Bone Densitometry for Technologists / Edition 3 by Sydney Lou Bonnick, Lori Ann Lewis | | 9781461436249 | Hardcover | Barnes & Noble
Bone Densitometry for Technologists / Edition 3

Bone Densitometry for Technologists / Edition 3

by Sydney Lou Bonnick, Lori Ann Lewis
     
 

ISBN-10: 1461436249

ISBN-13: 9781461436249

Pub. Date: 11/06/2012

Publisher: Springer New York

As a technology, bone densitometry is really quite extraordinary. The ability to quantify the density of the bones at a variety of skeletal sites has truly revolutionized the approach to a number of diseases, the most important of which is osteoporosis. Using the information from the machines, especially dual-energy X ray absortiometry (DXA) technology, physicians

Overview

As a technology, bone densitometry is really quite extraordinary. The ability to quantify the density of the bones at a variety of skeletal sites has truly revolutionized the approach to a number of diseases, the most important of which is osteoporosis. Using the information from the machines, especially dual-energy X ray absortiometry (DXA) technology, physicians can recommend and prescribe interventions that will slow bone loss and reduce the risk of disabling fractures. The remarkable advances in skeletal imaging with densitometry devices have made possible quantitative and diagnostic assessments of skeletal structure. However it is in fact the skill and concern of the technologist that enables all of this to happen. In this updated and expanded third edition of their gold standard and highly praised Bone Densitometry for Technologists, Sydney Lou Bonnick, MD, FACP, and Lori Ann Lewis, MRT, CDT, again offer the most comprehensive review of the standards and developments in the field. Here radiologic technologists, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and dedicated densitometry technologists can find not only the state- of-the-art guidelines for bone density testing, but also a wide range of other topics, including several new chapters. These include a new chapter on the performance of DXA lumbar spine, proximal femur and forearm studies; one on Using Absolute Risk to Predict Fracture Risk in Clinical Practice; and another providing examples of highly instructional DXA images in which artifacts or structural changes can be seen. There are 2 new appendices and the other 10 appendices from the previous edition have been updated wherever necessary to reflect the most current information available. In Appendix XII, the contents of the accompanying CD-ROM are reviewed. On this CD, readers will find the Precision Calculator Companion that was first included with the 2nd edition of Dr. Bonnick's title, Bone Densitometry in Clinical Prac

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781461436249
Publisher:
Springer New York
Publication date:
11/06/2012
Edition description:
3rd ed. 2013
Pages:
421
Product dimensions:
6.30(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.00(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Conventions in Densitometry

Densitometry as a Quantitative Measurement Technique

Accuracy and Precision

The Skeleton in Densitometry

Weight Bearing or Non-Weight Bearing Sites

Axial or Appendicular Sites

Central or Peripheral Sites

Cortical or Trabecular Sites

What Do the Machines Actually Measure?

The Densitometry Printout

The Percentage Comparisons

The Standard Score Comparisons

The Age-Regression Graph

The Standardized BMD

The NHANES III Database for the Proximal Femur

References

Chapter 2. Densitometry Techniques

Plain Radiography in the Assessment of Bone Density

Qualitative Morphometry

Qualitative Spinal Morphometry

The Singh Index

Quantitative Morphometric Techniques

Calcar Femorale Thickness

Radiogrammetry

The Radiologic Osteoporosis Score

Radiographic Photodensitometry

Radiographic Absorptiometry

Photon Absorptiometry Techniques

Single Photon Absorptiometry

Dual Photon Absorptiometry

Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

Peripheral DXA

Single-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

Quantitative Computed Tomography

Peripheral QCT

Quantitative Ultrasound Bone Densitometry

References

Chapter 3. Skeletal Anatomy in Densitometry

The Spine in Densitometry

Vertebral Anatomy

Artifacts in PA or AP Spine Densitometry

Vertebral Fractures

Effects of Osteophytes on BMD

Effects of Aortic Calcification on BMD

Effects of Facet Sclerosis on BMD

Other Causes of Artifacts in PA and AP Lumbar Spine Studies

The Spine in the Lateral Projection

The Proximal Femur in Densitometry

Proximal Femur Anatomy

Effects of Rotation on BMD in the Proximal Femur

Effects of Leg Dominance on BMD in the Proximal Femur

Effects of Scoliosis, Osteoarthritis, Osteophytes, Surgery, and Fracture on BMD in the Proximal Femur
The Forearm in Densitometry

Nomenclature

Effects of Arm Dominance on Forearm BMD

Effects of Artifacts on BMD in the Forearm

The Metacarpals, Phalanges, and Calcaneus

References

Chapter 4. Densitometry Devices Approved by the Food and Drug Administration

Computer-Enhanced Radiogrammetry

Computer-Enhanced Radiographic Absorptiometry

Central X-ray Densitometers

Peripheral X-ray Densitometers

Ultrasound Bone Densitometers

Chapter 5. Computer Basics

Types of Computers

Desktops, Towers, Minitowers, and Laptops

PCs and Macs

Major Components of a Computer System

Important Components Inside the Computer Housing

Motherboard, Random Access Memory, and Slots

The CPU

The Hard Drive

Internal Disk Drives

Input Devices

The Keyboard

The Mouse

The Trackball

Output Devices

Monitors

Printers

Computer Ports

Keyboard and Mouse Ports

Parallel Ports

Serial Ports

Universal Serial Bus Ports

Power, Monitor, Modem, and Network Ports

Types of Storage Media

Magnetic Media

Tape Media

Optical Media

Protecting the Data

Computer Maintenance

Chapter 6. Precision in Bone Densitometry

Performing a Precision Study

Short-Term Precision Studies

Long-Term Precision Studies

Determination of Least Significant Change

When Should a Measurement Be Repeated in Clinical Practice?

Which Skeletal Site Should Be Used to Monitor Changes in Bone Density?

Is the Measured Change the Actual Change in BMD?

Case Study in Precision

Importance of Precision

References

Chapter 7. Radiation Safety in X-Ray Densitometry

Basics of Radiation

Quantities of Radiation

The Curie

The Roentgen

The Rad

The Rem

The Effective Dose Equivalent

Harmful Effects of Ionizing Radiation

Acute Lethal Radiation Syndromes
Local Tissue Damage from Radiation

Skin

Ovaries and Testes

Bone Marrow and Blood

Late Effects of Ionizing Radiation

Radiation Doses in Densitometry

Radiation Protection Programs

Protection of the Public

Protection of the Patient

Protection of the Technologist

Time, Distance, and Shielding

Personnel-Monitoring Devices

The Pregnant Technologist

References

Chapter 8. Quality Control Procedures

Phantoms

Using the Phantom to Create Control Tables and Charts

Methods for Tracking Machine Performance

Shewhart Rules

CUSUM Charts

Automated Quality Control Procedures

References

Chapter 9. An Overview of Osteoporosis

Definition of Osteoporosis

The 1991 and 1993 Consensus Development Conferences

The 1994 World Health Organization Criteria for Diagnosis of Osteoporosis

Prevalence of Osteoporosis

Consequences of Osteoporosis

Risk Factors for Osteoporosis

Attainment of Peak Bone Density

Maintenance of Bone Density

The National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines for Bone Mass Measurements

The 1997 Bone Mass Measurement Act

The National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines for Treatment Based on BMD Testing

Interventions in Osteoporosis

Nonprescription Interventions

Lifestyle Modifications

Calcium

Vitamin D, and Exercise

Prescription Interventions

Estrogen Replacement

The Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Raloxifene

Synthetic Salmon Calcitonin

Bisphosphonates

Patient Education Materials

References

Chapter 10. Interpretation of Bone Densitometry Data

The Results

The Skeletal Image

Measured and Calculated Bone Density Parameters

Comparisons to the Reference Database

Standardized BMD

Age-Regression Graph

Assignment of Diagnostic Category Based on WHO Criteria

Conflicting Diagnoses from Measurement of Multiple Sites

Report Review

References

Appendix I. Contacts for Bone Densitometry Manufacturers and Organizations of Interest

Appendix II. World Health Organization Criteria for the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis Based on Measurement of Bone Density

Appendix III. National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidelines for Bone Density Measurements

Appendix IV. Bone Mass Measurement Act of 1997

Appendix V. CPT Codes for Bone Densitometry

Appendix VI. DXA PA Spine Labeling Guidelines

Appendix VII. Conversion Formulas

Appendix VIII: Recommended Procedures for Short-Term Precision Studies

Appendix IX. Least Significant Change

Appendix X. Quality Control Shewhart Rules. Appendix XI. Glossary of Computer Terms. Appendix XII. Review Questions

Appendix XIII. Review Question Answer Sheet and Instructions for Obtaining Continuing Education Credit

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