Social Psychology / Edition 5

Social Psychology / Edition 5

by Douglas T. Kenrick, Steven L. Neuberg, Robert B. Cialdini
     
 

ISBN-10: 0205698077

ISBN-13: 9780205698073

Pub. Date: 10/30/2009

Publisher: Pearson

Amazing deeds of heroism and horrific acts of terrorism. Undying love, friendships gone wrong, and inspirational leadership. Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction introduces the student to the fascinating mysteries of social behavior. By revealing the motives behind social behavior—why people love, hate, lead, and follow, for

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Overview

Amazing deeds of heroism and horrific acts of terrorism. Undying love, friendships gone wrong, and inspirational leadership. Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction introduces the student to the fascinating mysteries of social behavior. By revealing the motives behind social behavior—why people love, hate, lead, and follow, for example—and bridging the person and the social situation, KNC actively engages the students’ natural curiosity while providing the only textbook with a truly integrative, coherent approach.

A unique integrated approach to social behavior: What do terrorist bombings, testosterone, one-minute “hurry dates,” Facebook, and political smear campaigns have to do with one another? Social Psychology textbooks typically provide a laundry list of interesting, but disconnected facts and theories. This standard approach grabs interest but falls short as a way to learn. Kenrick, Neuberg, and Cialdini instead provide an integrative approach, one that both builds upon traditional lessons learned by the field and pushes those lessons to the cutting-edge. By organizing each chapter around the two broad questions–“What are the goals that underlie the behavior in question?” and “What factors in the person and the situation connect to each goal?” –the book presents the discipline as a coherent framework for understanding human behavior. Expanding the integrative theme in this edition, KNC highlights social psychology as the ultimate bridge discipline–connecting the different findings and theories of social psychology, exploring the field’s links to other areas of psychology (e.g., clinical, organizational, and neuroscience), and bridging to other important academic disciplines (e.g., anthropology, biology, economics, medicine, and law).

Opening mysteries: Each chapter begins with a mystery, designed not only to grab student interest, but also to organize the ensuing discussion of scientific research: Why did the beautiful and talented artist Frida Kahlo fall for the much older, and much less attractive, Diego Rivera, and then tolerate his numerous extramarital affairs? What psychological forces led the Dalai Lama, the most exalted personage in Tibet, to forge a lifelong friendship with a foreign vagabond openly scorned by Tibetan peasants? Why would a boy falsely confess to murdering his own mother?

The authors are each well-known researchers who have contributed cutting edge findings to the field. The latest scholarship, engaging writing, engrossing real-world stories and the authors' strengths as renowned researchers and expert teachers, all come together to make the fifth edition of Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction an accessible and engaging read for students,¿while providing¿a modern and cohesive approach for their teachers.

Looking for additional resources to help you understand the material and succeed in this course? MyPsychLab contains study tools such as flashcards, self tests, videos, as well as writing resources and a complete ebook. MyPsychLab is available at www.mypsychlab.com.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205698073
Publisher:
Pearson
Publication date:
10/30/2009
Series:
MyPsychLab Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
648
Product dimensions:
8.70(w) x 10.90(h) x 1.20(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

BRIEF TOC

1: Introduction to Social Psychology

2: The Person and the Situation

3: Social Cognition: Understanding Ourselves and Others

4: Presenting the Self

5: Attitudes and Persuasion

6: Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience

7: Affiliation and Friendship

8: Love and Romantic Relationships

9: Prosocial Behavior

10: Aggression

11: Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination

12: Groups

13: Social Dilemmas: Cooperation versus Conflict

14: Integrating Social Psychology

COMPLETE TOC

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

The Mysteries of Social Life

What Is Social Psychology?

Social Psychology Is an Interdisciplinary Bridge

Major Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology

The Sociocultural Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Social Learning Perspective

The Social Cognitive Perspective

Combining Perspectives

Basic Principles of Social Behavior

Social Behavior Is Goal Oriented

The Interaction between the Person and the Situation

How Psychologists Study Social Behavior

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Why Good Theories Need Good Data

Descriptive Methods

Correlation and Causation

Experimental Methods

Why Social Psychologists Combine Different Methods

Ethical Issues in Social Psychological Research

Social Psychology’s Bridges with Other Areas of Knowledge

Social Psychology and Other Areas of Psychology

Social Psychology and Other Disciplines

Revisiting the Mysteries of Social Life

Summary

CHAPTER 2. THE PERSON AND THE SITUATION

The Enigma of an Ordinary and Extraordinary Man

The Person

Motivation: What Drives Us

Knowledge: Our View of the World

Feelings: Attitudes, Emotions, and Moods

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Assessing Feelings

Introducing the Self

The Situation

Persons as Situations: Mere Presence, Affordances, and Descriptive Norms

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: Descriptive Norms, Pluralistic Ignorance, and Binge Drinking on Campus

Rules: Injunctive Norms and Scripted Situations

Strong versus Weak Situations

Culture

The Person and the Situation Interact

Different Persons Respond Differently to the Same Situation

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Person-Situation Fit in the Workplace

Situations Choose the Person

Persons Choose Their Situations

Different Situations Prime Different Parts of the Person

Persons Change the Situation

Situations Change the Person

Revisiting the Enigma of an Ordinary and Extraordinary Man

Summary

CHAPTER 3. SOCIAL COGNITION: UNDERSTANDING OURSELVES AND OTHERS

Portraits of Hillary Rodham Clinton

The Social Thinker

Four Core Processes of Social Cognition

The Goals of Social Cognition

Conserving Mental Effort

Expectations

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Dispositional Inferences

Other Cognitive Shortcuts: Heuristics

Arousal and Circadian Rhythms

Need for Structure

Complex Situations and Time Pressure

When the World Doesn’t Fit Our Expectations

Managing Self-Image

Cognitive Strategies for Enhancing and Protecting the Self

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Control Beliefs and Health

Self-Esteem

Threats to Self-Esteem

When Self-Esteem Is Fragile

How Culturally Universal Is the Need for Positive Self-Regard?

Seeking an Accurate Understanding

Unbiased Information Gathering

Considering Alternatives

Attributional Logic: Seeking the Causes of Behavior

Mood

Need for Cognition

Unexpected Events

Social Interdependence

Accuracy Motivation Requires Cognitive Resources

Revisiting the Portraits of Hillary Rodham Clinton

Summary

CHAPTER 4. PRESENTING THE SELF

The Amazing Lives of Fred Demara

What Is Self-Presentation?

Why Do People Self-Present?

When Do People Self-Present?

The Nature of Self-Presentation

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Detecting Deception

Appearing Likable

Strategies of Ingratiation

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: The Science of Deciphering Facial Expressions

Gender and Ingratiation

Potential Friends and Power-Holders

Multiple Audiences

Appearing Competent

Strategies of Self-Promotion

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: The Paradox of Self-Handicapping

Competence Motivation and Shyness

When Competence Matters

Competence Checks

The Interpersonal Cycle of Self-Promotion

Conveying Status and Power

Strategies for Conveying Status and Power

Gender, Status, and Power

Threatened Images, New Resources

Different Strategies for Different Audiences

Revisiting the Amazing Lives of Fred Demara

Summary

CHAPTER 5. ATTITUDES AND PERSUASION

The Changing Story of Peter Reilly

The Nature of Attitudes

Attitude Formation

Attitude Strength

Attitude–Behavior Consistency

What Is Persuasion?

Measuring Attitude Change

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: The After-Only Design

Cognitive Responses: Self-Talk Persuades

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Smoking the Tobacco Companies with Counterarguments

Dual Process Models of Persuasion: Two Routes to Change

The Goals of Persuasion: Why People Change Their Attitudes and Beliefs

Having an Accurate View of the World

Good Shortcuts to Accuracy

What Affects the Desire for Accuracy?

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: Defeating Defensiveness and Denial

Being Consistent in One’s Attitudes and Actions

Balance Theory

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

What Affects the Desire for Cognitive Consistency?

Consistency and Culture

Gaining Social Approval

Self-Monitoring

Gender: Women, Men, and Persuasion

The Expectation of Discussion and Self-Monitoring

Self-Monitoring and the Expectation of Discussion

Revisiting the Story of Peter Reilly

Summary

CHAPTER 6. SOCIAL INFLUENCE: CONFORMITY, COMPLIANCE, AND OBEDIENCE

The Extraordinary Turnaround (and Around) of Steve Hassan

Categories of Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience

Conformity: Asch’s Research on Group Influence

Compliance: The “Foot-in-the-Door” Technique

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Participant Observation

Obedience: Milgram’s Shock(ing) Procedure

The Goals of Social Influence

Choosing Correctly: Yielding to Be Right

Authority

Social Validation

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: Contagious Delusions and Solutions

Consensus and Similarity

Uncertainty

Gaining Social Approval: Yielding to Be Likes

Social Norms: Codes of Conduct

What Personal Factors Affect the Impact of Social Approval?

What Situational Factors Affect the Impact of Social Approval?

Who’s Strong Enough to Resist Strong Group Norms?

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Doing Wrong by Trying to Do Right

Managing Self-Image: Yielding to Be Consistent

Commitment-Initiating Tactics

Harnessing Existing Commitments

Active and Public Commitments

Gender and Public Conformity

Revisiting the Turnaround of Steve Hassan

Summary

CHAPTER 7. AFFILIATION AND FRIENDSHIP

The Fugitive Who Befriended the God-King

What Is a Friend?

Studying Real-Life Relationships

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Studying Intimate Relationships without Really Being There

Goals of Affiliation and Friendship

Getting Social Support

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Health Psychology and Emotional Support

Do Women Tend and Befriend While Men Fight or Take Flight?

Threats: Why Misery (Sometimes) Loves Company

Pushing Support Away

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: The Self-Perpetuating Cycle of Loneliness and Depression

Attachment and Social Development

Getting Information

Social Comparison and Liking for Similar Others

Self-Disclosers and Nondisclosers

Uncertainty about Important Issues

Similarity to Us

When Dissimilarity Can Save Self-Esteem

Gaining Status

Men’s Friendships Are More Hierarchical

Status by Association

Men’s Status-Seeking May Erode Social Support

Exchanging Material Benefits

Fundamental Patterns of Social Exchange

Individual Differences in Communal Orientation

Communal and Exchange Relationships

Proximity and Social Capital

Distant Friends: Television, Facebook, and the Internet

Are Exchange Relationships Different in Western and Non-Western Cultures?

Revisiting the Fugitive Who Befriended the God-King

Summary

CHAPTER 8. LOVE AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS

The Love Affair of “The Elephant and the Dove”

Defining Love and Romantic Attraction

The Defining Features of Love

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Uncovering the Different Factors of Love

Are There Different Varieties of Love?

The Goals of Romantic Relationships

Obtaining Sexual Gratification

Who’s Sexually Attractive?

Gender Differences in Sexuality

Hormones and Sexual Desire

Sociosexual Orientation

Homosexual and Bisexual Attraction
Arousing Settings

Sexual Situations Look Different to Men and Women

Cultural Norms about Sexuality

Cultural Practices May Trick Evolved Mechanisms

Establishing Family Bonds

The Importance of Attachment

Attachment Style

Exchange/Communal Orientation

Threats Magnify Attachment

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: Obsessive Relationships and Unrequited Love

Jealousy and Same-Sex Competitors

Relationships Change Our Personalities

Gaining Resources and Social Status

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Culture, Resources, and Polygamy

Social Exchange in Committed Relationships

When Dominance Matters

Breaking Up (and Staying Together) Some People Are Better at Getting Along Some Situations Pull Couples Apart

Interactions: It Takes Two to Tango

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Studying Healthy Communication to Save Marriages

Revisiting the Love Affair of “The Elephant and the Dove”

Summary

CHAPTER 9. PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR

The Strange Case of Sempo Sugihara

The Goals of Prosocial Behavior

Improving Our Basic Welfare: Gaining Genetic and Material Benefits

Insights into the Evolution of Help

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Using Behavioral Genetics to Study Helping

Learning to Help

Similarity and Familiarity

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Getting Help by Adjusting the Helper’s Sense of “We”

Gaining Social Status and Approval

Social Responsibility: The Helping Norm

Desire for Approval

Effects of Those around Us

Gender and Help

Managing Self-Image

Personal Norms and Religious Codes

Labeling and Self-Focus

Deciding Not to Help Friends or to Seek Their Help

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: Failing to Seek Needed Help

Managing Our Emotions and Moods

Managing Emotional Arousal in Emergencies: The Arousal/Cost–Reward Model

Managing Mood in Nonemergencies: The Negative State Relief Model

Does Pure Altruism Exist?

The Empathy–Altruism Sequence

An Egoistic Interpretation

Revisiting the Case of Sempo Sugihara

Summary

10. AGGRESSION

A Wave of Senseless Violence

What Is Aggression?

Different Types of Aggression

Gender Differences in Aggression May Depend on Your Definition

The Goals of Aggressive Behavior

Coping with Feelings of Annoyance

The Frustration–Aggression Hypothesis

Feelings of Arousal and Irritability

Unpleasant Situations

Annoyance Leads to Changes in Perception of Situations

Some People Create Their Own Annoying Situations

Gaining Material and Social Rewards

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: Gangland Violence

Social Learning Theory: Rewarding Violence

Who Finds Rewards in Violence?

Glamorized Violence in the Media

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Using Meta-Analysis to Examine the Effects of Violent Media

Violent Media Magnify Violent Inclinations

Gaining or Maintaining Social Status

Aggression and Sexual Selection

Sex and Testosterone

Insults and the Culture of Honor

When Status Matters

Protecting Oneself or Others

Self-Defenders

Perceived Threats

Self-Protective Aggression Can Increase Danger

Reducing Violence

Rewarding Alternatives to Aggression

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Using Cognition to Manage Angry Arousal

Legal Punishments

Prevention by Removing Threats

Revisiting Senseless Violence

Summary

CHAPTER 11. PREJUDICE, STEREOTYPING, AND DISCRIMINATION

The Unlikely Journey of Ann Atwater and C. P. Ellis

Planet Prejudice

Prejudice and Stereotypes

Discrimination

The Costs of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination

The Goals of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination

Supporting and Protecting One’s Group

Creating and Maintaining Ingroup Advantage

Social Dominance Orientation

Intergroup Competition

The Self-Fulfilling Spiral of Intergroup Competition

Seeking Social Approval

Religiosity and Prejudice

Prejudice Norms Change Over Time

Perceived Social Standing and Prejudice Expression

Managing Self-Image

Personal and Social Identities

Ingroup Identification

Authoritarianism and Prejudice

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: The Authoritarian Personality

Failure and Self-Image Threat

Self-Esteem and Threat

Seeking Mental Efficiency

The Characteristics of Efficient Stereotypes

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: The Social Neuroscience of Automatic and Controlled Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination

Need for Structure

Moods and Emotions

Cognitively Taxing Circumstances

Overheard Ethnic Slurs

Reducing Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination

Interventions Based on the Ignorance Hypothesis

The Goal-Based Approach

When Contact Helps

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Cooperation in the Classroom

Revisiting the Journey of Ann Atwater and C. P. Ellis

Summary

CHAPTER 12. GROUPS

Blowing the Whistle on Hidden Group Pathologies

The Nature of Groups

The Mere Presence of Others and Social Facilitation

Crowds and Deindividuation

Groups as Dynamic Systems: The Emergence of Norms

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Using Computer Simulation to Explore Complex Group Processes

“Real” Groups

Why Do People Belong to Groups?

Getting Things Done

Lightening the Load, Dividing the Labor

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: The Social Disease of Social Loafing

Expectations of Individual Failure and Group Success

Current Needs, Individualistic Societies

When Are Groups Most Productive?

Making Accurate Decisions

The Need to Know

Uncertain Circumstances

Discussion and Decision Making

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Majority and Minority Influence in the Jury Room

Gaining Positions of Leadership

Who Wants to Lead?

When Opportunity Knocks

Who Gets to Lead?

When Are Leaders Effective?

Revisiting the Revealed Pathologies of the FBI, Enron, and WorldCom

Summary

CHAPTER 13. SOCIAL DILEMMAS: COOPERATION VERSUS CONFLICT

Contrasting Future Worlds

Defining Social Dilemmas

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: The Tragedy of the Commons

Interlocking Problems and Solutions

What Goals Underlie Global Social Dilemmas?

Gaining Immediate Satisfaction

Social Traps

Egoistic versus Prosocial Orientations

Distinguishing Different Value Orientations

Changing the Consequences of Short-Sighted Selfishness

Matching Interventions with Motives

Defending Ourselves and Valued Others

Outgroup Bias and International Conflict

Some of Us Are More Defensive Than Others

Competition and Threat

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Time-Series Analysis and International Cooperation

Intercultural Misperception and International Conflict

The Reciprocal Dynamics of Cooperation and Conflict

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Increasing Intergroup Cooperation with the GRIT Strategy

Revisiting the Future

Summary

CHAPTER 14. INTEGRATING SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Public Spectacles, Hidden Conspiracies, and Multiple Motives

What Ground Have We Covered?

Findings and Theories

Major Theoretical Perspectives of Social Psychology

The Sociocultural Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Social Learning Perspective

The Social Cognitive Perspective

Are Gender Differences in Our Genes, in Our Cultural Learning Experiences, or All in Our Minds?

Combining the Different Perspectives

Social Behavior Is Goal Oriented

BRIDGING FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION: The Thin Line between Normal and Abnormal Social Functioning

The Interaction between the Person and the Situation

Why Research Methods Matter

BRIDGING METHOD AND EVIDENCE: Some Conclusions for Consumers of Social Science Information

How Does Social Psychology Fit into the Network of Knowledge?

BRIDGING THEORY AND APPLICATION: Social Psychology’s Usefulness for Business, Medicine, and Law

The Future of Social Psychology

Summary

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