except for certain popular, cross-over musical forms. So Henry Louis Gates, Jr. set out on a quest to discover how Latin Americans of African descent live now, and how the countries of their acknowledge—or deny—their African past; how the fact of race and African ancestry play themselves out in the multicultural worlds of the Caribbean and Latin America. Starting with the slave experience and extending to the present, Gates unveils the history of the African presence in six Latin American countries—Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, and Peru—through art, music, cuisine, dance, politics, and religion, but also the very palpable presence of anti-black racism that has sometimes sought to keep the black cultural presence from view.
In Brazil, he delves behind the façade of Carnaval to discover how this ‘rainbow nation’ is waking up to its legacy as the world’s largest slave economy.
In Cuba, he finds out how the culture, religion, politics and music of this island is inextricably linked to the huge amount of slave labor imported to produce its enormously profitable 19th century sugar industry, and how race and racism have fared since Fidel Castro’s Communist revolution in 1959.
In Haiti, he tells the story of the birth of the first-ever black republic, and finds out how the slaves’s hard fought liberation over Napoleon Bonaparte’s French Empire became a double-edged sword.
In Mexico and Peru, he explores the almost unknown history of the significant numbers of black people—far greater than the number brought to the United States—brought to these countries as early as the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the worlds of culture that their descendants have created in Vera Cruz on the Gulf of Mexico, the Costa Chica region on the Pacific, and in and around Lima, Peru.
Professor Gates’ journey becomes ours as we are introduced to the faces and voices of the descendants of the Africans who created these worlds. He shows both the similarities and distinctions between these cultures, and how the New World manifestations are rooted in, but distinct from, their African antecedents. “Black in Latin America” is the third instalment of Gates’s documentary trilogy on the Black Experience in Africa, the United States, and in Latin America. In America Behind the Color Line, Professor Gates examined the fortunes of the black population of modern-day America. In Wonders of the African World, he embarked upon a series of journeys to reveal the history of African culture. Now, he brings that quest full-circle in an effort to discover how Africa and Europe combined to create the vibrant cultures of Latin America, with a rich legacy of thoughtful, articulate subjects whose stories are astonishingly moving and irresistibly compelling.
- New York University Press
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- Product dimensions:
- 6.00(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.90(d)
Table of Contents
1 Brazil: "May Exú Give Me the Power of Speech" 12
2 Mexico: "The Black Grandma in the Closet" 59
3 Peru: "The Blood of the Incas, the Blood of the Mandingas" 91
4 The Dominican Republic: "Black behind the Ears" 119
5 Haiti: "From My Ashes I Rise; God Is My Cause and My Sword" 146
6 Cuba: The Next Cuban Revolution 179
Appendix: Color Categories in Latin America 223
About the Author 259
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My president is black. But what does that mean? Is it skin color, a cultural identity, or a label. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. whose scholarly work has not crossed into science tracing blacks back to mother Africa using their DNA. The common assumption is that most black in the US descended from slaves. However from 1502 to 1866 out of the 11.2 million Africans who survived the ocean passage to the Americas, only 450,000 arrived in the United States. So the African American experience expands below the border into our neighbors to the south. In Black in Latin America by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., the author uses a case study approach and examines a broad spectrum on countries: Brazil, Mexico, Peru, The Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Cuba. What he finds is that there are levels of color and the treatment has varied to the country. In the end he list a appendix of the names used to describe the diversity of colors. This book is an interesting examination of race in the Americas through the lens of one of the preeminent scholars of our time. The book pulls from the PBS television series Blacks in Latin America.
As an American-born white man, there will always be a feeling of guilt concerning the way this country started and on whose backs it was built. Native Americans, Chinese, Irish, Jews, Africans, etc. Professor Gates doesn't completely clear my mind of this guilty feeling, concerning the treatment of Africans during the slave trade, but I am a little more educated, and I feel less of the, "white guilt," that is instilled in non-minority Americans from elementary school on.
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