1. THE DEFINITION OF DEATH.
The Emergence of a Brain-Oriented Definition:
Defining Death: Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Definition of Death, President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Guidelines for the Determination of Death, Report of the Medical Consultants on the Diagnosis of Death to the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Non-Brain Formulations: The Alternative to the Brain-based Definitions, President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Against the Stream: Comments on the Definition and Redefinition of Death, Hans Jonas.
Establishing Criteria of Death. J. David Bleich.
Controversies Surrounding the Definition:
The “Higher Brain” Formulations, President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
The Impending Collapse of the Whole-Brain Definition of Death, Robert M. Veatch.
In re T.A.C.P (Baby Theresa), Supreme Court of Florida.
Brain Death, Religious Freedom, and Public Policy, Robert S. Olick.
2. TRUTHTELLING WITH DYING PATIENTS.
Changes in Physicians' Attitudes Toward Telling the Cancer Patient, Dennis H. Novack, Robin Plumer, Raymond L. Smith, Herbert Ochitill, Gary R. Morrow, and John M. Bennett.
Arguments Grounded in Consequences:
Truth and the Physician, Bernard C. Meyer.
The Classification of Duties — Veracity, Henry Sidgwick.
The Use of Truth and Falsehood in Medicine: An Experimental Study, Richard C. Cabot.
Arguments Grounded in Duty:
On the Supposed Right to Tell Lies From Benevolent Motives, Immanuel Kant.
Truthfulness as a Prima Facie Duty, W. D. Ross.
Examples of Mixed or Balancing Approaches:
Telling the Truth, Jennifer Jackson.
Truth in Our Intercourse with the Sick, Worthington Hooker.
The Definition of “Suicide”:
Defining Suicide, Manuel G. Velasquez.
The Problem of Defining Suicide, Tom L. Beauchamp.
Classical Problems in the Morality of Suicide:
Whether It Is Lawful to Kill Oneself, St. Thomas Aquinas.
Of Suicide, David Hume.
The Prevention, Intervention, and Control of Suicide:
Moral Problems of Suicide Intervention, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress.
The Role of Law in Suicide Prevention: Beyond Civil Commitment-A Bystander Duty to Report Suicide Threats, Kate E. Bloch.
Whose Life is it Anyway?, Joel Feinberg.
Suicide Prevention and the Value of Human Life, Erwin Ringel.
4. PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE AND EUTHANASIA.
Problems in the Morality of Actions by Physicians:
Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making, Timothy E. Quill.
Distortion of the Healing Relationship, Edmund D. Pellegrino.
A Case Against Dutch Euthanasia, Richard Fenigsen.
Problems in Law and Public Policy:
Medical Practice with Regard to Euthanasia and Related Medical Decisions in the Netherlands: The Remmelink Report, Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, The Netherlands.
Sue Rodriguez v. Attorney General of Canada and Attorney General of British Columbia, Supreme Court of Canada.
People of the State of Michigan v. Jack Kevorkian, State of Michigan in the Circuit Court for the County of Oakland.
The Oregon Death with Dignity Act.
5. FORGOING TREATMENT AND CAUSING DEATH.
Active and Passive Euthanasia:
Active and Passive Euthanasia, James Rachels.
Rachels on Active and Passive Euthanasia, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress.
Intending and Causing Death:
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health, Justice Antonin Scalia, Concurring in United States Supreme Court.
Deciding to Forego Life-Sustaining Treatment, President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Cause of Death?, Dan W. Brock.
Intending to Kill and the Principle of Double Effect, Edmund D. Pellegrino.
Patient Refusal of Hydration and Nutrition: An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide or Voluntary Active Euthanasia, James L. Bernat, Bernard Gert, and R. Peter Mogielnicki.
6. DECISIONS TO FORGO TREATMENT INVOLVING (ONCE) COMPETENT PERSONS.
Decisions by Competent Adults:
Bouvia v. Superior Court, California Court of Appeals, Second District.
Conflicts between Patients' Wishes to Forgo Treatment and the Policies of Health Care Facilities, Steven H. Miles, Peter A. Singer, and Mark Siegler.
State of Georgia v. McAfee, Supreme Court of Georgia.
Helping Larry James McAfee Die, Nat Hentoff.
The Medical Directive, Linda L. Emanuel and Ezekiel J. Emanuel.
Trumping Advance Directives, Dan W. Brock.
Decisions on Behalf of Formerly Competent Adults:
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health, United States Supreme Court.
Life and Death Choices after Cruzan, Larry Gostin.
Cruzan: No Rights Violated!, John A. Robertson.
7. DECISIONS TO FORGO TREATMENT INVOLVING NEVER-COMPETENT PERSONS.
Decisions on Behalf of Children:
In the Matter of the Treatment and Care of Infant Doe, Circuit Court for the County of Monroe, State of Indiana.
Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention and Treatment, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Human Development Services.
Treatment Decisions for Seriously Ill Newborns: Ethical Critique of Baby Doe Rule, American Medical Association, Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs.
Human Rights and the Omission or Cessation of Treatment for Infants, Amnon Goldworth.
The Right to Die vs Death in the Best Interests of the Infant, Alan R. Fleischman.
The Linares Affair, John D. Lantos, Steven H. Miles, and Christine K. Cassel.
Decisions on Behalf of Adults:
Superintendent of Belchertown State School v. Saikewicz, Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, Hampshire.
Deciding for Others: The Permanently Unconscious and the Severely and Permanently Demented, Allen E. Buchanan and Dan W. Brock.
The “Small Beginnings” of Euthanasia: Examining the Erosion in Legal Prohibitions against Mercy-Killing, C. Everett Koop and Edward R. Grant.
8. FUTILE TREATMENT AND TERMINAL CARE.
The Concept of Futility:
Who Defines Futility?, Stuart J. Youngner.
Futility: A Concept in Search of a Definition, Ronald Cranford and Lawrence Gostin.
The Case of Helga Wanglie:
In re the Conservatorship of Helga M. Wanglie, State of Minnesota, District Court, Probate Court Division, County of Hennepin, Fourth Judicial District.
Informed Demand for “Non-Beneficial” Medical Treatment, Steven H. Miles.
The Case of Helga Wanglie: A New Kind of “Right to Die” Case, Marcia Angell.
The Case of Baby K:
In the Matter of Baby K,
The Moral Debate:
The Concept of Futility: Patients Do not Have a Right to Demand Medically Useless Treatment, James F. Drane and John L. Coulehan.
Futile Care: Physicians Should Not Be Allowed to Refuse to Treat, Robert M. Veatch and Carol Mason Spicer.
9: SOCIAL REASONS FOR LIMITING TERMINAL CARE.
On Opening Case:
When Is Patient Care Not Costworthy?, Dan W. Brock.
The Economics of Terminal Care:
New Do-not-Resuscitate Policies: A First Step in Cost Control, Donald J. Murphy and Thomas E. Finucane.
Prognosis-Based Futility Guidelines: Does Anyone Win?, Joan M. Teno, et al., for the SUPPORT Investigators.
Moral Reflection on the Economics of Terminal Care:
Medical Care at the End of Life: The Interaction of Economics and Ethics, A. A. Scitovsky and A. M. Capron.
Quality of Life and Resource Allocation, Michael Lockwood.
Age and the Allocation of Resources:
The Value of Life, John Harris.
Limiting Health Care for the Old, Daniel Callahan.
A Lifespan Approach to Health Care, Norman Daniels.
How Age Should Matter: Justice as the Basis for Limiting Care to the Elderly, Robert M. Veatch.