Bookmarks: A Guide to Research and Writing / Edition 3

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Overview

Bookmarks is a new-generation research guide built on the assumption that students need to appreciate both conventional methods of research and techniques associated with rapidly developing electronic technologies.. "Bookmarks is designed as a bridge between old and new traditions - a guide for the college writers working in both print and electronic environments. It invites them to think of themselves, perhaps for the first time, as serious researchers.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321271341
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 4/6/2005
  • Edition description: 3RD
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 448
  • Sales rank: 1,024,068
  • Product dimensions: 6.48 (w) x 9.13 (h) x 0.59 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

What's a bookmark? A decade ago, the answer would have been simple—a strip of metal, fabric, or paper inserted between the pages of a book to hold a reader's place. But, today, a bookmark can also be understood as a feature in a Web browser, a way to store Web addresses one expects to consult often. Someone familiar with the World Wide Web might even use the term as a verb: to bookmark.

What has happened to this simple word provides a rationale for Bookmarks: A Guide to Research and Writing. Just as electronic technology has complicated the meaning of bookmark, it has similarly transformed every aspect of research for college writers and instructors. So we offer Bookmarks as a new generation research handbook, one built on the assumption that students need to know how electronic sources, materials, and methods are altering their relationship to knowledge.

And yet we insist that not everything has changed. Bookmarks still do hold readers' places, and research still does often involve familiar activities such as finding topics, browsing indexes, summarizing and paraphrasing sources, and organizing ten-page papers. For this reason, we have carefully designed Bookmarks as a bridge between old and new traditions—a guide for researchers who expect to work regularly in both print and electronic environments.

It will be obvious that Bookmarks has been written with the presence of technology assumed. Throughout the volume, for example, we refer to research "projects," not papers, and we treat Web pages, brochures, and multimedia presentations as plausibleoptions for reporting research findings in many situations. We take technology seriously because it creates new opportunities for undergraduates to do serious research in both their local and professional communities. At both the University of Texas at Austin and the University of South Florida, we have watched students using the Web and other technologies grow as writers and researchers, and we have been excited by their achievements.

We've also been chastened, occasionally, by Web projects that were more glitter than substance—offered by writers who have failed to read, organize, document, or edit carefully. While much of Bookmarks is genuinely new, the framework for describing research processes and the detailed chapters on documentation draw on materials refined over more than a decade. The result, we are confident, is a research guide that offers writers state-of-the-art advice about college research: the best of an older tradition merged with a thoughtful assessment of the new.

Our focus in this book is on offering comprehensive, practical advice for student researchers, including:

  • An opening section encouraging students to think of themselves as researchers (Section 1a). More than twenty manageable chapters explain the process of research.
  • Specific advice for sizing up research projects and assignments (Section 1b). In particular, writers learn how to read and interpret assignments.
  • A full chapter on project management (Chapter 2), offering suggestions for setting up calendars and timelines. There is fresh advice, too, for working on collaborative projects.
  • A chapter on field research (Chapter 8). Not all research occurs in the library or online, so Bookmarks includes suggestions for conducting interviews, using questionnaires, and making systematic observations.
  • A complete chapter on handling quotations (Chapter 20), offering guidelines for selecting and using quotations.

Bookmarks pays unusual attention to rhetorical matters, offering:

  • A full chapter on finding a topic (Chapter 3) as well as a chapter that helps writers to focus and narrow their theses (Chapter 5).
  • A stasis approach to establishing the purpose of a research project (Chapter 4). Stasis questions also steer the development of thesis sentences and other aspects of the research process.
  • A chapter on drafting the project (Chapter 18) that helps researchers develop cogent arguments for a particular audience.

Bookmarks emphasizes the process of evaluating and working with sources, research skills especially critical for success today. We include:

  • A full chapter on evaluating sources (Chapter 11). The chapter includes a chart that explains the differences between research materials.
  • A thorough discussion of intellectual property issues (Chapter 15). The chapter also provides guidelines for using academic sources responsibly.
  • A full chapter on keyword searches (Chapter 7). The chapter helps writers manage electronic indexes and search engines efficiently.
  • A chapter on positioning sources (Chapter 12). Writers learn how to detect and assess the biases in the materials they are using.
  • A full chapter on summarizing and paraphrasing (Chapter 14).

A key feature of Bookmarks is its extraordinarily comprehensive coverage of documentation formats, including Columbia Online Style (COS). This new system of documentation for electronic sources is presented authoritatively by its creator (Chapter 22). In addition, Bookmarks includes detailed treatment of MLA, APA, CMS, and CBE documentation styles (Chapters 23-26)—with comprehensive indexes to documentation items and clear examples of citations as they should appear both in the body of a paper and in the list of Works Cited or References. And Bookmarks includes complete sample papers in MLA, APA, and CMS styles, as well as excerpts from papers illustrating COS and CBE styles. Handy checklists help writers set up important items in research papers including title pages, works cited sheets, and abstracts.

Bookmarks itself exemplifies the way technology is reshaping the writing process. The book features a strong visual component, with a photo essay telling the story of research throughout the ages. It begins inside the front cover and continues on each tabbed divider. Screen shots of useful Web sites appear on the reverse of all tabbed dividers. These sites comprise a useful feature entitled "Bookmarks: Web Sites Worth Knowing" which guides researchers to reliable and intriguing sources online. Additional photographs and diagrams throughout the volume illustrate the research process.

A full-color, illustrated guide to creating Web pages (p. 185) offers succinct, practical advice for creating and evaluating Web projects.

Two complete sets of exercises follow each of Chapters 1-21. The first set introduces writers to specific research skills ("Getting Involved") and the second leads them step-by-step through their own academic work ("Managing Your Project").

Tabbed dividersthroughout Bookmarks enhance access to frequently consulted topics, and a glossary of terms inside the back cover provides easy reference for new or unfamiliar terminology. Supplements

Bookmarks for Instructors by Craig Branham of St. Louis University
This instructor's manual offers practical suggestions for designing and teaching research-intensive courses with Bookmarks. Rich with references to related readings, it includes discussion of alternatives to the research paper, students' concerns and attitudes about research, intellectual property issues, and ways to present the Internet as a research tool and publishing medium. The text also features several sample documents, including a syllabus, some assignment sheets, and an Acceptable Use policy.

Web Site for Bookmarks: Research Central at ...

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Table of Contents

All chapters end with “Web Sites Worth Knowing” and “Managing Your Project” assignments.

Preface.

To the Writer.

I. BEGINNING RESEARCH.

1. Starting Your Research Project.

Think of yourself as a researcher and writer.

Size up your assignment carefully.

Establish the hard points of your project.

Define the stages of your project.

Assess your strengths and weaknesses.

Create a schedule for your project.

2. Finding a Topic.

Find a topic in your world.

Connect your topic to a wider community.

Browse the library in your topic area.

Browse the Internet.

3. Establishing a Purpose.

Consider the topic as a question of fact.

Consider the topic as a question of definition.

Consider the topic as a question of value.

Consider the topic as a question of cause and effect.

Consider the topic as a question of consequence.

4. Planning Your Research Strategy.

Pose questions.

Focus your topic choice carefully.

Identify the information your project requires.

Determine where to locate the information your project requires.

Review the library catalogs, databases, and Web directories.

Talk to other people.

Prepare a research proposal or prospectus.

Annotated Research Proposal.

II. GATHERING IDEAS AND INFORMATION.

5. Using Library Resources.

Learn about your library.

Use library catalogs efficiently.

Locate the reference room.

Locate suitable bibliographies.

Locate suitable periodical indexes or databases.

Consult biographical resources.

Consult guides to reference works.

Locate statistics.

Check news sources.

Check special collections.

Consult government documents.

Check book and film reviews.

6. Locating Online Resources.

Find the most useful search engines.

Understand how a simple keyword search works.

Refine your search with Boolean operators.

Truncate terms to extend your search.

Refine your search with exact phrases.

Use more than one search engine or database.

Evaluate your electronic search.

Keep a record of your search.

Join in electronic conversations.

Write or email professional organizations.

7. Conducting Field Research.

Conduct interviews.

Conduct surveys.

Make systemic observations.

8. Keeping Track of Information.

Organize and safeguard your materials.

Prepare a working bibliography.

Prepare an annotated bibliography.

Make copies of important sources.

Back up your work frequently.

Annotated Bibliography.

III. WORKING WITH SOURCES.

9. Understanding Academic Responsibility and Avoiding Plagiarism.

Understand the ethics of research.

Avoid intentional and unintentional plagiarism.

Understand the special nature of collaborative projects.

Understand intellectual property rights.

Understand the special nature of online resources.

Using graphics, audio, or video files.

10. Evaluating Sources.

Consider the relevance of your sources.

Consider the purpose and bias of a source.

Consider the authority and reputation of a source.

Consider the credentials of experts, authors, and sponsoring agencies.

Consider the timeliness and stability of a source.

Consider how well a source presents key information.

Consider commercial intrusions into a source.

Consult librarians and instructors.

Conduct interviews.

Consider listservs and Usenet groups.

11. Annotating Research Materials.

Highlight key information.

Use marginal comments to start a dialogue with your sources.

Annotated Article.

12. Reviewing and Positioning Sources.

Review data and resources critically.

Position your research materials.

Sample Bibliography with Positioning Information and Sample Quotes.

13. Summarizing and Paraphrasing Sources.

Choose whether to summarize or paraphrase a source.

Summarize sources effectively.

Paraphrase sources effectively.

Acknowledge all borrowings.

14. Quoting Sources.

Select direct quotations strategically.

Introduce all direct and indirect borrowings.

Integrate graphical elements correctly.

Handle quotation marks correctly.

Tailor quotations to fit your sentences.

Use ellipses to indicate omissions.

Use square brackets to add necessary information to a quotation.

Use [sic] to acknowledge errors in sources.

Present quotations correctly.

Document the sources of all quotations.

IV. DEVELOPING THE PROJECT.

15. Reflecting on What You Have.

Consider whether you need to do more research.

Consider whether you have a fair balance of sources and opinions.

Consider whether you need to revise your purpose.

Consider whether you need to narrow your focus.

16. Refining Your Claim.

Be sure you have a point to make.

Grab your reader’s attention.

Limit your claim.

17. Organizing and Outlining.

Create a blueprint for your project.

Consider general patterns of organization.

Accommodate dissenting voices.

Follow professional templates.

Create a formal outline.

18. Drafting Your Project.

Prepare a version of your project early.

Draft your project for an audience.

Present your material thoroughly.

Write a strong introduction and conclusion.

Sample Introduction and Conclusion for a Research Project.

Make connections and use transitions.

Write stylishly.

19. Revising Your Project and Reviewing Documentation.

Revise your draft.
Provide a source for every direct quotation.

Provide a source for all paraphrased material.

Document all ideas not from common knowledge.

Document information from field research.

Document all material that might be questioned.

Furnish source information for all graphics, audio files, and other borrowings.

Furnish dates and other useful information.

Use links to document electronic sources.

V. PRESENTING YOUR RESEARCH.

20. Designing Documents.

Consider the formats your project might take.

Understand the principles of document design.

Apply design principles.

Organize Web projects logically.

Submit your project professionally.

21. Preparing Oral and Visual Presentations.

Designing oral and visual presentations.

Drafting oral and visual presentations.

Delivering oral and visual presentations.

Considering special situations.

22. Presenting Research in Many Genres.

Presenting research in different genres.

Reports.

Newsletters and brochures.

Web sites.

VI. DOCUMENTATION.

23. COS Documentation.

How do you use COS documentation?

COS form directory — Humanities (MLA).

Sample COS pages — Humanities (MLA).

COS form directory — Sciences (APA).

Sample COS pages — Sciences (APA).

24. MLA Documentation.

How do you use MLA documentation?

MLA form directory.

Sample MLA paper.

25. APA Documentation.

How do you use APA documentation?

APA form directory.

Sample APA paper.

26. CMS Documentation.

CMS notes.

CMS bibliographies.

CMS form directory.

Sample CMS paper.

27. CSE Documentation.

Provide in-text citations.

List sources used.

Credits.

Index.

Glossary of Computer Terms.

Read More Show Less

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

What's a bookmark? A decade ago, the answer would have been simple—a strip of metal, fabric, or paper inserted between the pages of a book to hold a reader's place. But, today, a bookmark can also be understood as a feature in a Web browser, a way to store Web addresses one expects to consult often. Someone familiar with the World Wide Web might even use the term as a verb: to bookmark.

What has happened to this simple word provides a rationale for Bookmarks: A Guide to Research and Writing. Just as electronic technology has complicated the meaning of bookmark, it has similarly transformed every aspect of research for college writers and instructors. So we offer Bookmarks as a new generation research handbook, one built on the assumption that students need to know how electronic sources, materials, and methods are altering their relationship to knowledge.

And yet we insist that not everything has changed. Bookmarks still do hold readers' places, and research still does often involve familiar activities such as finding topics, browsing indexes, summarizing and paraphrasing sources, and organizing ten-page papers. For this reason, we have carefully designed Bookmarks as a bridge between old and new traditions—a guide for researchers who expect to work regularly in both print and electronic environments.

It will be obvious that Bookmarks has been written with the presence of technology assumed. Throughout the volume, for example, we refer to research "projects," not papers, and we treat Web pages, brochures, and multimedia presentations asplausibleoptions for reporting research findings in many situations. We take technology seriously because it creates new opportunities for undergraduates to do serious research in both their local and professional communities. At both the University of Texas at Austin and the University of South Florida, we have watched students using the Web and other technologies grow as writers and researchers, and we have been excited by their achievements.

We've also been chastened, occasionally, by Web projects that were more glitter than substance—offered by writers who have failed to read, organize, document, or edit carefully. While much of Bookmarks is genuinely new, the framework for describing research processes and the detailed chapters on documentation draw on materials refined over more than a decade. The result, we are confident, is a research guide that offers writers state-of-the-art advice about college research: the best of an older tradition merged with a thoughtful assessment of the new.

Our focus in this book is on offering comprehensive, practical advice for student researchers, including:

  • An opening section encouraging students to think of themselves as researchers (Section 1a). More than twenty manageable chapters explain the process of research.
  • Specific advice for sizing up research projects and assignments (Section 1b). In particular, writers learn how to read and interpret assignments.
  • A full chapter on project management (Chapter 2), offering suggestions for setting up calendars and timelines. There is fresh advice, too, for working on collaborative projects.
  • A chapter on field research (Chapter 8). Not all research occurs in the library or online, so Bookmarks includes suggestions for conducting interviews, using questionnaires, and making systematic observations.
  • A complete chapter on handling quotations (Chapter 20), offering guidelines for selecting and using quotations.

Bookmarks pays unusual attention to rhetorical matters, offering:

  • A full chapter on finding a topic (Chapter 3) as well as a chapter that helps writers to focus and narrow their theses (Chapter 5).
  • A stasis approach to establishing the purpose of a research project (Chapter 4). Stasis questions also steer the development of thesis sentences and other aspects of the research process.
  • A chapter on drafting the project (Chapter 18) that helps researchers develop cogent arguments for a particular audience.

Bookmarks emphasizes the process of evaluating and working with sources, research skills especially critical for success today. We include:

  • A full chapter on evaluating sources (Chapter 11). The chapter includes a chart that explains the differences between research materials.
  • A thorough discussion of intellectual property issues (Chapter 15). The chapter also provides guidelines for using academic sources responsibly.
  • A full chapter on keyword searches (Chapter 7). The chapter helps writers manage electronic indexes and search engines efficiently.
  • A chapter on positioning sources (Chapter 12). Writers learn how to detect and assess the biases in the materials they are using.
  • A full chapter on summarizing and paraphrasing (Chapter 14).

A key feature of Bookmarks is its extraordinarily comprehensive coverage of documentation formats, including Columbia Online Style (COS). This new system of documentation for electronic sources is presented authoritatively by its creator (Chapter 22). In addition, Bookmarks includes detailed treatment of MLA, APA, CMS, and CBE documentation styles (Chapters 23-26)—with comprehensive indexes to documentation items and clear examples of citations as they should appear both in the body of a paper and in the list of Works Cited or References. And Bookmarks includes complete sample papers in MLA, APA, and CMS styles, as well as excerpts from papers illustrating COS and CBE styles. Handy checklists help writers set up important items in research papers including title pages, works cited sheets, and abstracts.

Bookmarks itself exemplifies the way technology is reshaping the writing process. The book features a strong visual component, with a photo essay telling the story of research throughout the ages. It begins inside the front cover and continues on each tabbed divider. Screen shots of useful Web sites appear on the reverse of all tabbed dividers. These sites comprise a useful feature entitled "Bookmarks: Web Sites Worth Knowing" which guides researchers to reliable and intriguing sources online. Additional photographs and diagrams throughout the volume illustrate the research process.

A full-color, illustrated guide to creating Web pages (p. 185) offers succinct, practical advice for creating and evaluating Web projects.

Two complete sets of exercises follow each of Chapters 1-21. The first set introduces writers to specific research skills ("Getting Involved") and the second leads them step-by-step through their own academic work ("Managing Your Project").

Tabbed dividersthroughout Bookmarks enhance access to frequently consulted topics, and a glossary of terms inside the back cover provides easy reference for new or unfamiliar terminology. Supplements

Bookmarks for Instructors by Craig Branham of St. Louis University
This instructor's manual offers practical suggestions for designing and teaching research-intensive courses with Bookmarks. Rich with references to related readings, it includes discussion of alternatives to the research paper, students' concerns and attitudes about research, intellectual property issues, and ways to present the Internet as a research tool and publishing medium. The text also features several sample documents, including a syllabus, some assignment sheets, and an Acceptable Use policy.

Web Site for Bookmarks: Research Central at ...

Read More Show Less

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