The Black-White Test Score Gap / Edition 1

The Black-White Test Score Gap / Edition 1

by Christopher Jencks
     
 

ISBN-10: 0815746091

ISBN-13: 9780815746096

Pub. Date: 08/28/1998

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

The test score gap between blacks and whites—on vocabulary, reading, and math tests, as well as on tests that claim to measure scholastic aptitude and intelligence—is large enough to have far-reaching social and economic consequences. In their introduction to this book, Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips argue that eliminating the disparity would

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Overview

The test score gap between blacks and whites—on vocabulary, reading, and math tests, as well as on tests that claim to measure scholastic aptitude and intelligence—is large enough to have far-reaching social and economic consequences. In their introduction to this book, Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips argue that eliminating the disparity would dramatically reduce economic and educational inequality between blacks and whites. Indeed, they think that closing the gap would do more to promote racial equality than any other strategy now under serious discussion. The book offers a comprehensive look at the factors that contribute to the test score gap and discusses options for substantially reducing it. Although significant attempts have been made over the past three decades to shrink the test score gap, including increased funding for predominantly black schools, desegregation of southern schools, and programs to alleviate poverty, the median black American still scores below 75 percent of American whites on most standardized tests. The book brings together recent evidence on some of the most controversial and puzzling aspects of the test score debate, including the role of test bias, heredity, and family background. It also looks at how and why the gap has changed over the past generation, reviews the educational, psychological, and cultural explanations for the gap, and analyzes its educational and economic consequences. The authors demonstrate that traditional explanations account for only a small part of the black-white test score gap. They argue that this is partly because traditional explanations have put too much emphasis on racial disparities in economic resources, both in homes and in schools, and on demographic factors like family structure. They say that successful theories will put more emphasis on psychological and cultural factors, such as the way black and white parents teach their children to deal with things they do not know or understand, and the way black and white children respond to the same classroom experiences. Finally, they call for large-scale experiments to determine the effects of schools' racial mix, class size, ability grouping, and other policies. In addition to the editors, the contributors include Claude Steele, Ronald Ferguson, William G. Bowen, Philip Cook, and William Julius Wilson.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780815746096
Publisher:
Brookings Institution Press
Publication date:
08/28/1998
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
536
Sales rank:
1,006,185
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.19(d)
Lexile:
1540L (what's this?)

Table of Contents

1The Black-White Test Score Gap: An Introduction1
Pt. ITest Bias, Heredity, and Home Environment
2Racial Bias in Testing55
3Race, Genetics, and IQ86
4Family Background, Parenting Practices, and the Black-White Test Score Gap103
Pt. IIHow and Why the Gap Has Changed
5Black-White Test Score Convergence since 1965149
6Why Did the Black-White Score Gap Narrow in the 1970s and 1980s?182
Pt. IIIThe Impact of Schools and Culture
7Does the Black-White Test Score Gap Widen after Children Enter School?229
8Teachers' Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap273
9Can Schools Narrow the Black-White Test Score Gap?318
10The Burden of "Acting White": Do Black Adolescents Disparage Academic Achievement?375
11Stereotype Threat and the Test Performance of Academically Successful African Americans401
Pt. IVDo Test Scores Matter?
12Racial and Ethnic Preferences in College Admissions431
13Scholastic Aptitude Test Scores, Race, and Academic Performance in Selective Colleges and Universities457
14Basic Skills and the Black-White Earnings Gap480
Pt. VCommentary
15The Role of the Environment in the Black-White Test Score Gap501
Contributors511
Index513

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