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Bones: Structure and Mechanics / Edition 2
     

Bones: Structure and Mechanics / Edition 2

by John D. Currey
 

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ISBN-10: 0691128049

ISBN-13: 9780691128047

Pub. Date: 07/03/2006

Publisher: Princeton University Press

This is a comprehensive and accessible overview of what is known about the structure and mechanics of bone, bones, and teeth. In it, John Currey incorporates critical new concepts and findings from the two decades of research since the publication of his highly regarded The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Crucially, Currey shows how bone structure and

Overview

This is a comprehensive and accessible overview of what is known about the structure and mechanics of bone, bones, and teeth. In it, John Currey incorporates critical new concepts and findings from the two decades of research since the publication of his highly regarded The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Crucially, Currey shows how bone structure and bone's mechanical properties are intimately bound up with each other and how the mechanical properties of the material interact with the structure of whole bones to produce an adapted structure.

For bone tissue, the book discusses stiffness, strength, viscoelasticity, fatigue, and fracture mechanics properties. For whole bones, subjects dealt with include buckling, the optimum hollowness of long bones, impact fracture, and properties of cancellous bone. The effects of mineralization on stiffness and toughness and the role of microcracking in the fracture process receive particular attention. As a zoologist, Currey views bone and bones as solutions to the design problems that vertebrates have faced during their evolution and throughout the book considers what bones have been adapted to do. He covers the full range of bones and bony tissues, as well as dentin and enamel, and uses both human and non-human examples.

Copiously illustrated, engagingly written, and assuming little in the way of prior knowledge or mathematical background, Bones is both an ideal introduction to the field and also a reference sure to be frequently consulted by practicing researchers.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780691128047
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
Publication date:
07/03/2006
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
456
Product dimensions:
6.10(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xi
Preface to the First Edition xiii
Introduction 1
CHAPTER ONE: The Structure of Bone Tissue 3
1.1 Bone at the Molecular Level 4
1.2 The Cells of Bone 11
1.3 Woven and Lamellar Bone 12
1.4 Fibrolamellar and Haversian Bone 14
1.5 Primary and Secondary Bone 20
1.6 Compact and Cancellous Bone 21
1.7 A Summary of Mammalian Bone Structure 24
1.8 Nonmammalian Bone 25
CHAPTER TWO: The Mechanical Properties of Materials 27
2.1 What Is Bone For? 27
2.2 Mechanical Properties of Stiff Materials 28
2.2.1 Stress, Strain, and Their Relationship 29
2.2.2 Anisotropy 37
2.2.3 Viscoelasticity 40
2.2.4 Modes of Loading 41
2.2.5 Fracture and Toughness 42
2.2.6 Fracture Mechanics 49
2.2.7 Creep Rupture 51
2.2.8 Fatigue Fracture 51
CHAPTER THREE: The Mechanical Properties of Bone 54
3.1 Elastic Properties 54
3.1.1 Orientation Effects 55
3.1.2 Strain Rate Effects 57
3.2 Strength 58
3.2.1 Orientation Effects 60
3.2.2 Strain Rate Effects 61
3.2.3 Modes of Loading 62
3.3 Inferring Bone Material Properties from Whole Bone
Behavior 62
3.4 Fracture Mechanics Properties 64
3.5 Creep Rupture 67
3.6 Fatigue Fracture 69
3.7 Modeling and Explaining Elastic Behavior 74
3.8 Modeling Fracture in Tension 82
3.8.1 The Effects of Stress Concentrations 82
3.8.2 The Effects of Remodeling 86
3.8.3 Anisotropy in Fracture 88
3.9 Fracture of Bone in Compression 91
3.10 Fracture of Bone in Bending 93
3.11 Mechanical Properties of Haversian Systems 99
3.12 Cancellous Bone 104
3.13 Bone as a Composite 104
3.14 Microdamage 110
3.14.1 Microcracking Phenomena 110
3.14.2 The Mechanical Effects of Microcracking 112
3.15 Strain Rate, Creep, and Fatigue: Pulling the Threads
Together 117
3.16 Fracture in Bone: Conclusions 122
CHAPTER FOUR: The Adaptation of Mechanical Properties to Different Functions 124
4.1 Properties of Bone with Different Functions 124
4.2 A General Survey of Properties 129
4.3 Mesoplodon Rostrum: A Puzzle 137
4.4 Property Changes in Ontogeny 138
CHAPTER FIVE: Cancellous Bone 146
5.1 Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone Material 146
5.2 Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone Tissue 150
5.3 Functions of Cancellous Bone 158
5.3.1 Principal Stresses 159
5.3.2 Arrangement of Trabeculae in Cancellous Bone 162
5.3.3 Joins Between Trabeculae 167
5.3.4 Energy Absorption of Cancellous bone 168
5.3.5 Cancellous Bone in Sandwiches and in Short Bones 170
5.3.6 Cancellous Bone in Tuberosities 170
5.3.7 Medullary Bone 170
5.3.8 The Size of Trabeculae 171
5.3.9 Cancellous Bone with No Compact Bone 172
5.4 Conclusion 173
CHAPTER SIX: The Properties of Allied Tissues 174
6.1 Calcified Cartilage 174
6.2 Collagenous Tissues of Teeth 176
6.2.1 Cement 176
6.2.2 Dentin 177
6.2.3 Narwhal Dentin 180
6.3 Enamel 183
6.4 Fish Scales 191
6.5 Dentin vs. Bone 191
CHAPTER SEVEN: The Shapes of Bones 194
7.1 Shapes of Whole Bones 194
7.2 Designing for Minimum Mass 196
7.3 Long Bones 197
7.3.1 Why Are Long Bones Hollow? 197
7.3.2 How Hollow Should Bones Be? 199
7.3.3 How Stiff Should Bones Be? 210
7.4 Flat or Short Bones with Cancellous Bone 212
7.4.1 Sandwich Bones 212
7.4.2 Short Bones 217
7.4.3 Synergy Between Cortical and Cancellous Bone 219
7.5 Paying for Strength with Mass 220
7.5.1 Minimum Mass of Compact Bone Material 220
7.5.2 Minimum Mass of Cancellous Bone 224
7.6 The Swollen Ends of Long Bones 225
7.7 Euler Buckling 231
7.8 Interactions Between Bone Architecture and Bone
Material Properties 236
7.9 The Mechanical Importance of Marrow Fat 239
7.10 Methods of Analyzing Stresses and Strains in
Whole Bones 241
7.11 Conclusion 243
CHAPTER EIGHT: Articulations 245
8.1 The Synovial Joint 247
8.2 The Elbow 248
8.3 The Swelling of Bones Under Synovial Joints 254
8.4 Intervertebral Disks 261
8.5 Sutures 262
8.6 Epiphyseal Plates 263
8.7 Joints in General 268
8.8 Conclusion 271
CHAPTER NINE: Bones, Tendons, and Muscles 272
9.1 Tendons 273
9.2 Sesamoids and Ossified Tendons 277
9.3 Attachment of Tendons to Bone 280
9.4 Muscles Produce Bending Stresses in Bones 283
9.5 Why Do Tendons Run Close to Joints? 285
9.6 Muscles as Stabilizing Devices 294
9.7 Curvature of Long Bones and Pauwels' Analyses 294
9.8 Skeletons in General 299
9.8.1 Pelvic and Pectoral Girdles 300
9.8.2 Limbs 301
9.8.3 Fusion and Loss of Bones 302
9.8.4 The Vertebral Column 304
9.8.5 The Skull 307
9.9 Conclusion 307
CHAPTER TEN: Safety Factors and Scaling Effects in Bones 309
10.1 Safety Factors 309
10.2 Size and Shape 327
10.2.1 Scaling 327
10.2.2 Elastic Similarity 329
10.2.3 Geometric Similarity 331
10.3 Conclusion 336
CHAPTER ELEVEN: Modeling and Reconstruction 337
11.1 The Need for Feedback Control 337
11.2 What Do We Need to Know? 341
11.3 Classic Experiments 343
11.4 The Nature of the Signal 345
11.4.1 Electrical Effects 345
11.4.2 Direct Measurement of Strain 349
11.5 How Does Bone Respond to the Signal? 350
11.6 Postclassical Experiments 354
11.7 In Search of the Algorithm 357
11.8 Precision of Response 364
11.9 Modeling of Cancellous Bone 367
11.10 The Functions of Internal Remodeling 368
11.10.1 Removing Dead Bone 369
11.10.2 Improving the Blood Supply 370
11.10.3 Mineral Homeostasis 371
11.10.4 Changing the Grain 372
11.10.5 Taking out Microcracks 374
11.10.6 It's a Pathological Mistake 377
11.11 Bone Cell Biology 378
11.12 Conclusion 378
CHAPTER TWELVE: Summing up 380
References 381
Index 425

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