Prentice Hall Reference Guide / Edition 8

Prentice Hall Reference Guide / Edition 8

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by Muriel G. Harris Professor Emerita, Jennifer Kunka

Thirty years of experience at the Purdue University writing center told Muriel Harris that few students could effectively use their handbook. A truly useful textbook, she felt, would have ways to help students find the information they were seeking without having to know the terminology, would be clear and easy to understand for all students, and would be written

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Thirty years of experience at the Purdue University writing center told Muriel Harris that few students could effectively use their handbook. A truly useful textbook, she felt, would have ways to help students find the information they were seeking without having to know the terminology, would be clear and easy to understand for all students, and would be written in a student-friendly language and tone to avoid the intimidating formal instructional tone of some handbooks. These principles became the foundation of Harris’s Prentice Hall Reference Guide .

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Tab 1: Compare and Correct, Question and Correct

Compare and Correct CC1

Question and Correct QC1

Tab 2: Writing Processes

1 Thinking About Writing

a The Rhetorical Triangle

b Topic

c Audience

d Purpose

e Medium

2 Writing Processes and Strategies

a Planning

b Thesis

c Drafting

d Organizing

e Collaborating

f Revising

g Editing and Proofreading

3 Paragraphs

a Unity

b Coherence

c Development

d Introductions and Conclusions

e Patterns of Organization

4 Document Design

a Principles of Document Design

b Incorporating Visuals

c Paper Preparation

d Multimedia Presentations

e Writing for the Web

Tab 3: Writing for College and Career

5 Writing in the Disciplines

a Writing for the Sciences

b Writing for the Social Sciences

c Writing for the Humanities

d Writing Essay Exams

6 Writing About Literature

a Ways to Write about Literature

b Writing the Assignment

c Conventions in Writing about Literature

d Sample Literature Paper

7 Critical Reading, Thinking, and Arguing

a Reading Arguments Critically

b Finding an Arguable Topic

c Developing Arguments

d Recognizing and Avoiding Logical Fallacies

e Organizing Your Argument

f Sample Argument Paper

8 Visual Argument

a Similarities and Differences Between Written and Visual Arguments

b Appeals in Visual Argument

c Logical Fallacies in Visual Argument

d Creating Visual Arguments

9 Professional Writing

a Memos

Sample Memo

b E-Mail

Sample E-mail

c Business Letters

Sample Letter

d Cover Letters

Sample Cover Letter

e Résumés

Sample Résumés

10 Creating Print and Electronic Portfolios

a Developing Portfolios

b E-Portfolios

Tab 4: Revising Sentences for Accuracy, Clarity, and Variety

11 Comma Splices and Fused Sentences

a Comma Splices

b Fused or Run-On Sentences

12 Subject-Verb Agreement

a Singular and Plural Subjects

b Buried Subjects

c Compound Subjects

d Or and Either/Or in Subjects

e Clauses and Phrases as Subjects

f Indefinites as Subjects

g Collective Nouns and Amounts as Subjects

h Plural Words as Subjects

i Titles, Company Names, Words, and Quotations as Subjects

j Linking Verbs

k There (is/are), Here (is/are), and It

l Who, Which, That, and One of as Subjects

13 Sentence Fragments

a Unintentional Fragments

b Intentional Fragments

14 Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers

a Dangling Modifiers

b Misplaced Modifiers

15 Parallel Constructions

a Parallel Structure

b Faulty Parallelism

16 Consistency (Avoiding Shifts)

a Shifts in Person or Number

b Shifts in Verb Tense

c Shifts in Tone

d Shifts in Voice (Active/Passive)

e Shifts in Discourse

17 Faulty Predication

18 Coordination and Subordination

a Coordination

b Subordination

19 Sentence Clarity

a Moving from Known (Old) to Unknown (New) Information

b Using Positive Instead of Negative Statements

c Avoiding Double Negatives

d Using Verbs Instead of Nouns

e Making the Intended Subject the Sentence Subject

f Using Active Instead of Passive Voice

20 Transitions

a Repetition of a Key Term or Phrase

b Synonyms

c Pronouns

d Transitional Words and Phrases

e Transitions In and Between Paragraphs

21 Sentence Variety

a Combining Sentences

b Adding Words

c Changing Words, Phrases, and Clauses

Tab 5: Parts of Sentences

22 Verbs

a Verb Phrases

b Verb Forms

c Verb Tense

d Verb Voice (Active/Passive)

e Verb Mood

f Modal Verbs

23 Nouns and Pronouns

a Nouns

b Pronouns

24 Pronoun Case and Reference

a Pronoun Case

b Pronoun Reference

25 Adjectives and Adverbs

a Adjectives and Adverbs

b A/An/The

c Comparisons

26 Prepositions

a Common Prepositions

b Idiomatic Expressions

c Other Prepositions

27 Subjects

28 Phrases

29 Clauses

a Independent Clauses

b Dependent Clauses

30 Essential and Nonessential Clauses and Phrases

a Essential Clauses and Phrases

b Nonessential Clauses and Phrases

31 Sentences

a Sentence Purposes

b Sentence Structures

Tab 6: Style and Word Choice

32 Style Versus Grammar

33 General and Specific Language

a General Versus Specific Statements

b General Versus Specific Words

c Concrete Versus Abstract Words

34 Glossary of Usage

35 Conciseness and Wordiness

36 Passive Versus Active Voice

37 Unnecessary and Inappropriate Language

a Clichés

b Pretentious Language

c Offensive Language

38 Appropriate Language

a Standard English

b Levels of Formality

c Emphasis

d Denotation and Connotation

e Colloquialisms, Slang Terms, and Regionalisms

f Jargon and Technical Terms

39 Nonsexist Language

a Alternatives to Man

b Alternative Job Titles

c Alternatives to the Male or Female Pronoun

Tab 7: Punctuation

40 Commas

a Commas in Compound Sentences

b Commas After Introductory Words, Phrases, and Clauses

c Commas with Essential and Nonessential Words, Phrases, and Clauses

d Commas in Series and Lists

e Commas with Adjectives

f Commas with Dates, Addresses, Geographical Names, and Numbers

g Other Uses for Commas

h Unnecessary Commas

41 Apostrophes

a Apostrophes with Possessives

b Apostrophes with Contractions

c Apostrophes with Plurals

d Unnecessary Apostrophes

42 Semicolons

a Semicolons in Compound Sentences

b Semicolons in a Series

c Semicolons with Quotation Marks

d Unnecessary Semicolons

43 Colons

a Colons to Announce Elements at the End of a Sentence

b Colons to Separate Independent Clauses

c Colons to Announce Quotations

d Colons in Salutations and Between Elements

e Colons with Quotation Marks

f Unnecessary Colons

44 Quotation Marks

a Quotation Marks with Direct and Indirect Quotations

b Quotation Marks for Minor Titles and Parts of Wholes

c Quotation Marks for Words

d Use of Other Punctuation with Quotation Marks

e Unnecessary Quotation Marks

45 Hyphens

a Hyphens to Divide Words

b Hyphens to Form Compound Words

c Hyphens to Join Word Units

d Hyphens to Join Prefixes, Suffixes, and Letters to a Word

e Hyphens to Avoid Ambiguity

46 End Punctuation

a Periods

b Question Marks

c Exclamation Points

47 Other Punctuation

a Dashes

b Slashes

c Parentheses

d Brackets

e Ellipses (Omitted Words)

Tab 8: Mechanics and Spelling

48 Capitals

49 Abbreviations

a Abbreviating Numbers

b Abbreviating Titles

c Abbreviating Place Names

d Abbreviating Measurements

e Abbreviating Dates

f Abbreviating Initials Used as Names

g Abbreviating Latin Expressions

h Abbreviating Documentation

50 Numbers

51 Italics

a Italics for Titles

b Italics for Other Uses

52 Spelling

a Proofreading

b Spell-Checkers

c Some Spelling Guidelines

d Plurals

e Sound-Alike Words (Homonyms)

Tab 9: For Multilingual Writers

53 American Style in Writing

a American Style

b English Grammar vs. Grammar of Other Languages

c American English and World Englishes

d Web Sites for ESL Resources

54 Verbs

a Verbs

b Helping Verbs with Main Verbs

c Two-Word (Phrasal) Verbs

d Verbs with –ing and to+ Verb Forms

55 Omitted and Repeated Words

a Omitted Subjects

b Repeated Subjects

56 Pronouns and Adverbs

57 Count and Noncount Nouns

58 Adjectives and Adverbs

a Order of Adverbs

b Order of Adjectives

c A/An/The

d Some/Any, Much/Many, Little/Few, Less/Fewer, Enough, No

59 Prepositions

60 Idioms

Tab 10: Research

61 Finding a Topic

a Deciding on a Purpose and Audience

b Deciding on a Topic

c Narrowing the Topic

d Formulating a Research Question

e Formulating a Thesis

62 Choosing Primary and Secondary Sources

a Primary Sources

b Secondary Sources

63 Searching Libraries and Library Databases

a Libraries

b Library Databases and Subscription Services

64 Using Web Resources

a Internet Search Strategies

b Types of Internet Sources

65 Conducting Firsthand Research

a Observations

b Interviews

c Surveys

66 Evaluating Sources

a Getting Started

b Evaluating Authors’ Credibility

c Evaluating Content

d Evaluating Internet Sources

67 Collecting Information

a Keeping Notes

b Printing and Annotating Photocopies and Printouts

c Writing an Annotated Bibliography

68 Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism

a Understanding Plagiarism

b Documenting Sources Responsibly

c Summarizing without Plagiarism

d Paraphrasing without Plagiarism

e Using Quotation Marks to Avoid Plagiarism

f Using Signal Words and Phrases to Integrate Sources

69 Writing the Research Paper

a Getting Started

b Planning and Organizing

c Writing a Draft

d Reviewing the Draft

e Revising, Editing, and Checking the Format

Tab 11: MLA Documentation

70 Documenting in MLA Style

a In-Text Citations

b Notes

c Works Cited List

d Sample MLA-Style Research Paper

Tab 12: APA, CM, and CSE Documentation

71 Documenting in APA Style

a In-Text Citations

b Footnotes

c References List

d Sample APA-Style Research Paper

72 Chicago Manual (CM)Style

a Numbered Notes

b Author-Date Citation Format

c Bibliography Entries

73 Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style

a Name-Year Style

b Citation Sequence Style

c References List

74 Resources for Other Styles

Glossary of Grammatical Terms


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