Bone Cements: Up-to-Date Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Commercial Materials

Overview

The cemented hip prosthesis is one of the most frequent operations worldwide in the orthopaedic field. In these operations bone cements are used to fix artificial joints filling the free space between bone and prostheses. As an elastic zone the cement is able to buffer the forces affecting the bone.
Though chemically all cements on the market are basing on the same main substance (methyl methacrylate = MMA) they differ in their physical and chemical properties. The rising number...

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Overview

The cemented hip prosthesis is one of the most frequent operations worldwide in the orthopaedic field. In these operations bone cements are used to fix artificial joints filling the free space between bone and prostheses. As an elastic zone the cement is able to buffer the forces affecting the bone.
Though chemically all cements on the market are basing on the same main substance (methyl methacrylate = MMA) they differ in their physical and chemical properties. The rising number of bone cements on the market makes it difficult for the surgeon to make an appropriate choice for good clinical long-term results.
The present book is a complete, detailed comparative presentation of all relevant physical and chemical properties of the bone cements on the market.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642641152
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 12/31/2013
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2000
  • Pages: 272
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.61 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction and Scope.- 2 Test Material and Applied Methods.- 2.1 Material.- 2.2 Applied Test Methods.- 2.2.1 Description of the Cements.- 2.2.2 Determination of the Polymer Composition.- 2.2.3 Determination of the Benzoyl Peroxide Content.- 2.2.3.1 Titration.- 2.2.3.2 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.- 2.2.4 Determination of the Content of Radiopaque Medium.- 2.2.5 Representation of the Radiopacity.- 2.2.6 Release of Residual Monomer.- 2.2.7 Residual Monomer Content.- 2.2.8 Determination of the Gentamicin Content.- 2.2.9 Determination of the Release of Gentamicin.- 2.2.10 Determination of the Molecular Weight.- 2.2.11 Determination of the Monomer Composition.- 2.2.12 Determination of the Monomer Stability According to ISO 5833.- 2.2.13 Determination of the Bending Strength (Three-Point) According to German Industrial Standard 53435.- 2.2.14 Determination of the Impact Strength According to German Industrial Standard 53435.- 2.2.15 Determination of Bending Strength (Four-Point) According to ISO 5833.- 2.2.16 Determination of Compressive Strength According to ISO 5833.- 2.2.17 Determination of the Bending Modulus According to ISO 5833.- 2.2.18 Determination of Intrusion According to ISO 5833.- 2.2.19 Determination of the Setting Temperature/Time According to ISO 5833.- 2.2.20 Determination of the Doughing Time According to ISO 5833.- 2.2.21 Determination of the Working Properties.- 2.2.22 Determination of the Glass Transition Temperature.- 2.2.23 Determination of Fatigue Strength.- 3 Results and Discussion.- 3.1 PMMAs as Bone Cements.- 3.1.1 Initiator System for Polymerization.- 3.1.2 Polymerization Heat.- 3.1.3 Residual Monomer.- 3.1.4 Handling and Viscosity.- 3.1.4.1 Mixing Phase.- 3.1.4.2 Working Phase.- 3.1.4.3 Hardening Phase.- 3.1.5 Molecular Weight.- 3.1.6 Mechanical Properties.- 3.1.7 Glass Transition Temperature.- 3.2 Descriptions of the Cements.- 3.2.1 Antibiotic-Free (Plain) Cements.- 3.2.1.1 C-ment 1.- 3.2.1.2 C-ment 3.- 3.2.1.3 Cemex Isoplastic (High Viscosity).- 3.2.1.4 Cemex RX (Low Viscosity).- 3.2.1.5 Cerafix LV.- 3.2.1.6 CMW1.- 3.2.1.7 CMW 2.- 3.2.1.8 CMW 3.- 3.2.1.9 Duracem 3.- 3.2.1.10 Durus H.- 3.2.1.11 Endurance.- 3.2.1.12 Osteobond.- 3.2.1.13 Osteopal and Palacos LV (E Flow).- 3.2.1.14 Osteopal HA.- 3.2.1.15 Osteopal VS.- 3.2.1.16 Palacos R.- 3.2.1.17 Palamed.- 3.2.1.18 Palavit HV :.- 3.2.1.19 Palavit LV.- 3.2.1.20 Surgical Simplex P and Surgical Simplex P with Microlok.- 3.2.1.21 Surgical Subiton RO.- 3.2.1.22 Zimmer Dough-Type Radiopaque Cement.- 3.2.2 Comparison of Plain Cements.- 3.2.2.1 Setting Time and Temperature.- 3.2.2.2 Compressive Strength.- 3.2.2.3 Dynstat Bending Strength.- 3.2.2.4 Dynstat Impact Strength.- 3.2.2.5 ISO Bending Strength.- 3.2.2.6 Modulus of Elasticity.- 3.2.3 Antibiotic-Loaded Cements.- 3.2.3.1 Antibiotic Simplex (= AKZ).- 3.2.3.2 Allofix G.- 3.2.3.3 Cemex-Genta HV.- 3.2.3.4 Cemex-Genta LV.- 3.2.3.5 Cerafixgenta.- 3.2.3.6 CMW 1 G.- 3.2.3.7 CMW 2 G.- 3.2.3.8 CMW 3 G.- 3.2.3.9 CMW 2000 Gentamicin.- 3.2.3.10 Copal.- 3.2.3.11 Genta C-ment 1.- 3.2.3.12 Genta C-ment 3.- 3.2.3.13 Osteopal G and Palacos LV + G/E Flow with Gentamicin.- 3.2.3.14 Refobacin-Palacos R and Palacos R with Gentamicin.- 3.2.3.15 Palamed G.- 3.2.3.16 Surgical Subiton G.- 3.2.4 Comparative Tests of Antibiotic-Loaded Cements.- 3.2.4.1 Setting Time and Temperature.- 3.2.4.2 Compressive Strength.- 3.2.4.3 Dynstat Bending Strength.- 3.2.4.4 Dynstat Impact Strength.- 3.2.4.5 ISO Bending Strength.- 3.2.4.6 Modulus of Elasticity.- 3.2.5 Further Comparative Studies.- 3.2.5.1 Working Time.- 3.2.5.2 Molecular Weight.- 3.2.5.3 Long-Term Load-Cycling Tests.- 3.2.5.4 Radiopacity.- 3.2.5.5 Residual Monomer and DmpT in the Polymerized Cement.- 3.2.5.6 Glass Transition Temperature.- 3.2.5.7 Release of Active Ingredients.- 3.2.5.8 Summarizing Evaluation.- References.

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