In late antiquity, pious Christian women buried the remains of saints and martyrs, sometimes on land the women themselves owned. The legends of these "bone gatherers" launch Denzey's investigation into the experiences of third- and fourth-century Roman women based on the complex visual and archeological evidence they left behind in the city's catacombs. Denzey, a lecturer at Harvard University, uses a technique "akin to feminist midrash" to decipher what these women's lives were really like as the feminine ideal shifted from pagan Rome's devoted wives to Catholic Christianity's virgin martyrs. Sometimes delving into the macabre, the author probes into the meanings revealed by underground burial spaces and wall paintings that reflect women's presence. The study concludes with an analysis of Pope Damasus's impact in the fourth century: a "stunning masculinization of Rome's sacred space," the privatization of women's roles, and the end of the female tradition of bone gathering. Although the book's black-and-white photographs are sparse and hard to decipher, Denzey's prose paints vivid pictures of the sites she visits. Some readers may find her imaginative interpretations of the visual evidence too speculative, but her densely layered inquiry is insightful and haunting. (Aug.)Copyright 2007 Reed Business Information
The Bone Gatherers: The Lost Worlds of Early Christian Womenby Nicola Denzey
The bone gatherers found in the annals and legends of the early Roman Catholic Church were women who collected the bodies of martyred saints to give them a proper burial. They have come down to us as deeply resonant symbols of grief: from the women who anointed Jesus's crucified body in the gospels to the Pietà, we are accustomed to thinking of women as natural mourners, caring for the body in all its fragility and expressing our deepest sorrow.
But to think of women bone gatherers merely as mourners of the dead is to limit their capacity to stand for something more significant. In fact, Denzey argues that the bone gatherers are the mythic counterparts of historical women of substance and means-women who, like their pagan sisters, devoted their lives and financial resources to the things that mattered most to them: their families, their marriages, and their religion. We find their sometimes splendid burial chambers in the catacombs of Rome, but until Denzey began her research for The Bone Gatherers, the monuments left to memorialize these women and their contributions to the Church went largely unexamined.
The Bone Gatherers introduces us to once-powerful women who had, until recently, been lost to history—from the sorrowing mothers and ghastly brides of pagan Rome to the child martyrs and women sponsors who shaped early Christianity. It was often only in death that ancient women became visible—through the buildings, burial sites, and art constructed in their memory—and Denzey uses this archaeological evidence, along with ancient texts, to resurrect the lives of several fourth-century women.
Surprisingly, she finds that representations of aristocratic Roman Christian women show a shift in the value and significance of womanhood over the fourth century: once esteemed as powerful leaders or patrons, women came to be revered (in an increasingly male-dominated church) only as virgins or martyrs—figureheads for sexual purity. These depictions belie a power struggle between the sexes within early Christianity, waged via the Church's creation and manipulation of collective memory and subtly shifting perceptions of women and femaleness in the process of Christianization.
The Bone Gatherers is at once a primer on how to "read" ancient art and the story of a struggle that has had long-lasting implications for the role of women in the Church.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Through the narrow window of third- and fourth-century Rome, Denzey carefully explores the condition of Christian women of the time in relation to the developing Church. A scholar of late antiquity religions (Dartmouth Coll.) and author of academic journal publications, she developed parts of the book from public lectures at several universities and divinity schools. Art and archaeological evidences within catacombs and funerary basilicas show the influence of specific women of means who undertook to collect the remains of persons revered and holy in order to place them in structures they, the bone gatherers, had built. Much of the story remains informed conjecture, and though one may not agree with all the suggestions Denzey offers, she illustrates through on-site research and classical and secondary writings the change in leadership exercised by women patrons in tandem with increased male dominance in the Church and the reduced roles of women. Unique in its restricted time/place focus, the study probes in-depth with a 21st-century feminist eye and will be a useful addition to academic and women's studies collections.
Anna M. Donnelly
"Denzey's prose paints vivid pictures of the sites she visits . . . her densely layered inquiry is insightful and haunting."—Publishers Weekly
"Unique in its restricted time/place focus, the study probes in-depth with a twenty-first-century feminist eye."—Library Journal
"A masterful study written in a lively narrative style, The Bone Gatherers is pitched perfectly to both the interested general reader and to scholars. Denzey's expert placing of the funerary images of early Christian and pagan women into their social and cultural milieus, and her rich, well-researched iconographical reading of ancient imagery helps us to see the changing roles of women—both Christian and pagan—during the early centuries of Christian Rome."—Ann Steinsapir, museum educator, J. Paul Getty Museum, and author of Rural Sanctuaries in Roman Syria: The Creation of a Sacred Landscape
"Nicola Denzey’s impeccable scholarship and intimate and vivid style of writing makes tangible and credible the power of the holy that was mediated by women—women saints and women patrons. The Bone Gatherers allows the reader to transcend both historical and scholarly distance to encounter the forgotten women who also shaped Christianity."—Karen Jo Torjesen, author of When Women Were Priests: Women's Leadership in the Early Church and the Scandal of their Subordination in the Rise of Christianity
"A brilliantly argued book that weaves archeology, art history, and sociology; it's refreshing that, unlike many historians, Denzey is a gifted writer and storyteller . . . Whether or not you're religious, it's a great feminist read."—M. L. Madison, Feminist Review blog
"It should be consulted by all researchers in the religions of late antiquity and would make an excellent book for undergraduate courses on the literature and art of ancient Christianity." —Review of Biblical Literature
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Meet the Author
Nicola Denzey is a lecturer in the study of religion at Harvard University. She earned her M.A. and Ph.D. in Religions of Late Antiquity from Princeton and recently served as a faculty research associate in Harvard Divinity School's Women's Studies in Religion Program.
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