Invitation to Corrections (with Built-in Study Guide) / Edition 1

Invitation to Corrections (with Built-in Study Guide) / Edition 1

by Clemens Bartollas

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ISBN-10: 0205314120

ISBN-13: 2900205314125

Pub. Date: 10/31/2001

Publisher: Prentice Hall

This text invites students to look at corrections from a variety of perspectives and to consider careers in corrections. It highlights the real life experiences of individuals in corrections, and offers first- person accounts and news items about inmates, victims, and correctional officers. A chapter on emerging issues in the field covers institutional violence, race


This text invites students to look at corrections from a variety of perspectives and to consider careers in corrections. It highlights the real life experiences of individuals in corrections, and offers first- person accounts and news items about inmates, victims, and correctional officers. A chapter on emerging issues in the field covers institutional violence, race and gender in incarceration trends, and prisoners' rights. Learning features include summaries, key terms, critical thinking questions, and Web links.

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Prentice Hall
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New Edition

Table of Contents

Part 1Historical and Social Contexts2
Chapter 1Invitation to Corrections2
How Does the Correctional System Function?5
What are the Three Dominant Perspectives in Corrections Today?8
Within the Walls 1.1The San Quentin Jute Mill9
What Does it Mean to Have a Sociological Approach to Corrections?12
Within the Walls 1.2Corrections and the External Environment12
Who are the Participants in the Corrections System?13
Within the Walls 1.3Standards of Employee Conduct14
What are the Challenges of Corrections Work?14
Chapter 2From Vengeance to Reform: A Historical Perspective20
What Were the Legal Codes of the Ancient World?22
Outside the Walls 2.1Hammurabi's Code23
Timeline Development of Corrections from Ancient Times to the Nineteenth Century26
What is the Relationship Between Social Contexts and the Justifications for Punishment?27
Outside the Walls 2.2The Execution of Robert Damiens29
Outside the Walls 2.3Life on Norfolk Island31
What is the Role of Imprisonment in the Development of Corrections?32
How did the Ideas of Enlightenment Thinkers Influence the Development of Corrections?33
Who Were the Early Prison Reformers?35
Heroes: John Howard, Jail Reformer36
Chapter 3The Development of Corrections in the United States44
What was Distinctive About the Early History of Corrections in the Colonies?46
What was Pennsylvania's Innovation in Penal Reform?48
Within the Walls 3.1Abuses in the Pennsylvania System50
How Did the New York Penal System Differ from the Pennsylvania Model?50
Within the Walls 3.2Captain Elam Lynds51
What Does it Mean That Prisons are Places for Rehabilitation?52
How Did the Punishment of Women Differ from the Punishment of Men?55
How Did Criminal Punishment in the South Differ from Punishment Elsewhere?56
Timeline: History of American Prisons58
What was Distinctive About Corrections in the Twentieth Century?59
What Can We Learn from the Past?60
Heroes: Richard A. McGee, Former Director of Corrections in California61
Chapter 4The Punishment of Offenders68
What are the Goals of Punishment?71
Outside the Walls 4.1Should We Return to Corporal Punishment?72
Outside the Walls 4.2Minnesota, a Pioneer in Restorative Justice77
How Do the froms of Punishment Differ?79
What are the Main Theoretical Positions About Punishment and the Social System?81
Heroes Norval Morris, Professor of Law at the University of Chicago Law School83
How Is Sentencing Related to the Correctional Process?84
Part 2Community-Based Corrections94
Chapter 5The Rise of Community-Based Corrections94
How Is Community-Based Corrections Changing?96
Timeline The Rise of Community-Based Corrections in the United States99
What Is the Structure of Community-Based Corrections?100
Heroes Kenneth F. Schoen, Former Commissioner of the Minnesota Department of Corrections105
Outside the Walls 5.1Services Provided by the Probation and Parole Division of Washington county, Oregon107
How Does Community-Based Corrections Function?109
Outside the Walls 5.2"Scarlet Letter" Punishments for Probationers110
How Has the Victims' Rights Movement Affected Community-Based Corrections?113
Chapter 6Probation120
How Did Probation Originate and Develop?124
What Is the Present Landscape of Probation?124
Timeline Significant Events in the Development of U.S. Probation125
Outside the Walls 6.1Kevin Mitnick and His Adjustment to Federal Probation127
How Is Probation Administered?129
What Are the Basic Functions of a Probation Officer?131
Outside the Walls 6.2Sample Presentence Investigative Report134
How Does the Probation Officer Do His or Her Job?140
Heroes Samantha J. O'Hara, U.S. Probation Officer142
What Role Does a Volunteer Play in Probation?143
Outside the Walls 6.3Partners against Crime Mentoring Program143
What Are Probationers' Rights?144
Is Probation Effective?145
Chapter 7Intermediate Sanctions152
What Is the Continuum of Sanctions?154
Outside the Walls 7.1The Best of Times and the Worst of Times for Intermediate Sanctions156
What Is a Fair Assessment of Intensive Supervision of Probation?156
How About Restitution, Fines, Community Service, and Forfeiture?158
How Do Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Contribute to Intermediate Sanctions?160
Outside the Walls 7.2Eliminating the Revolving Door--Community Policing and Drug Courts162
How About Day Reporting Sanctions?163
How About Residential and Institutional Sanctions?164
Outside the Walls 7.3Does Money Make a Difference in House Arrest?165
Heroes Doris L. MacKenzie, Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland168
What Is a Fair Evaluation of Intermediate Sanctions?168
Chapter 8Parole, Surveillance, and Reentry Programs176
How Did Parole Develop in the Twentieth Century?180
What Do Parole Practices Consist of Today?181
Outside the Walls 8.1The Murder of Megan Kanka and the Passing of Megan's Law182
How Does the Parole Board Function?182
How Does the Parole Officer Function Today?186
Outside the Walls 8.2"I Made a Mistake, but I Haven't Committed Any Crimes"188
Why Is Release from Prison Traumatic?190
Outside the Walls 8.3Why So Many Go Back192
What Are the Various Reentry Programs?192
Heroes Joanne Page, Executive Director of the Fortune Society195
Why Does Parole Need Reinventing?195
Part 3Correctional Institutions202
Chapter 9Local Institutions202
How Did Jails Originate?203
Who Is In Jail?206
How Does One Adjust To Jail?207
Within the Walls 9.1"You're in Jail"208
How Do People Get Out Of Jail?209
How Are Jails Run?212
Heroes: Captain Don Fatherree, Corrections Professional at Fairfax County (Virginia) Adult Detention Center217
Is The Role Of The Jail Officer Changing?217
What Are The Issues Of Jail Confinement?218
Within the Walls 9.2Jails Wracked by Sexual Abuse Scandals222
What Trends Are Shaping The Jail?222
Chapter 10Federal, State, and Private Institutions228
What Do Prisons Look Like Today?230
Within the Walls 10.1The Notorious Cellhouse One232
To What Extent Do Prisons Mirror The Larger Society?233
Who Has Jurisdictions Over Prison Systems In The United States?234
Heroes: Kathleen Hawk Sawyer, Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons237
What Are The Main Types Of Correctional Institutions?241
Within the Walls 10.2Pelican Bay Prison247
What Are The Ingredients Of A Humane Prison?248
Chapter 11Correctional Managers and Officers256
What Are The Changing Roles Of Institutional Wardens?258
Within the Walls 11.1Female Correctional Administrators260
How Has The Management Style Of Wardens Changed?261
Heroes: Frank Wood, Former Commissioner of Corrections and Warden in Minnesota265
What Are The Challenges Of Administration?266
Within the Walls 11.2Characteristics of Successful Wardens268
Who Really Runs The Prison?269
What Problems Do Correctional Officers Face?271
Chapter 12Institutional Security and Violence280
What Has Happened To Social Order Within The Prison?283
Within the Walls 12.1A Former New York Correctional Officer Speaks Out284
What Are Expressions Of Prison Violence?285
Heroes Mark Colvin, Professor of Sociology at George Mason University287
Within the Walls 12.2Sex in Prison289
What Are The Causes Of Prison Violence?291
How Can Prison Violence Be Reduced?296
Chapter 13Correctional Programs and Services304
What About Classification Systems?306
What Are The Most Widely Used Treatment Programs?308
Within the Walls 13.1Crisis Intervention Is Necessary309
Heroes: Martin Groder, M.D., Advocate of Therapeutic Communities within the Walls311
What Are The Most Popular Self-Help Programs?314
Within the Walls 13.2Prison SMART Foundation, Inc.316
Are Inmates Interested In Helping Others?316
What About Prison Programs?316
What Prison Services Are Offered?319
How can Correctional Treatment Become More Effective?323
Part 4Prisoners330
Chapter 14The Male Prisoner330
How Has the Inmate World Changed?332
Within the Walls 14.1Structural-Functional Perspective on Imprisonment335
Within the Walls 14.2Radicalization of Prisoners Movement337
Heroes James B. Jacobs, Professor of Law at New York University Law School338
What are Special Groups of Male Prisoners?339
Within the Walls 14.3Serving Time341
How do Men Cope With Prison Life?342
Within the Walls 14.4A Jailhouse Lawyer Speaks345
Chapter 15The Female Prisoner352
What is the History of Women's Prisons?355
Timeline Establishment of Women's Prisons in Each State356
What is the Social Structure in Women's Prisons?357
Within the Walls 15.1Rules in Women's Prisons357
Within the Walls 15.2Pseudo-Families in Women's Prisons359
How About Women on Death Row?360
How do Women Cope With Prison Life?362
Heroes Elaine A. Lord, Superintendent of Bedford Hills Correctional Center364
What Special Issues are Raised by the Incarceration of Women?366
Within the Walls 15.3Sexual Victimization in Women's Prisons366
Within the Walls 15.4Innovative Family Programs369
Chapter 16The Juvenile Offender376
What is the History of Juvenile Justice?379
Outside the Walls 16.1In re Gault380
Timeline Juvenile Corrections in the United States382
How does the Juvenile Justice System Function?382
What Early Processing is Available in the Juvenile Justice System?384
Outside the Walls 16.2The Programs of Associated Marine Institutes387
What Happens When a Juvenile is Sent to Juvenile Correctional Institutions?387
Heroes Jerome Miller, President of Alternatives to Institutions391
What About the Placement of Juveniles in Adult Prisons?391
Outside the Walls 16.3What Would You Say?392
What are the Issues of Juvenile Corrections?392
Part 5Legal and Political Contexts402
Chapter 17The Death Penalty402
Outside the Walls 17.1The Death Penalty is an Affirmation of Life405
What are the Roots of Capital Punishment?405
Where is the Death Penalty Today?406
Outside the Walls 17.2How Many Innocent Death Row Inmates Will Be Killed?407
How have the Courts Ruled on the Death Penalty?411
Timeline Significant U.S. Supreme Court Decisions on the Death Penalty412
Outside the Walls 17.3Justice Harry A. Blackmun's Pronouncement on the Death Penalty415
What are the Arguments Favoring the Death Penalty?418
Outside the Walls 17.4Walter Berns on the Need for Revenge420
What are the Arguments Opposing the Death Penalty?420
Heroes Sister Helen Prejean, Spiritual Adviser to Death Row Inmates422
Chapter 18Incarceration Trends: Race, Gender, Class428
What is the relationship between race and incarceration trends?430
Outside the Walls 18.1Penalties for Crack and Powder Cocaine432
Outside the Walls 18.2The Myth of a Racist Criminal Justice System434
What is the relationship between gender and incarceration trends?435
Heroes: Coramae Richey Mann, Retired Professor of Criminal Justice438
What is the relationship between class and incarceration trends?439
Outside the Walls 18.3Social Injustice in the Justice System440
Chapter 19Politics, Law, and Prison Crowding446
How serious is the problem of prison crowding?448
Within the Walls 19.1Surviving in a Crowded Concrete Tomb452
How can increases in prison crowding be explained?452
Outside the Walls 19.2The Politicization of Crime455
Heroes: Michael Tonry, Director of the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge University457
What can be done to reduce prison crowding?458
Outside the Walls 19.3A Comprehensive Strategy for Addressing the Problem of Crowded Prisons in Oklahoma459
Chapter 20Prisoners' Rights466
What has been the response of the U.S. supreme court to the issue of prisoners' rights?469
Heroes: Vincent M. Nathan, Court Monitor of Several State Correctional Systems474
What individual rights do prisoners have?475
Within the Walls 20.1The Right to Write477
Within the Walls 20.2An Unconstitutional Correctional System480
TimelineSignificant U.S. Supreme Court Decisions on Prisoners' Rights483
Why has correctional reform through the courts been difficult?483
What has been the impact of the prisoners' rights movement?485
Name Index497
Subject Index505

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