Found in this section:
1. Brief Table of Contents
2. Full Table of Contents
1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 The Power of Critical Thinking
Chapter 2 Skilled and Eager to Think
Chapter 3 Solve Problems and Succeed in College
Chapter 4 Clarify Ideas and Concepts
Chapter 5 Analyze Arguments and Diagram Decisions
Chapter 6 Evaluate the Credibility of Claims and Sources
Chapter 7 Evaluate Arguments: The Four Basic Tests
Chapter 8 Evaluate Deductive Reasoning and Spot Deductive Fallacies Chapter 9 Evaluate Inductive Reasoning and Spot Inductive Fallacies
Chapter 10 Think Heuristically: Risks and Benefits of Snap Judgments
Chapter 11 Think Reflectively: Strategies for Decision Making
Chapter 12 Comparative Reasoning: Think “This Is Like That”
Chapter 13 Ideological Reasoning: Think “Top Down”
Chapter 14 Empirical Reasoning: Think “Bottom Up”
Chapter 15 Write Sound and Effective Arguments
Appendix Extend Argument-Decision Mapping Strategies
Glossary Endnotes Credits Index
Supplemental Chapter A Think Like a Social Scientist
Supplemental Chapter B Think Like a Natural Scientist
Supplemental Chapter C Ethical Decision Making
Supplemental Chapter D The Logic of Declarative Statements
2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgments Preface How the Book Is Organized About the Authors
Chapter 1: The Power of Critical Thinking
Risk and Uncertainty Abound Critical Thinking and a Free Society The One and the Many What Do We Mean by “Critical Thinking”?
Expert Consensus Conceptualization
“Critical Thinking” Does Not Mean “Negative Thinking”
How to Get the Most Out of This Book Evaluating Critical Thinking The Students’ Assignment—Kennedy Act The Students’ Statements—Kennedy Act
The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric
The Students’ Assignment—Haiti
The Students’ Statements—Haiti
Chapter 2: Skilled and Eager to Think
Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind The Spirit of Strong Critical Thinker Positive and Negative Habits of Mind Preliminary Self-Assessment Research on Critical Thinking Habits of Mind Seven Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind Negative Habits of Mind Is a Good Critical Thinker Automatically a Good Person?
Building Positive Habits of Mind Core Critical Thinking Skills Interpreting and Analyzing the Consensus Statement The Jury Is Deliberating Critical Thinking Skills Fire in Many Combinations Strengthening Our Core Critical Thinking Skills The Art of the Good Question Skills and Subskills Defined A First Look at Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Nurses’ Health Study—Decades of Data Inductive Reasoning Cosmos vs. Chaos Deductive Reasoning How to Get The Most Out of This Book Chapter Review
Chapter 3: Solve Problems and Succeed in College
Ideas: A 5-Step Critical Thinking Problem-Solving Process Educating the Whole Person Social Relationships STEP 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities Vocation STEP 1: IDENTIFY the Problem and Set Priorities STEP 2: DEEPEN Understanding and Gather Relevant Information Academics The First Two IDEAS Steps in Maria’s Case STEP 3: ENUMERATE Options and Anticipate Consequences Health and Physical Well-being The First Three Steps in Leah’s Case STEP 4: ASSESS the Situation and Make a Preliminary Decision Emotional Well-being STEP 5: SCRUTINIZE Processes and Self-Correct As Needed Spiritual Development Chapter Review
Chapter 4: Clarify Ideas and Concepts
Interpretation, Context, and Purpose How Precise Is Precise Enough?
Language and Thought Vagueness: “Where Are the Boundaries, Does the Term Include This Case or Not?”
Problematic Vagueness Ambiguity: “Which Sense of the Term Are We Using, Does It Mean This, or Does It Mean That?”
Problematic Ambiguity Resolving Problematic Vagueness and Problematic Ambiguity Contextualizing Clarifying Original Intent Negotiating the Meaning Using Qualifications, Exceptions, or Exclusions Stipulating the Meaning Your Language Communities National and Global Language Communities Language Communities Formed of People with Like Interests Academic Disciplines as Language Communities Critical Thinking and College Introductory Courses Chapter Review
Chapter 5: Analyze Arguments and Diagram Decisions
Analyzing and Mapping Arguments
“Argument = (Reason + Claim)”
Two Reasons, Two Arguments Two Confusions to Avoid
“Reason” and “Premise”
Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusion Mapping Claims and Reasons Mapping a Line of Reasoning Mapping Implicit Ideas Interpreting Unspoken Reasons and Claims in Context Interpreting the Use of Irony, Humor, Sarcasm, and More Giving Reasons and Making Arguments in Real Life The El Train Argument Huckabee and Stewart Discuss “The Pro-Life Issue—Abortion”
Analyzing and Mapping Decisions
“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #1
“We Should Cancel the Spring Trip” #2
Chapter 6: Evaluate the Credibility of Claims and Sources
Assessing the Source—Whom Should I Trust?
Claims without Reasons Cognitive Development and Healthy Skepticism Authority and Expertise Learned and Experienced On-Topic, Up-to-Date, and Capable of Explaining Unbiased and Truthful Free of Conflicts of Interest, and Acting in the Client’s Interest Unconstrained, Informed, and Mentally Stable Twelve Characteristics of a Trustworthy Source Assessing the Substance—What Should I Believe?
Donkey Dung Detector Self-Contradictions and Tautologies Marketing, Spin, Disinformation, and Propaganda Slanted Language and Loaded Expressions Independent Verification Can the Claim Be Confirmed?
Can the Claim Be Disconfirmed?
Independent Investigation and the Q-Ray Bracelet Case Suspending Judgment Chapter Review
Chapter 7: Evaluate Arguments: The Four Basic Tests
Giving Reasons and Making Arguments Truthfulness Logical Strength Relevance Non-Circularity The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments Test #1: Truthfulness of the Premises Test #2: Logical Strength Test #3: Relevance Test #4: Non-Circularity Contexts for Argument Making and Evaluative Terms Common Reasoning Errors Fallacies of Relevance Appeals to Ignorance Appeals to the Mob Appeals to Emotion
Ad Hominem Attacks Straw Man Fallacy Playing with Words Fallacy Misuse of Authority Fallacy Chapter Review
Chapter 8: Evaluate Deductive Reasoning and Spot Deductive Fallacies
Deductive Validity and Language Reasoning Deductively about Declarative Statements Denying the Consequent Affirming the Antecedent Disjunctive Syllogism Reasoning Deductively about Classes of Objects Applying a Generalization Applying an Exception The Power of “Only”
Reasoning Deductively about Relationships Transitivity, Reflexivity, and Identity Fallacies Masquerading as Valid Deductive Arguments Fallacies When Reasoning with Declarative Statements Affirming the Consequent Denying the Antecedent Fallacies When Reasoning about Classes of Objects False Classification Fallacies of Composition and Division Mistaken Identity False Reference Chapter Review
Chapter 9: Evaluate Inductive Reasoning and Spot Inductive Fallacies
Inductions and the Evidence at Hand Evaluating Generalizations Was the Correct Group Sampled?
Were the Data Obtained in an Effective Way?
Were Enough Cases Considered?
Was the Sample Representatively Structured?
Coincidences, Correlations, and Causes Coincidences Correlations Causes Fallacies Masquerading as Strong Inductive Arguments Erroneous Generalization Playing with Numbers False Dilemma The Gambler’s Fallacy False Cause Slippery Slope Chapter Review
Chapter 10: Think Heuristically: Risks and Benefits of Snap Judgments
Human Decision-Making Systems The “Two-Systems” Approach to Human Decision Making Reactive (System-1) Thinking Reflective (System-2) Thinking The Value of Each System Heuristics: Their Benefits and Risks Individual Cognitive Heuristics
1. Satisficing and 2. Temporizing
3. Affect: “Go with your Gut”
9. “Us vs. Them”
10. Power Differential
11. Anchoring with Adjustment
12. Illusion of Control
13. Optimistic Bias and 14. Hindsight Bias
15. Elimination by Aspect: “One Strike and You’re Out”
16. Loss and Risk Aversion
17. “All or Nothing”
Heuristics in Action Chapter Review
Chapter 11: Think Reflectively: Strategies for Decision Making
Dominance Structuring: A Fortress of Conviction
“I Would Definitely Go to the Doctor”
Explaining and Defending Ourselves A Poorly Crafted Assignment Moving from Decision to Action Phase 1: Pre-editing Phase 2: Identifying One Promising Option Phase 3: Testing the Promising Option Phase 4: Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option Benefits and Risks of Dominance Structuring The Classic “O. J. Defense” Example Self-Regulation Critical Thinking Skill Strategies Critical Thinking Precautions When Pre-Editing Be Sure about “the Problem”
Specify the Decision-Critical Attributes Be Clear about Why an Option Is In or Out Critical Thinking Precautions When Identifying the Promising Option Scrutinize Options with Disciplined Impartiality Listen to Both Sides First Critical Thinking Precautions When Testing the Promising Option Use All the Essential Criteria Treat Equals as Equals Diligently Engage in Truth-Seeking and Remain Impartial Critical Thinking Precautions When Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option Be Honest with Yourself Critical Thinking Strategies for Better Decision Making Task Independent Teams with the Same Problem Decide When It’s Time to Decide Analyze Indicators and Make Mid-Course Corrections Create a Culture of Respect for Critical Thinking Chapter Review
Chapter 12: Comparative Reasoning: Think “This is Like That”
Comparative, Ideological, and Empirical Inferences
“This is Like That”—Recognizing Comparative Reasoning Gardens of Comparatives Powerful Comparisons Connect Intellect and Emotion Evaluating Comparative Inferences Do the Four Tests of Acceptability Apply?
Five Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Reasoning Familiarity Simplicity Comprehensiveness Productivity Testability Shaping Our View of the Universe for Two Thousand Years The Many Uses of Comparative Inferences Chapter Review
Chapter 13: Ideological Reasoning: Think “Top Down”
“Top Down” Thinking: Recognizing Ideological Reasoning Examples of Ideological Reasoning Three Features of Ideological Reasoning Ideological Reasoning Is Deductive in Character Ideological Premises Are Axiomatic The Argument Maker Takes the Ideological Absolutes on Faith Evaluating Ideological Reasoning Are the Ideological Premises True?
Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems Relevancy, Non-Circularity, and Ideological Reasoning Uses, Benefits, and Risks of Ideological Reasoning Chapter Review
Chapter 14: Empirical Reasoning: Think “Bottom Up”
Recognizing Empirical Reasoning Characteristics of Empirical Reasoning Empirical Reasoning Is Inductive Empirical Reasoning Is Self-Corrective Empirical Reasoning Is Open to Independent Verification Hypotheses, Conditions, and Measureable Manifestations Conducting an Investigation Scientifically Perhaps the First Recorded Empirical Investigations Steps in the Process of an Extended Example Evaluating Empirical Reasoning Benefits and Risks Associated with Empirical Reasoning Chapter Review
Chapter 15: Write Sound and Effective Arguments
What Critical Thinking Questions Do Effective Writers Ask?
Think Author Find Your Voice Think about Who You Read Think Audience What Does the Audience Care About?
Writing For You Who Is Your Audience?
Same Author and Audience, Different Purpose Think Purpose and Circumstances Think Tactics Clues from Contextual Cues Think How to Organize and Develop Your Presentation Reach Out and Grab Someone Crafting a Presentation Good News: Writing Is Work An Arguable Thesis Statement and Solid Research Map Out the Arguments Pro and Con—Then Outline Your Case Evaluating the Credibility of Sources Prewriting, Writing, and Rewriting Two Practical Tips Evaluating Effectiveness Features of Sound and Effective Written Argumentation A Tool for Evaluating Critical Thinking and Writing How to Apply the Rubric for Evaluating Written Argumentation
Appendix Extend Argument-Decision Mapping Strategies
Mapping the Sequence of Arguments Mapping Forms of Inference Mapping Supporting Information Mapping the Decision System Less Is More Schwarzenegger’s Denial of Clemency Map Group Decision Making Research Applications
Glossary Endnotes Credits Index
Supplemental Chapter A: Think Like a Social Scientist
What Critical Thinking Questions Do Social Scientists Ask?
Thinking Like a Social Scientist
The Spirit of Scientific Inquiry Can Manifest Itself Early in Life
Think Participants Think Situation Think Actions Think Motivation Social Science Investigative Methods Let the Question Drive the Investigatory Technique Data Gathering Techniques Practical and Logistical Challenges Motivations and Temptations The “I’m on Camera” Effect Thinking About the Standards No Simple Explanations of Complex Phenomena Proceeding with Warranted Confidence Statistical Analyses Narrative Analyses The Risks Inherent in All Human Judgments Critical Thinking Self-Regulation We Are What We Study We Affect What We Study Finding What Isn’t There and Not Finding What Is There Integrating Findings Thinking about Social Science in the Real World (Applications)
Example One: Business Administration Example Two: Elementary Education Chapter Review
Supplemental Chapter B: Think Like a Natural Scientist
What Critical Thinking Questions Do Natural Scientists Ask?
Thinking Like a Natural Scientist Think Curious and Intriguing Natural Phenomenon Think Empirically Testable Causal Explanation Think How to Prevent and How to Bring About the Phenomenon Think How to Integrate New Knowledge with Broader Scientific Understandings Methods of Scientific Investigation Let the Empirical Question Drive the Inquiry Thinking About the Standards Confidence in Scientific Findings
“True to a Scientific Certainty”
Finding What Isn’t There and Not Finding What Is There
Confidence in Scientific Theories Thinking about Real-World Applications of Natural Science Chapter Review
Supplemental Chapter C: Ethical Decision Making
Ethical Imperatives Think Consequences Think Duties Think Virtues Decision Making and Ethical Decision Making Some Factors Affect Many Decisions Reactive and Reflective Ethical Decision Making Thinking Through Diverging Ethical Imperatives Prioritize, Create, and Negotiate Establish Priorities Create Additional Options Negotiate Based On Each Party’s Interests Personal Consistency and Respect for Others Apply the “Golden Rule”—Do Unto Others as You Would Have Others Do Unto You Chapter Review
Supplemental Chapter D: The Logic of Declarative Statements
Part 1: Statements Simple Statements Negations Statement Compounds: “And”, “Or”, “If, then,” etc.
Conjunctions Disjunctions Conditionals Part 2: Translating Between Symbolic Logic and a Natural Language Grammatically Correct Expressions Translatiing to English Translating to Symbolic Logic Example: Translating a Telephone Tree What the Telephone Tree Example Teaching About Translation Part 3: Detecting the Logical Characteristics of Statements Building Truth-Tables Tautologies, Inconsistent Statements, and Contingent Statements Testing for Implication and Equivalence Part 4: Evaluating Arguments for Validity Testing Symbolic Arguments for Validity Testing Natural Language Arguments for Validity Chapter Review